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2.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908605

ABSTRACT

There is a global problem of increment of the number of children with clinical features that mimic Kawasaki Disease (KD) during the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The disease was first reported by Tomisaku Kawasaki, a Japanese pediatrician, in a four-year-old child with a rash and fever at the Red Cross Hospital in Tokyo in January 1961. Now Kawasaki disease is recognized worldwide. The complexity of symptoms was defined as an «acute febrile mucocutaneous lymphnode syndrome". At the moment, it is still unclear whether the coronavirus itself can lead to development of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. However, it is believed that COVID-19 virus infection worsens the course of Kawasaki disease, and in some cases, children affected by SARS-V-2 may develop a disease that has a clinical picture similar to Kawasaki disease.

3.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality around the world. Preventing this health problem is considered an important priority. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for care and control of hypertension (CCH) according to the health belief model (HBM) in patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 epidemic in Sirjan, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants were chosen by simple random sampling. Data were collected by a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire from 200 patients with high blood pressure aged 30-60 years. Data were analyzed by SPSS21 and analysis based on descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression were conducted. RESULTS: The results of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant correlation between almost all constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM), but the strongest correlations were between self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility (r = 0.940, P ≤ 0.001), and between perceived barriers with perceived benefits (r = -0.615, P ≤ 0.001). According to linear regression, perceived barriers (ß = -0.291), cues to action (ß = -0.590), and knowledge (ß = 0.973) predicted more than 26% of CCH variability. Knowledge had a stronger role than other variables. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the constructs of the Health Belief Model can predict CCH in hypertensive patients. This model can be used as a tool for designing and implementing educational interventions to increase CCH among hypertensive patients.

4.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898760

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID19 disease has spread globally affecting millions of people. This pandemic has taxed our healthcare system and disrupted normal operations, even of lifesaving procedures like liver transplants. During these unprecedented times providers and patients are imperiled and resources for diagnosis and care may be limited. Continuing to perform resource intense advanced procedures is challenging, as is caring for patients with end-stage liver disease or patients with urgent needs for liver tumor control. Liver transplantation in particular requires critical resources like blood products and critical care beds, which are fairly limited in the COVID19 pandemic. The potential of COVID19 infections in post-transplant patients on immunosuppression and staff contacts further adds to the complexity. Therefore, transplant programs must re-evaluate the ethicality, feasibility, and safety of performing liver transplants during this pandemic. Herein, we discuss the clinical and ethical challenges posed by performing liver transplants and offer guidance for managing patients with end-stage liver disease during the COVID19 pandemic.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 may experience complications following hospitalization and require readmission. This analysis estimates the rate and risk factors associated with COVID-19-related readmission and inpatient mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing deidentified chargemaster data from 297 hospitals across 40 US states on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 February 15-June 09, 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, acute conditions, and clinical characteristics of first hospitalization are summarized. Mulitvariable logistic regression was used to measure risk factor associations with 30-day readmission and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 29,659 patients, 1,070 (3.6%) were readmitted. Readmitted patients were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) vs those not readmitted (p<0.0001) and to present on first admission with acute kidney injury (15.6% vs. 9.2%), congestive heart failure (6.4% vs. 2.4%), and cardiomyopathy (2.1% vs. 0.8%) (p<0.0001). Higher odds of readmission were observed in patients age >60 vs. 1840 (odds ratio [OR]=1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48, 2.50), and admitted in the Northeast vs. West (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.14, 1.79) or South (OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.11, 1.49). Comorbidities including diabetes (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.12, 1.60), CVD (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.23, 1.72), CKD stage 1-5 (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.25,1.81) and stage 5 (OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.81, 2.86) were associated with higher odds of readmission. 12.3% of readmitted patients died during second hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Among this large US population of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, readmission was associated with certain comorbidities and acute conditions during first hospitalization. These findings may inform strategies to mitigate risks of readmission due to COVID-19 complications.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210202, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858185

ABSTRACT

Importance: Owing to concerns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, many congregant settings are forced to close when cases are detected because there are few data on the risk of different markers of transmission within groups. Objective: To determine whether symptoms and laboratory results on the first day of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with development of a case cluster in a congregant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of trainees with COVID-19 from May 11 through August 24, 2020, was conducted at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, the primary site of entry for enlistment in the US Air Force. Symptoms and duration, known contacts, and cycle threshold for trainees diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were collected. A cycle threshold value represents the number of nucleic acid amplification cycles that occur before a specimen containing the target material generates a signal greater than the predetermined threshold that defines positivity. Cohorts with 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection were defined as clusters. Participants included 10 613 trainees divided into 263 parallel cohorts of 30 to 50 people arriving weekly for 7 weeks of training. Exposures: All trainees were quarantined for 14 days on arrival. Testing was performed on arrival, on day 14, and anytime during training when indicated. Protective measures included universal masking, physical distancing, and rapid isolation of trainees with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between days of symptoms, specific symptoms, number of symptoms, or cycle threshold values of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent transmission within cohorts. Results: In this cohort study of 10 613 US Air Force basic trainees in 263 cohorts, 403 trainees (3%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 129 cohorts (49%). Among trainees with COVID-19 infection, 318 (79%) were men, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 20 (19-23) years; 204 (51%) were symptomatic, and 199 (49%) were asymptomatic. Median (IQR) cycle threshold values were lower in symptomatic trainees compared with asymptomatic trainees (21.2 [18.4-27.60] vs 34.8 [29.3-37.4]; P < .001). Cohorts with clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection were predominantly men (204 cohorts [89%] vs 114 cohorts [64%]; P < .001), had more symptomatic trainees (146 cohorts [64%] vs 53 cohorts [30%]; P < .001), and had more median (IQR) symptoms per patient (3 [2-5] vs 1 [1-2]; P < .001) compared with cohorts without clusters. Within cohorts, subsequent development of clusters of 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection compared with those that did not develop clusters was associated with cohorts that had more symptomatic trainees (31 of 58 trainees [53%] vs 43 of 151 trainees [28%]; P = .001) and lower median (IQR) cycle threshold values (22.3 [18.4-27.3] vs 35.3 [26.5-37.8]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US Air Force trainees living in a congregant setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, higher numbers of symptoms and lower cycle threshold values were associated with subsequent development of clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection. These values may be useful if validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/transmission , Cohort Studies , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838951

ABSTRACT

The world is facing a global crisis and health emergency of COVID-19. Understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology in ayurvedic host centric framework is prerequisite for apt use of Ayurveda. This paper reviews COVID-19 pathophysiology, clinical presentations and prognosis in ayurvedic perspective. Concept of exogenous pathogenic diseases can be traced in fever, microbes, toxins, epidemics and seasonal regimens chapters of Ayurveda. Such exogenous diseases later manifest multi-system presentation according to involvement of different 'Dosha' and derangement of 'Agni'. The pathology of COVID-19 is primarily that of Sannipata Jwara (fever) with involvement of respiratory system. Secondary manifestations include coagulopathies, cardiovascular, neural, and renal complications. Gastrointestinal system is closely associated with respiratory mechanism in ayurvedic pathophysiological conceptualization of Srotas. Abnormal immune responses in COVID-19 are result of abnormalities of Tridosha, Rakta (blood) and Ojus (Vital nectar). The initial phase is Vata-Kapha dominant whereas later stage of aggravated immune response is Vata-Pitta dominant. Alveolar damage, coagulopathies indicate Rakta dhatu vitiation. With this integrative understanding of COVID-19, we propose novel strategies for therapeutics and prophylaxis. Measures for 'Conservation of Agni-bala', 'Attainment of Rakta- Pitta-Prana homeostasis and 'Protection of Tri-Marma i.e. vital organs' can be important Host based strategies for reduction in the mortality in COVID-19 and for better clinical outcomes. This host centric approach can make paradigm shift in management of this epidemic.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(8): e96, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795387

ABSTRACT

This article has been withdrawn due to a publisher error that caused the article to be duplicated. The definitive version of this article is published under DOI 10.1093/ajhp/zxab063.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Services , Pharmacy , Ambulatory Care , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(8): e96, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774337

ABSTRACT

This article has been withdrawn due to a publisher error that caused the article to be duplicated. The definitive version of this article is published under DOI 10.1093/ajhp/zxab063.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Services , Pharmacy , Ambulatory Care , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 115-119, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute stroke remains a medical emergency even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 infection present with constitutional and respiratory symptoms; while others present with atypical gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, or neurological manifestations. Here we present a series of four patients with COVID-19 that presented with acute stroke. METHODS: We searched the hospital databases for patients that presented with acute stroke and concomitant features of suspected COVID-19 infection. All patients who had radiographic evidence of stroke and PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included in the study. Patients admitted to the hospital with PCR- confirmed COVID-19 disease whose hospital course was complicated with acute stroke while inpatient were excluded from the study. Retrospective patient data were obtained from electronic medical records. Informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: We identified four patients who presented with radiographic confirmation of acute stroke and PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We elucidate the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and the clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: Timely assessment and hyperacute treatment is the key to minimize mortality and morbidity of patients with acute stroke. Stroke teams should be wary of the fact that COVID-19 patients can present with cerebrovascular accidents and should dawn appropriate personal protective equipment in every suspected patient. Further studies are urgently needed to improve current understandings of neurological pathology in the setting of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
12.
Onkologe (Berl) ; 27(8): 783-789, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current pandemic situation, the public health care system must ensure the ongoing provision of regular medical care as well as the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. Resident oncologists and their practices are equally affected. OBJECTIVES: The study examines resident oncologists' challenges, experiences and approaches in the delivery of care for oncological patients receiving palliative treatment and their relatives during the pandemic. Findings will support future pandemic preparedness for cancer treatment in outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Content analyses of 13 guideline-based telephone interviews with resident oncologists. RESULTS: Solid local networks, staff and structural rearrangements and infection control within offices helped oncologists maintaining quality of care. Required treatments have been continued. The interrupted information flow towards patients' relatives and catching up on previously postponed primary, control or follow-up consultations have been reported as a challenge. Other issues have been linked to suspected SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients and staff. The lack of information, temporal inaccessibility of health care authorities and physicians' associations, and additional costs for infection control material caused further problems. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the firmly implemented infection control and the re-organisation of facilities and staff, oncologists have been able to maintain treatment and care for cancer patients and their relatives. Hygiene procedures proved to work well and might be re-activated. An increased use of digital applications for treatment monitoring might be considered. Furthermore, solutions to meet additional financial and personnel demands caused by infection control must be identified. The design of suitable concepts for the prevention of health-related hazards due to visiting bans for relatives and therapeutic staff such as physio- and occupational therapists is inevitable.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 335-338, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662116

ABSTRACT

Compared with other countries, a more substantial decrease in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was observed in Hong Kong, which is most likely attributable to the proactive mass adoption of face masks by the public. Human behavioral changes, particularly mask wearing, should be considered as an additional preventive strategy against invasive pneumococcal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Br J Nutr ; 127(6): 896-903, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651089

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused mild illness in children, until the emergence of the novel hyperinflammatory condition paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (PIMS-TS). PIMS-TS is thought to be a post-SARS-CoV-2 immune dysregulation with excessive inflammatory cytokine release. We studied 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in children with PIMS-TS, admitted to a tertiary paediatric hospital in the UK, due to its postulated role in cytokine regulation and immune response. Eighteen children (median (range) age 8·9 (0·3-14·6) years, male = 10) met the case definition. The majority were of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) origin (89 %, 16/18). Positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were present in 94 % (17/18) and RNA by PCR in 6 % (1/18). Seventy-eight percentage of the cohort were vitamin D deficient (< 30 nmol/l). The mean 25OHD concentration was significantly lower when compared with the population mean from the 2015/16 National Diet and Nutrition Survey (children aged 4-10 years) (24 v. 54 nmol/l (95 % CI -38·6, -19·7); P < 0·001). The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) group had lower mean 25OHD concentrations compared with the non-PICU group, but this was not statistically significant (19·5 v. 31·9 nmol/l; P = 0·11). The higher susceptibility of BAME children to PIMS-TS and also vitamin D deficiency merits contemplation. Whilst any link between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 and related conditions including PIMS-TS requires further evidence, public health measures to improve vitamin D status of the UK BAME population have been long overdue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vitamin D
15.
Neuromodulation ; 24(2): 337-342, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) telemedicine in the management of patients with movement disorders from January 2019 to March 2020, covering the main period of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained data from 40 hospitals around China that employed DBS tele-programming for their outpatients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia from January 2019 to March 2020. Data were obtained on the number and nature of patients' DBS health care service requests, reasons for their requests, the number of DBS telemedicine sessions subsequently completed, safety issues, and the patients' satisfaction with the DBS tele-programing parameter adjustments made. RESULTS: There were 909 DBS tele-programming health service requests (from 196 patients) completed during the study period. The results showed: 1) the number of DBS telemedicine sessions requested and the number of patients examined increased during the COVID-19 outbreak in February and March 2020 when compared with the monthly numbers in 2019; 2) the most common reason for the patients' health service requests was poor symptom control; 3) the most common DBS tele-programming adjustment made was voltage change; 4) overall, most (89%) DBS tele-programming adjustment sessions were experienced by the patients as satisfactory; and 5) significant adverse events and unexpected treatment interruptions caused by connection failure or other hardware- or software-related problems did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: DBS telemedicine could have a unique role to play in maintaining the delivery of DBS treatment and medical care to outpatients with movement disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Movement Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , China , Deep Brain Stimulation/adverse effects , Deep Brain Stimulation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
16.
Allergy ; 77(1): 118-129, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can present with lymphopenia and extraordinary complex multiorgan pathologies that can trigger long-term sequela. AIMS: Given that inflammasome products, like caspase-1, play a role in the pathophysiology of a number of co-morbid conditions, we investigated caspases across the spectrum of COVID-19 disease. MATERIALS & METHODS: We assessed transcriptional states of multiple caspases and using flow cytometry, the expression of active caspase-1 in blood cells from COVID-19 patients in acute and convalescent stages of disease. Non-COVID-19 subject presenting with various comorbid conditions served as controls. RESULTS: Single-cell RNA-seq data of immune cells from COVID-19 patients showed a distinct caspase expression pattern in T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and eosinophils compared with controls. Caspase-1 was upregulated in CD4+ T-cells from hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared with unexposed controls. Post-COVID-19 patients with lingering symptoms (long-haulers) also showed upregulated caspase-1activity in CD4+ T-cells that ex vivo was attenuated with a select pan-caspase inhibitor. We observed elevated caspase-3/7levels in red blood cells from COVID-19 patients compared with controls that was reduced following caspase inhibition. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary results suggest an exuberant caspase response in COVID-19 that may facilitate immune-related pathological processes leading to severe outcomes. Further clinical correlations of caspase expression in different stages of COVID-19 will be needed. CONCLUSION: Pan-caspase inhibition could emerge as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate or prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caspase Inhibitors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1 , Caspase 3 , Caspase 7 , Caspase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Caspases/genetics , Humans
17.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(12): 1578-1581, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595632

ABSTRACT

AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently encountered disease that was declared a pandemic by WHO in 2020. Obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may aggravate the severity of COVID-19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between MAFLD and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control study, enrolling 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of fatty liver by computed tomography scan. All medical records of eligible patients were reviewed including demographic, clinical, laboratory parameters and data regarding the presence of NAFLD and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: NAFLD was identified in 22/71 (31%) of the study group. Out of 71, thirteen suffered from severe COVID-19. NAFLD patients had more severe COVID-19 compared with non-NAFLD subjects, 8/22 (36.3%) vs. 5/49(10.2%), (P < 0.005), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NAFLD subjects were more likely to have severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 14.48, P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION: NAFLD represents a high risk for severe COVID-19 irrespective to gender, and independent of metabolic syndrome specifically in male gender. Moreover, obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were also significantly associated with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 4813-4822, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575872

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and isolation measures urgently adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic might potentially have negative psychological and social effects. We conducted this cross-sectional, nationwide study to ascertain the psychological effect of quarantine and identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among population quarantined to further inform interventions of mitigating mental health risk especially for vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions. Sociodemographic data, attitudes toward the COVID-19, and mental health measurements of 56,679 participants from 34 provinces in China were collected by an online survey from February 28 to March 11, 2020. Of the 56,679 participants included in the study (mean [SD] age, 36.0 [8.2] years), 27,149 (47.9%) were male and 16,454 (29.0%) ever experienced home confinement or centralized quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak. Compared those without quarantine and adjusted for potential confounders, quarantine measures were associated with increased risk of total psychological outcomes (prevalence, 34.1% vs 27.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.28-1.39; P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that vulnerable groups of the quarantined population included those with pre-existing mental disorders or chronic physical diseases, frontline workers, those in the most severely affected areas during outbreak, infected or suspected patients, and those who are less financially well-off. Complying with quarantine, being able to take part in usual work, and having adequate understanding of information related to the outbreak were associated with less mental health issues. These results suggest that quarantine measures during COVID-19 pandemic are associated with increased risk of experiencing mental health burden, especially for vulnerable groups. Further study is needed to establish interventions to reduce mental health consequences of quarantine and empower wellbeing especially in vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, the outbreak of COVID-19 spread throughout the world and its impacts affect different populations differently, where countries with high levels of social and economic inequality such as Brazil gain prominence, for understanding of the vulnerability factors associated with the disease. Given this scenario, in the absence of a vaccine or safe and effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19, nonpharmacological measures are essential for prevention and control of the disease. However, many of these measures are not feasible for millions of individuals who live in territories with increased social vulnerability. The study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Brazil's municipalities (counties) and investigate its association with sociodemographic determinants to better understand the social context and the epidemic's spread in the country. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological study using data from various sources. The study period was February 25 to September 26, 2020. Data analysis used global regression models: ordinary least squares (OLS), spatial autoregressive model (SAR), and conditional autoregressive model (CAR) and the local regression model called multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR). FINDINGS: The higher the GINI index, the higher the incidence of the disease at the municipal level. Likewise, the higher the nurse ratio per 1,000 inhabitants in the municipalities, the higher the COVID-19 incidence. Meanwhile, the proportional mortality ratio was inversely associated with incidence of the disease. DISCUSSION: Social inequality increased the risk of COVID-19 in the municipalities. Better social development of the municipalities was associated with lower risk of the disease. Greater access to health services improved the diagnosis and notification of the disease and was associated with more cases in the municipalities. Despite universal susceptibility to COVID-19, populations with increased social vulnerability were more exposed to risk of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Spatial Regression
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