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2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 522-532, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated proinflammatory cytokines are associated with greater COVID-19 severity. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of sarilumab, an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor, in patients with severe (requiring supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula or face mask) or critical (requiring greater supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal support) COVID-19. METHODS: We did a 60-day, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial at 45 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Spain. We included adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia, who required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:1 with permuted blocks of five) to receive intravenous sarilumab 400 mg, sarilumab 200 mg, or placebo. Patients, care providers, outcome assessors, and investigators remained masked to assigned intervention throughout the course of the study. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement of two or more points (seven point scale ranging from 1 [death] to 7 [discharged from hospital]) in the modified intention-to-treat population. The key secondary endpoint was proportion of patients alive at day 29. Safety outcomes included adverse events and laboratory assessments. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04327388; EudraCT, 2020-001162-12; and WHO, U1111-1249-6021. FINDINGS: Between March 28 and July 3, 2020, of 431 patients who were screened, 420 patients were randomly assigned and 416 received placebo (n=84 [20%]), sarilumab 200 mg (n=159 [38%]), or sarilumab 400 mg (n=173 [42%]). At day 29, no significant differences were seen in median time to an improvement of two or more points between placebo (12·0 days [95% CI 9·0 to 15·0]) and sarilumab 200 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 12·0]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·03 [95% CI 0·75 to 1·40]; log-rank p=0·96) or sarilumab 400 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 13·0]; HR 1·14 [95% CI 0·84 to 1·54]; log-rank p=0·34), or in proportions of patients alive (77 [92%] of 84 patients in the placebo group; 143 [90%] of 159 patients in the sarilumab 200 mg group; difference -1·7 [-9·3 to 5·8]; p=0·63 vs placebo; and 159 [92%] of 173 patients in the sarilumab 400 mg group; difference 0·2 [-6·9 to 7·4]; p=0·85 vs placebo). At day 29, there were numerical, non-significant survival differences between sarilumab 400 mg (88%) and placebo (79%; difference +8·9% [95% CI -7·7 to 25·5]; p=0·25) for patients who had critical disease. No unexpected safety signals were seen. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 65% (55 of 84) in the placebo group, 65% (103 of 159) in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 70% (121 of 173) in the sarilumab 400 mg group, and of those leading to death 11% (nine of 84) were in the placebo group, 11% (17 of 159) were in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 10% (18 of 173) were in the sarilumab 400 mg group. INTERPRETATION: This trial did not show efficacy of sarilumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and receiving supplemental oxygen. Adequately powered trials of targeted immunomodulatory therapies assessing survival as a primary endpoint are suggested in patients with critical COVID-19. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 487-497, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease; however, it is infrequently considered for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributable to infectious causes. We aimed to describe the course of disease and early post-transplantation outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 who failed to show lung recovery despite optimal medical management and were deemed to be at imminent risk of dying due to pulmonary complications. METHODS: We established a multi-institutional case series that included the first consecutive transplants for severe COVID-19-associated ARDS known to us in the USA, Italy, Austria, and India. De-identified data from participating centres-including information relating to patient demographics and pre-COVID-19 characteristics, pretransplantation disease course, perioperative challenges, pathology of explanted lungs, and post-transplantation outcomes-were collected by Northwestern University (Chicago, IL, USA) and analysed. FINDINGS: Between May 1 and Sept 30, 2020, 12 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS underwent bilateral lung transplantation at six high-volume transplant centres in the USA (eight recipients at three centres), Italy (two recipients at one centre), Austria (one recipient), and India (one recipient). The median age of recipients was 48 years (IQR 41-51); three of the 12 patients were female. Chest imaging before transplantation showed severe lung damage that did not improve despite prolonged mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The lung transplant procedure was technically challenging, with severe pleural adhesions, hilar lymphadenopathy, and increased intraoperative transfusion requirements. Pathology of the explanted lungs showed extensive, ongoing acute lung injury with features of lung fibrosis. There was no recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in the allografts. All patients with COVID-19 could be weaned off extracorporeal support and showed short-term survival similar to that of transplant recipients without COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: The findings from our report show that lung transplantation is the only option for survival in some patients with severe, unresolving COVID-19-associated ARDS, and that the procedure can be done successfully, with good early post-transplantation outcomes, in carefully selected patients. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Lung Transplantation/methods , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Blood Transfusion/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/surgery , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(9): 1217-1248, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536371

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted two World Health Organization-commissioned reviews to inform use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We synthesized the evidence regarding efficacy and safety (review 1), as well as risks of droplet dispersion, aerosol generation, and associated transmission (review 2) of viral products. SOURCE: Literature searches were performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese databases, and medRxiv. Review 1: we synthesized results from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Review 2: we narratively summarized findings from studies evaluating droplet dispersion, aerosol generation, or infection transmission associated with HFNC. For both reviews, paired reviewers independently conducted screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We evaluated certainty of evidence using GRADE methodology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No eligible studies included COVID-19 patients. Review 1: 12 RCTs (n = 1,989 patients) provided low-certainty evidence that HFNC may reduce invasive ventilation (relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.99) and escalation of oxygen therapy (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.98) in patients with respiratory failure. Results provided no support for differences in mortality (moderate certainty), or in-hospital or intensive care length of stay (moderate and low certainty, respectively). Review 2: four studies evaluating droplet dispersion and three evaluating aerosol generation and dispersion provided very low certainty evidence. Two simulation studies and a crossover study showed mixed findings regarding the effect of HFNC on droplet dispersion. Although two simulation studies reported no associated increase in aerosol dispersion, one reported that higher flow rates were associated with increased regions of aerosol density. CONCLUSIONS: High-flow nasal cannula may reduce the need for invasive ventilation and escalation of therapy compared with COT in COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. This benefit must be balanced against the unknown risk of airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aerosols , COVID-19 , Cannula , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
6.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1810-1815, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 long-term sequelae are ill-defined since only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of this disease so far. AIMS: To evaluate the 6-month respiratory outcome and exercise capacity of COVID-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study included COVID-19 patients with ARF. Interventions included CPAP during hospitalisation and 6-month follow up. Frailty assessment was carried out through frailty index (FI), pO2 /FiO2 during hospitalisation and at follow up, respiratory parameters, 6-min walking test (6MWT) and the modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Borg scale at follow up. RESULTS: More than half of the patients had no dyspnoea according to the mMRC scale. Lower in-hospital pO2 /FiO2 correlated with higher Borg scale levels after 6MWT (ρ 0.27; P 0.04) at the follow-up visit. FI was positively correlated with length of hospitalisation (ρ 0.3; P 0.03) and negatively with the 6MWT distance walked (ρ -0.36; P 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Robust and frail patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with CPAP outside the intensive care unit setting had good respiratory parameters and exercise capacity at 6-month follow up, although more severe patients had slightly poorer respiratory performance compared with patients with higher PaO2 /FiO2 and lower FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525630

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of COVID-19 disease continues to be a significant psychosocial status among health care workers (HCWs) and the general population worldwide. This cross sectional study aimed to compare the psychosocial status between healthcare workers and general population during the prevalence of COVID-19 disease in southeast Iran. Totally 415 health care workers of a medical service center for COVID-19 patients and 1023 people of general population participated in the study. An online socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ -28), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) were utilized to evaluate psychosocial status. According to GHQ, the psychological disorders of the HCWs were significantly higher than that of the general population (P < 0.001). According to GAD-7, no significant difference was found between general population and HCWs. Multivariate logistic analysis showed no difference between general population and HCWs in the psychological disorder. Although HCWs suffered from psychological disorders more than general population, nearly one third to half of the participants in both groups had psychosocial disorders.

9.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(12): 1218-1225, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients from ethnic minority groups and key workers are over-represented among adults hospitalised or dying from COVID-19. In this population-based retrospective cohort, we describe the association of ethnicity, socioeconomic and family key worker status with incidence and severity of Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). SETTING: Evelina London Children's Hospital (ELCH), the tertiary paediatric hospital for the South Thames Retrieval Service (STRS) region. PARTICIPANTS: 70 children with PIMS-TS admitted 14 February 2020-2 June 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and crude ORs are presented, comparing ethnicity and socioeconomic status of our cohort and the catchment population, using census data and Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Regression is used to estimate the association of ethnicity and IMD with admission duration and requirement for intensive care, inotropes and ventilation. RESULTS: Incidence was significantly higher in children from black (25.0 cases per 100 000 population), Asian (6.4/100 000) and other (17.8/100 000) ethnic groups, compared with 1.6/100 000 in white ethnic groups (ORs 15.7, 4.0 and 11.2, respectively). Incidence was higher in the three most deprived quintiles compared with the least deprived quintile (eg, 8.1/100 000 in quintile 1 vs 1.6/100 000 in quintile 5, OR 5.2). Proportions of families with key workers (50%) exceeded catchment proportions. Admission length of stay was 38% longer in children from black ethnic groups than white (95% CI 4% to 82%; median 8 days vs 6 days). 9/10 children requiring ventilation were from black ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children in ethnic minority groups, living in more deprived areas and in key worker families are over-represented. Children in black ethnic groups had longer admissions; ethnicity may be associated with ventilation requirement.This project was registered with the ELCH audit and service evaluation team, ref. no 11186.

10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3038-3042, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526426

ABSTRACT

The susceptibility of turkeys, chickens and chicken embryos to SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated by experimental infection. Turkeys and chickens were inoculated using a combination of intranasal, oral and ocular routes. Both turkeys and chickens did not develop clinical disease or seroconvert following inoculation. Viral RNA was not detected in oral swabs, cloacal swabs or in tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, chicken embryos were inoculated by various routes including the yolk sac, intravenous, chorioallantoic membrane and allantoic cavity. In all instances, chicken embryos failed to support replication of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 does not affect turkeys or chickens in the current genetic state and does not pose any potential risk to establish an infection in both species of domestic poultry.

11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3611-3623, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526425

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in December 2019, more than 51 million cases had been reported globally. We aimed to identify the risk factors for in-hospital fatal outcome and severe pneumonia of this disease. This is a retrospective, multicentre study, which included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes (died or discharged) hospitalized between 1 January and 4 March 2020 in Wuhan. Of all 665 patients included, 70 died and 595 discharged (including 333 mild and 262 severe cases). Underlying comorbidity was more commonly observed among deaths (72.9%) than mild (26.4%) and severe (61.5%) survivors, with hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular as dominant diseases. Fever and cough were the primary clinical magnifications. Older age (≥65 years) (OR = 3.174, 95% CI = 1.356-7.755), diabetes (OR = 2.540, 95% CI = 0.995-6.377), dyspnoea (OR = 7.478, 95% CI = 3.031-19.528), respiratory failure (OR = 10.528, 95% CI = 4.484-25.829), acute cardiac injury (OR = 25.103, 95% CI = 9.057-76.590) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 7.308, 95% CI = 1.501-46.348) were associated with in-hospital fatal outcome. In addition, older age (OR = 2.149, 95% CI = 1.424-3.248), diabetes (OR = 3.951, 95% CI = 2.077-7.788), cardiovascular disease (OR = 3.414, 95% CI = 1.432-8.799), nervous system disease (OR = 4.125, 95% CI = 1.252-18.681), dyspnoea (OR = 31.944, 95% CI = 18.877-92.741), achieving highest in-hospital temperature of >39.0°C (OR = 37.450, 95% CI = 7.402-683.403) and longer onset of illness to diagnosis (≥9 days) were statistically associated with higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. In conclusion, the potential risk factors forolder age, diabetes, dyspnoea, respiratory failure, acute cardiac injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.

12.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2091-2094, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526355
13.
Kidney Med ; 3(3): 426-432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525989

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented and historic public health crisis that continues to expand and evolve. The National Kidney Foundation held a 2-part continuing medical education live virtual symposium on July 16 and July 24, 2020, to address the multiple challenges of COVID-19 in the context of advanced chronic kidney disease. Faculty addressed the pathophysiology, impact, risks, and management of COVID-19 as it relates to advanced kidney disease. Testing, risk mitigation, and inpatient and outpatient management were also addressed. This concise review addresses major findings of the symposium along with certain updates regarding vaccinations since then. These findings include: (1) severe COVID-19 infection has been associated with acute kidney injury, (2) it is essential to prevent and actively manage acute kidney injury to decrease mortality in these critically ill patients, (3) management of patients with advanced kidney disease should be geared toward minimizing their risk for exposure while making sure they are receiving adequate treatments, and (4) patients with kidney disease, especially ones in advanced stages, should be prioritized for vaccination.

14.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.

15.
Neuromolecular Med ; 23(4): 561-571, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525619

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, which causes COVID-19, is particularly devastating for individuals with chronic medical conditions, in particular those with Down Syndrome (DS) who often exhibit a higher prevalence of respiratory tract infections, immune dysregulation and potential complications. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is much higher in DS than in the general population, possibly increasing further the risk of COVID-19 infection and its complications. Here we provide a biological overview with regard to specific susceptibility of individuals with DS to SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as data from a recent survey on the prevalence of COVID-19 among them. We see an urgent need to protect people with DS, especially those with AD, from COVID-19 and future pandemics and focus on developing protective measures, which also include interventions by health systems worldwide for reducing the negative social effects of long-term isolation and increased periods of hospitalization.

16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1094-1100, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525569

ABSTRACT

Impact of pandemic on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in non-COVID-19 patients is undetermined. Thus, a nationwide multicenter retrospective survey was conducted to evaluate the disease burden in non-COVID-19 population. This multi-center survey involved 94 hospitals from 24 provinces in the mainland of China, and collected data on non-COVID-19 patients admitted to the radiology departments due to VTE between January 24 and April 16, 2020. Baseline characteristics, VTE risk factors, clinical manifestations and the treatments were compared with those in the same period of 2019. 3,358 patients with VTE from 74 hospitals were included in this study (1,458 in 2020, 1,900 in 2019). Most aged ≥ 50 years (80.6% in the pandemic, 81.2% in 2019). The number of patients aged 30-39 years increased from 3.9% in 2019 period to 5.8% in the pandemic (p = 0.009). Among the VTE risk factors, the rate of decreased activity increased significantly in the pandemic, and was much higher than that in 2019 (30.7% vs 22.6%, p < 0.0001). Under the risk of decreased activity, patients with comorbidities chronic diseases, especially diabetes, showed significantly a higher incidence of VTE (30.4% vs 22.0%, p < 0.0001). In the pandemic period, fewer patients were treated with anticoagulation alone (33.5% vs 36.7%, p = 0.05), and more underwent inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) implantation, compared with those in 2019 (66.5% vs 63.2%, p = 0.046). The pandemic increased the VTE risk of decreased activity among the non-COVID-19 population. Patients with comorbidities, especially diabetes, have a significant higher risk of VTE during the pandemic.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1455-1461, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522212

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), interfering with critical health services for HIV prevention, treatment, and care. While there are multiple profiles of persons living with HIV and the impact of COVID-19 may differ for each, the severity of COVID-19 in persons with HIV is related strongly to the presence of comorbidities that increase the risk of severe disease in COVID-19 patients in the absence of HIV. An effective response to the juxtaposition of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics requires a novel coordinated and collaborative global effort of scientists, industry, and community partners to accelerate basic and clinical research, as well as implementation science to operationalize evidence-based interventions expeditiously in real-world settings. Accelerated development and clinical evaluation of prevention and treatment countermeasures are urgently needed to mitigate the juxtaposition of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1882-1886, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protection afforded from prior disease among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is unknown. If infection provides substantial long-lasting immunity, it may be appropriate to reconsider vaccination distribution. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of 1 health system included 150 325 patients tested for COVID-19 infection via polymerase chain reaction from 12 March 2020 to 30 August 2020. Testing performed up to 24 February 2021 in these patients was included. The main outcome was reinfection, defined as infection ≥90 days after initial testing. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic infection and protection of prior infection against reinfection. RESULTS: Of 150 325 patients, 8845 (5.9%) tested positive and 141 480 (94.1%) tested negative before 30 August. A total of 1278 (14.4%) positive patients were retested after 90 days, and 62 had possible reinfection. Of those, 31 (50%) were symptomatic. Of those with initial negative testing, 5449 (3.9%) were subsequently positive and 3191 of those (58.5%) were symptomatic. Protection offered from prior infection was 81.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.6-85.8) and against symptomatic infection was 84.5% (95% CI, 77.9-89.1). This protection increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Prior infection in patients with COVID-19 was highly protective against reinfection and symptomatic disease. This protection increased over time, suggesting that viral shedding or ongoing immune response may persist beyond 90 days and may not represent true reinfection. As vaccine supply is limited, patients with known history of COVID-19 could delay early vaccination to allow for the most vulnerable to access the vaccine and slow transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Reinfection , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1913-1919, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522140

ABSTRACT

Globally, there are prevailing knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among children and adolescents; and these gaps are especially wide in African countries. The availability of robust age-disaggregated data is a critical first step in improving knowledge on disease burden and manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among children. Furthermore, it is essential to improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2 interactions with comorbidities and coinfections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis, malaria, sickle cell disease, and malnutrition, which are highly prevalent among children in sub-Saharan Africa. The African Forum for Research and Education in Health (AFREhealth) COVID-19 Research Collaboration on Children and Adolescents is conducting studies across Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa to address existing knowledge gaps. This consortium is expected to generate key evidence to inform clinical practice and public health policy-making for COVID-19 while concurrently addressing other major diseases affecting children in African countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77: S437-S442, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525882

ABSTRACT

Background: In late 2019, the world saw a viral outbreak of unprecedented scale that sent a significant fraction of humankind into either quarantine or lockdown. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first recognized in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Methods: We created and administered a 17-item questionnaire for health care professionals (HCPs) to assess their level of knowledge towards this ongoing and evolving pandemic. It was disseminated through Web- and mobile-based social networks. The questions were sourced and created from various standard national and international guidelines available at the time of writing. Results: A total of 827 medical personnel participated in the study. Among them, 65.5% scored between 60% and 79%, indicating a moderate level of knowledge. There was no statistically significant difference in the scores of doctors, nursing officers and dental surgeons (p = 0.200). Participants had good knowledge regarding clinical symptoms, mode of transmission and preventive measures. But the study identified some gaps in knowledge in the implementation of management protocols, handling of dead bodies and biomedical waste management of COVID-19 cases. Conclusion: With this understanding, regular training, drills and knowledge dissemination along with skill development through learning correct practices focusing on HCP at all levels are the current needs.

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