Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 83
Filter
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4113-e4123, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
4.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(8): 929-936, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359389

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing is used for serosurveillance and will be important to evaluate vaccination status. Given the urgency to release coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) serology tests, most manufacturers have developed qualitative tests. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate clinical performance of 6 different SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays and their quantitative results to better elucidate the clinical role of serology testing in COVID-19. DESIGN.­: Six SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays were tested using remnant specimens from 190 patients. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for each assay with the current manufacturer's cutoff and a lower cutoff. A numeric result analysis and discrepancy analysis were performed. RESULTS.­: Specificity was higher than 93% for all assays, and sensitivity was higher than 80% for all assays (≥7 days post-polymerase chain reaction testing). Inpatients with more severe disease had higher numeric values compared with health care workers with mild or moderate disease. Several discrepant serology results were those just below the manufacturers' cutoff. CONCLUSIONS.­: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG antibody testing can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, especially with negative polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative COVID-19 IgG results are important to better understand the immunologic response and disease course of this novel virus and to assess immunity as part of future vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Endocr Pract ; 27(8): 842-849, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. This study aims to elucidate the risk factors predictive of more severe outcomes in patients with diabetes by comparing the clinical characteristics of those requiring inpatient admissions with those who remain outpatient. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 832 patients-631 inpatients and 201 outpatients-with diabetes and a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result between March 1 and June 15, 2020. Comparisons between the outpatient and inpatient cohorts were conducted to identify risk factors associated with severity of disease determined by admission rate and mortality. Previous dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor use and disease outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Risk factors for increased admission included older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.06]; P = .003), the presence of chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.32 [1.26-4.28]; P = .007), and a higher hemoglobin A1c at the time of admission (OR, 1.25 [1.12-1.39]; P < .001). Lower admission rates were seen in those with commercial insurance. Increased mortality was seen in individuals with older age (OR, 1.09 [1.07-1.11]; P < .001), higher body mass index number (OR, 1.04 [1.01-1.07]; P = .003), and higher hemoglobin A1c value at the time of diagnosis of COVID-19 (OR, 1.12 [1.01-1.24]; P = .028) and patients requiring hospitalization. Lower mortality was seen in those with hyperlipidemia. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor use prior to COVID-19 infection was not associated with a decreased hospitalization rate. CONCLUSION: This retrospective review offers the first analysis of outpatient predictors for admission rate and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 17: 413-422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 patients faced first-hand the life-threatening consequences of the disease, oftentimes involving prolonged hospitalization in isolation from family and friends. This study aimed at describing the psychological intervention to address the psychological difficulties and issues encountered by the hospitalized post-acute COVID-19 patients in a rehabilitation setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' demographics, medical diagnosis, and neuro-psychological information were collected from March 2nd to May 12th, 2020. The main psychological issues and intervention strategies were collected. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were hospitalized during this period. Among them, the 47.5% underwent psychological assessment (N=86; age: 74.58±13.39; 54.7% females). The most common psychological issues were acute stress disorders (18.6%), anxious and demoralization symptoms (26.7%), depression (10.5%%), and troublesome grief (8.1%). Once recovered from COVID-19, many patients were discharged home (38.4%), some received further rehabilitation in non-COVID-19 wards (41.9%), mostly due to pre-existent diseases (72.2%) rather than to COVID-19 complications (27.8%). CONCLUSION: A great number of the hospitalized post-acute COVID-19 patients showed psychological issues requiring psychological intervention, the most common were anxiety, demoralization, acute stress, depression, and grief. The proposed psychological treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted in a Cognitive Behavioral framework. In particular, during the COVID-19 pandemic, psychological intervention is an important part of rehabilitation in the post-acute phase of the illness to reduce distress symptoms and improve psychological health.

7.
Turk Thorac J ; 22(2): 149-153, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to focus on non-COVID-19 patients during the process when all physicians focused on COVID-19 patients. Patients with pulmonary diseases in the COVID-19 pandemic period were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non-COVID-19 cases who were hospitalized in the pulmonology clinic, outpatients, and patients who applied to the non-COVID-19 emergency service and requested a pulmonology consultation in the period from March 16, 2020 to May 15, 2020 and in the same period of the previous year (i.e., from March 16, 2019 to May 15, 2019) were included in this study. RESULTS: In the pandemic period, it was found that there was an 84% decrease in outpatient admissions, a 43% decrease in inpatients, and a 75% decrease in emergency services. During the pandemic period, in outpatient setting, male and younger case admissions increased, admissions with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung diseases decreased, whereas the frequency of admission to asthma, pneumonia, and pulmonary thromboembolism increased. In the period of the pandemic, patients with asthma, COPD, and lung cancer were less hospitalized, whereas patients with pulmonary thromboembolism, pneumonia, and pleural effusion were hospitalized more. In non-COVID-19 patient treatments during the pandemic period, usage of a metered dose inhaler increased. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, non-COVID pulmonary pathologies decreased significantly, and there was a change in the profile of the patients. From now on, to be prepared for pandemic and similar extraordinary situations, to organize hospitals for the epidemic, to determine health institutions to which nonepidemic patients can apply, to make necessary plans in order not to neglect the nonepidemic patients, and to develop digital health service methods, especially telemedicine, would be appropriate.

8.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 5590879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268149

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide with different dynamics in each region. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and to explore risk factors of death, critical care admission, and use of invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a high-altitude population living in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: We conducted a concurrent cohort study of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were extracted from electronic records. Univariate and multivariable methods were performed to investigate the relationship between each variable and outcomes at 28 days of follow-up. Results: 377 adults (56.8% male) were included in the study, of whom 85 (22.6%) died. Nonsurvivors were older on average than survivors (mean age, 56.7 years [SD 15.8] vs. 70.1 years [SD 13.9]; p ≤ 0.001) and more likely male (28 [32.9%] vs. 57 [67.1%]; p=0.029). Most patients had at least one underlying disease (333 [88.3%]), including arterial hypertension (149 [39.5%]), overweight (145 [38.5%]), obesity (114 [30.2%]), and diabetes mellitus (82 [21.8%]). Frequency of critical care admission (158 [41.9%]) and invasive mechanical ventilation (123 [32.6%]) was high. Age over 65 years (OR 9.26, 95% CI 3.29-26.01; p ≤ 0.001), ICU admission (OR 12.37, 95% CI 6.08-25.18; p ≤ 0.001), and arterial pH higher than 7.47 (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.74; p=0.01) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: In this study of in-hospital patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia living at high altitude, frequency of death was similar to what has been reported. ICU admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation were high. Risk factors as older age, ICU admission, and arterial pH were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Colombia , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors
9.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 69: 102007, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current coronavirus health crisis, inhaled bronchodilators(IB) have been suggested as a possible treatment for patients hospitalized. Patients with evidence of Covid-19 pneumonia worldwide have been prescribed these medications as part of therapy for the disease, an indication for which this medications could be ineffective taken on account the pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease progression. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to evaluate whether there is an association between IB use and length of stay. Primary end points were the number of days that a patient stayed in the hospital and death as a final event in a time to event analysis. Pneumonia severity, oxygen requirement, involved drugs, comorbidity, historical or current respiratory diagnoses and other drugs prescribed to treat coronavirus pneumonia were also evaluated. METHODS: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was performed in this tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain). Data were obtained regarding patients hospitalized with Covid-19, excluding those who were intubated. The primary and secondary outcomes such as duration of hospitalization and death were compared in patients who received IB with those in patients who did not. RESULTS: 327 patients were evaluated, mean age was 64.4 ± 15.8 years. Median length of hospitalization stay was 10 days. Of them 292 (89.3%) overcame the disease, the remaining 35 died. Patients who had received IB did not have less mortality rate (odds ratio 0.839; 95% CI: 0.401 to 1.752) and less hospitalization period when compared with patients who did not received IB (odds ratio 1.280; 95% CI: 0.813 to 2.027). There was no significant association between IB use and recovery or death. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities. The prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in our cohort was low (21.1%). Anticholinergics were the IB more frequently prescribed for Covid-19 pneumonia. Better response in patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids was not observed. CONCLUSION: Off-label indication of inhaled-bronchodilators for Covid-19 patients are common in admitted patients. Taken on account our results, the use of IB for coronavirus pneumonia apparently is not associated with a significantly patient's improvement. Our study confirms the hypothesis that inhaled bronchodilators do not improve clinical outcomes or reduce the risk of Covid-19 mortality. This could be due to the fact that the virus mainly affects the lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature and probably not the airway. More researches are necessary in order to fill the gap in evidence for this new indication.


Subject(s)
Bronchodilator Agents , COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267622

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Proteome/physiology , Age Factors , Blood Cell Count , Blood Gas Analysis , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(5): 1063-1092, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263933

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease associated with high mortality, and traditional Chinese medicine decoctions (TCMDs) have been widely used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 in China; however, the impact of these decoctions on severe and critical COVID-19-related mortality has not been evaluated. Therefore, we aimed to address this gap. In this retrospective cohort study, we included inpatients diagnosed with severe/critical COVID-19 at the Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University and grouped them depending on the recipience of TCMDs (TCMD and non-TCMD groups). We conducted a propensity score-matched analysis to adjust the imbalanced variables and treatments and used logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Among 282 patients with COVID-19 who were discharged or died, 186 patients (66.0%) received TCMD treatment (TCMD cohort) and 96 (34.0%) did not (non-TCMD cohort). After propensity score matching at a 1:1 ratio, 94 TCMD users were matched to 94 non-users, and there were no significant differences in baseline clinical variables between the two groups of patients. The all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the TCMD group than in the non-TCMD group, and this trend remained valid even after matching (21.3% [20/94] vs. 39.4% [37/94]). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that disease severity (odds ratio: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.037; [Formula: see text]¡ 0.001) was associated with increased odds of death and that TCMD treatment significantly decreased the odds of in-hospital death (odds ratio: 0.115; 95% CI: 0.035, 0.383; [Formula: see text]¡ 0.001), which was related to the duration of TCMD treatment. Our findings show that TCMD treatment may reduce the mortality in patients with severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25917, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262274

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Invasive mechanical ventilation is recommended for the management of patients with COVID-19 who have severe respiratory symptoms. However, various complications can develop after its use. The efficient and appropriate management of patients requires the identification of factors associated with an aggravation of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms to a degree where invasive mechanical ventilation becomes necessary, thereby enabling clinicians to prevent such ventilation. This retrospective study included 138 inpatients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated the differences in the demographic and clinical data between 27 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and 111 patients who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the duration of fever, national early warning score (NEWS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission were significantly associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in this cohort. The optimal cut-off values were: fever duration ≥1 day (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 54.95%), NEWS ≥7 (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 92.52%), and LDH >810 mg/dL (sensitivity 56.0%, specificity 90.29%). These findings can assist in the early identification of patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies in larger patient populations are recommended to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Warning Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261212

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies that specifically target the CD19 antigen have emerged as a highly effective treatment option in patients with refractory B-cell hematological malignancies. Safety and efficacy outcomes from the pivotal prospective clinical trials of axicabtagene ciloleucel, tisagenlecleucel and lisocabtagene maraleucel and the retrospective, postmarketing, real-world analyses have confirmed high response rates and durable remissions in patients who had failed multiple lines of therapy and had no meaningful treatment options. Although initially administered in the inpatient setting, there has been a growing interest in delivering CAR-T cell therapy in the outpatient setting; however, this has not been adopted as standard clinical practice for multiple reasons, including logistic and reimbursement issues. CAR-T cell therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach and coordination, particularly if given in an outpatient setting. The ability to monitor patients closely is necessary and proper protocols must be established to respond to clinical changes to ensure efficient, effective and rapid evaluation either in the clinic or emergency department for management decisions regarding fever, sepsis, cytokine release syndrome and neurological events, specifically immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. This review presents the authors' institutional experience with the preparation and delivery of outpatient CD19-directed CAR-T cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antigens, CD19/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Lymphoma, B-Cell/therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , Ambulatory Care/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospital Costs , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/economics , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/mortality , Lymphoma, B-Cell/economics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/mortality , Patient Safety , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/economics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1826-1837, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical, virological and safety outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-interferon (IFN)-ß-1a, hydroxychloroquine or remdesivir in comparison to standard of care (control) in coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) inpatients requiring oxygen and/or ventilatory support. METHODS: We conducted a phase III multicentre, open-label, randomized 1:1:1:1:1, adaptive, controlled trial (DisCoVeRy), an add-on to the Solidarity trial (NCT04315948, EudraCT2020-000936-23). The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15, measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens and pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. We report the results for the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms and for the hydroxychloroquine arm, trials of which were stopped prematurely. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 583 participants-lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 145), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a (n = 145), hydroxychloroquine (n = 145), control (n = 148)-among whom 418 (71.7%) were male, the median age was 63 years (IQR 54-71), and 211 (36.2%) had a severe disease. The day-15 clinical status was not improved with the investigational treatments: lopinavir/ritonavir versus control, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.83, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.26, p 0.39), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a versus control, aOR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.04, p 0.08), and hydroxychloroquine versus control, aOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.62-1.41, p 0.75). No significant effect of investigational treatment was observed on SARS-CoV-2 clearance. Trough plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were higher than those expected, while those of hydroxychloroquine were those expected with the dosing regimen. The occurrence of serious adverse events was significantly higher in participants allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms. CONCLUSION: In adults hospitalized for COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a and hydroxychloroquine improved neither the clinical status at day 15 nor SARS-CoV-2 clearance in respiratory tract specimens.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148000, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240613

ABSTRACT

Early detection and surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus are key pre-requisites for the effective control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). So far, sewage testing has been increasingly employed as an alternative surveillance tool for this disease. However, sampling site characteristics impact the testing results and should be addressed in the early use stage of this emerging tool. In this study, we implemented the sewage testing for SARS-CoV-2 virus across sampling sites with different sewage system characteristics. We first validated a testing method using "positive" samples from a hospital treating COVID-19 patients. This method was used to test 107 sewage samples collected during the third wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong (from June 8 to September 29, 2020), covering sampling sites associated with a COVID-19 hospital, public housing estates, and conventional sewage treatment facilities. The highest viral titer of 1975 copy/mL in sewage was observed in a sample collected from the isolation ward of the COVID-19 hospital. Sewage sampling at individual buildings detected the virus 2 days before the first cases were identified. Sequencing of the detected viral fragment confirmed an identical nucleotide sequence to that of the SARS-CoV-2 isolated from human samples. The virus was also detected in sewage treatment facilities, which serve populations of approximately 40,000 to more than one million people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Disease Outbreaks , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Infection ; 49(5): 935-943, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237568

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world. Differentiation between pure viral COVID-19 pneumonia and secondary infection can be challenging. In patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) on admission physicians often decide to prescribe antibiotic therapy. However, overuse of anti-infective therapy in the pandemic should be avoided to prevent increasing antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin (PCT) and CRP have proven useful in other lower respiratory tract infections and might help to differentiate between pure viral or secondary infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients admitted with COVID-19 between 6th March and 30th October 2020. Patient background, clinical course, laboratory findings with focus on PCT and CRP levels and microbiology results were evaluated. Patients with and without secondary bacterial infection in relation to PCT and CRP were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the best discriminating cut-off value of PCT and CRP with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity was calculated. RESULTS: Out of 99 inpatients (52 ICU, 47 Non-ICU) with COVID-19, 32 (32%) presented with secondary bacterial infection during hospitalization. Patients with secondary bacterial infection had higher PCT (0.4 versus 0.1 ng/mL; p = 0.016) and CRP (131 versus 73 mg/L; p = 0.001) levels at admission and during the hospital stay (2.9 versus 0.1 ng/mL; p < 0.001 resp. 293 versus 94 mg/L; p < 0.001). The majority of patients on general ward had no secondary bacterial infection (93%). More than half of patients admitted to the ICU developed secondary bacterial infection (56%). ROC analysis of highest PCT resp. CRP and secondary infection yielded AUCs of 0.88 (p < 0.001) resp. 0.86 (p < 0.001) for the entire cohort. With a PCT cut-off value at 0.55 ng/mL, the sensitivity was 91% with a specificity of 81%; a CRP cut-off value at 172 mg/L yielded a sensitivity of 81% with a specificity of 76%. CONCLUSION: PCT and CRP measurement on admission and during the course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 may be helpful in identifying secondary bacterial infections and guiding the use of antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Procalcitonin , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Onkologe (Berl) ; 27(7): 686-690, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The German healthcare system is facing unprecedented challenges due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Palliative care for critically ill patients and their families was also severely compromised, especially during the first wave of the pandemic, in both inpatient and outpatient settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The paper is based on our experience in routine inpatient palliative care and partial results of a study conducted as part of the collaborative project "National Strategy for Palliative Care in Pandemic Times (PallPan)". Based on our experience from the inpatient care of patients suffering from severe or life-limiting disease, best-practice examples for improving or maintaining care in the on-going pandemic are described. RESULTS: Restrictive visitor regulations, communication barriers and insufficient possibilities to accompany dying patients or their grieving relatives continue to pose major challenges in general and specialized inpatient palliative care. In order to maintain high-quality palliative care, it is necessary to create structures that enable targeted therapy discussions and end-of-life care in the presence of relatives. Therefore, innovative communication methods like video calls or individualized exceptions from visitor restrictions are needed. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate care for seriously ill and dying patients and their relatives must be guaranteed during the pandemic. Individual arrangements should be arranged and implemented. If available, earlier involvement of specialized palliative care teams can be beneficial.

18.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 105-112, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent arrhythmia of older patients, associates with serious thromboembolic complications and high mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely affects aged subjects, determining an important prothrombotic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality-related factors in older AF patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, we enrolled ≥60 year-old in-hospital COVID-19 patients (n = 806) in GeroCovid, a multicenter observational study promoted by the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine. RESULTS: The prevalence of AF was 21.8%. In-hospital mortality was higher in the AF group (36.9 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.015). At admission, 51.7, 10.2, and 38.1% of AF cases were taking, respectively, oral anticoagulants (OACs), antiplatelet agents, and no antithrombotic therapy. During hospitalization, 51% patients switched to low-molecular-weight heparins. AF patients who survived were younger (81 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 7 years; p = 0.002) and had a lower CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.9 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.02) than those who died. OAC use before (63.1 vs. 32.3%; p < 0.001) and during hospitalization (34.0 vs. 12.7%; p = 0.002) was higher among survivors. At multivariable analysis, lower age, higher self-sufficiency, less severe initial COVID-19 presentation, and the use of vitamin K antagonists (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.84) or direct OACs (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56) at admission, or the persistence of OAC during hospitalization (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.24), were associated with a lower chance of in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: AF is a prevalent and severe condition in older COVID-19 patients. Advanced age, dependency, and relevant clinical manifestations of disease characterized a worse prognosis. Preadmission and in-hospital anticoagulant therapies were positively associated with survival.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Mov Disord ; 36(5): 1049-1057, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive, nationwide data regarding Parkinson's disease (PD) hospitalizations, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in-hospital frequency, and COVID-19-associated inpatient mortality during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic are not available. OBJECTIVE: To provide a nationwide analysis on hospitalized PD patients in Germany and evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using an administrative claims database covering 1468 hospitals and 5,210,432 patient hospitalizations including a total of 30,872 COVID-19+ cases between January 16 and May 15, 2020. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, hospitalizations for PD transiently decreased by up to 72.7% in 2020. COVID-19 frequency was significantly higher in the population of 64,434 PD patients (693 being COVID-19+ ) than in non-PD patients (1.1% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001), especially in subjects with advanced age (≥ 65 years). Regarding established COVID-19 risk comorbidities, COVID-19+ inpatients with PD showed higher incidences than non-PD COVID-19+ subjects, particularly hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Advanced age and male sex were significantly more frequent in COVID-19+ than in COVID-19- PD patients. The COVID-19 inpatient mortality rate was much higher in PD patients than in non-PD patients (35.4% vs. 20.7%, P < 0.001), especially in patients aged 75-79 years. Of note, overall inpatient mortality of PD patients was significantly higher in 2020 than in 2019 (5.7% vs. 4.9%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PD inpatients are more frequently affected by COVID-19 and suffer from increased COVID-19-associated mortality in comparison to non-PD patients. More comprehensive studies are needed to assess the significance of associated comorbidities for COVID-19 risk and mortality in PD. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 416-423, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206786

ABSTRACT

There is limited information describing the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially those in underserved urban area with minority population in the United States. This is a retrospective single-center study for patients who were admitted with COVID-19 infection. Data collection was from 1 March through 24 April 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were presented using descriptive statistics and frequencies. The χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine association of risk factors and clinical outcomes. A total of 242 inpatients were included with a mean age of 66 ± 14.75 (±standard deviation). A total of 50% were female and 70% were African American. Comorbidities included hypertension (74%), diabetes mellitus (49%), and 19% had either COPD or asthma. Older age was associated with higher risk of inpatient death odds ratio (OR): 1.056 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.023-1.090; P = .001). Inpatient mortality occurred in 70% who needed mechanical ventilation (OR: 29.51; 95% CI: 13.28-65.60; P < .0001), 58% who required continuous renal replacement therapy/hemodialysis (CRRT/HD) (OR: 6.63; 95% CI: 2.74-16.05; P < .0001), and 69% who needed vasopressors (OR: 30.64; 95% CI: 13.56-69.20; P < .0001). Amongst biomarkers of disease severity, only baseline CRP levels (145 ± 116 mg/L) were associated with mortality OR: 1.008 (95% CI: 1.003-1.012; P = .002). Majority of hospitalized patients had hypertension and diabetes. Older age was an independent risk factor for inpatient mortality. Requirement of mechanical ventilation, vasopressor use, and CRRT/HD was associated significantly with inpatient mortality. Higher baseline CRP was significantly associated with inpatient death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Medically Underserved Area , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cities , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Steroids/therapeutic use , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL