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Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 73(1): 111-115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888286


Health care providers (HCP) of ENT and Skull base surgery are highly vulnerable and mostly infected by novel coronavirus as they have to examine and perform procedures directly in oral cavity, oropharynx, nose, nasopharynx, where coronavirus remains in plenty. ENT & Skull base surgeons need to do several aerosol generating procedures (AGP). Most of the endoscopic and microscopic ENT & skull base surgery are AGP; like-mastoid surgery, sinus surgery, surgery of pituitary, tympanomastoid paraganglioma, temporal bone malignancy, tracheostomy etc. All of we know, COVID negative by RT-PCR test is not always COVID negative. In COVID-19 pandemic-routine, even cancer surgeries are avoided or postponed for the sake of safety of HCPs. Moreover, in case of surgical emergency there's no way to refuse a patient for not having a report of COVID test. We thought about neutralizing or destroying the novel coronavirus from it's route of entry zone, as well as preventing aerosol to be transmitted in the air of OT. We designed a novel approach, i.e. 'POLIDON' (POLIDON = Polythene + Povidone Iodine), which can be the solution for these patients as well as surgeons or HCPs of above mentioned specialties. Use of Povidone Iodine as mouthwash and nasal spray or irrigation for both patient and HCPs prior to surgery is proposed. Then, use of simple polythene as barrier drape of patient or operative area for prevention of spread of aerosol in OT during surgery is the other component. With the POLIDON' approach-all these ENT & skull base surgeries can be done with more safety and confidence.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(1): 67-73, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650363


OBJECTIVE: To investigate small-particle aerosolization from mastoidectomy relevant to potential viral transmission and to test source-control mitigation strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric simulation. SETTING: Surgical simulation laboratory. METHODS: An optical particle size spectrometer was used to quantify 1- to 10-µm aerosols 30 cm from mastoid cortex drilling. Two barrier drapes were evaluated: OtoTent1, a drape sheet affixed to the microscope; OtoTent2, a custom-structured drape that enclosed the surgical field with specialized ports. RESULTS: Mastoid drilling without a barrier drape, with or without an aerosol-scavenging second suction, generated large amounts of 1- to 10-µm particulate. Drilling under OtoTent1 generated a high density of particles when compared with baseline environmental levels (P < .001, U = 107). By contrast, when drilling was conducted under OtoTent2, mean particle density remained at baseline. Adding a second suction inside OtoTent1 or OtoTent2 kept particle density at baseline levels. Significant aerosols were released upon removal of OtoTent1 or OtoTent2 despite a 60-second pause before drape removal after drilling (P < .001, U = 0, n = 10, 12; P < .001, U = 2, n = 12, 12, respectively). However, particle density did not increase above baseline when a second suction and a pause before removal were both employed. CONCLUSIONS: Mastoidectomy without a barrier, even when a second suction was added, generated substantial 1- to 10-µm aerosols. During drilling, large amounts of aerosols above baseline levels were detected with OtoTent1 but not OtoTent2. For both drapes, a second suction was an effective mitigation strategy during drilling. Last, the combination of a second suction and a pause before removal prevented aerosol escape during the removal of either drape.

Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Ear Diseases/surgery , Mastoidectomy/methods , Otologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Cadaver , Comorbidity , Ear Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Mastoid/surgery , Otologic Surgical Procedures/methods , SARS-CoV-2