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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537202

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
3.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311204

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω (type I IFNs) were recently reported as causative for severe COVID-19 in the general population. Autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω are present in almost all patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by biallelic deleterious or heterozygous dominant mutations in AIRE. We therefore hypothesized that autoantibodies against type I IFNs also predispose patients with APS-1 to severe COVID-19. We prospectively studied 6 patients with APS-1 between April 1, 2020 and April 1, 2021. Biobanked pre-COVID-19 sera of APS-1 subjects were tested for neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω. The ability of the patients' sera to block recombinant human IFN-α and IFN-ω was assessed by assays quantifying phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as well as infection-based IFN-neutralization assays. We describe 4 patients with APS-1 and preexisting high titers of neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω who contracted SARS-CoV-2, yet developed only mild symptoms of COVID-19. None of the patients developed dyspnea, oxygen requirement, or high temperature. All infected patients with APS-1 were females and younger than 26 years of age. Clinical penetrance of neutralizing autoantibodies against type I IFNs for severe COVID-19 is not complete.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Type I/immunology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/complications , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interferon-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcription Factors/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology , Young Adult
4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 31: 100683, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term effects of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on organ health, exercise capacity, cognition, quality of life and mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: Fifty-eight COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 30 age, sex, body mass index comorbidity-matched controls were enrolled for multiorgan (brain, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spirometry, six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), quality of life, cognitive and mental health assessments. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months from disease-onset, 64% of patients experienced breathlessness and 55% reported fatigue. On MRI, abnormalities were seen in lungs (60%), heart (26%), liver (10%) and kidneys (29%). Patients exhibited changes in the thalamus, posterior thalamic radiations and sagittal stratum on brain MRI and demonstrated impaired cognitive performance, specifically in the executive and visuospatial domains. Exercise tolerance (maximal oxygen consumption and ventilatory efficiency on CPET) and six-minute walk distance were significantly reduced. The extent of extra-pulmonary MRI abnormalities and exercise intolerance correlated with serum markers of inflammation and acute illness severity. Patients had a higher burden of self-reported symptoms of depression and experienced significant impairment in all domains of quality of life compared to controls (p<0.0001 to 0.044). INTERPRETATION: A significant proportion of patients discharged from hospital reported symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, depression and had limited exercise capacity. Persistent lung and extra-pulmonary organ MRI findings are common in patients and linked to inflammation and severity of acute illness. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford and Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centres, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, UKRI, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 208, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable progress, it remains unclear why some patients admitted for COVID-19 develop adverse outcomes while others recover spontaneously. Clues may lie with the predisposition to hypoxemia or unexpected absence of dyspnea ('silent hypoxemia') in some patients who later develop respiratory failure. Using a recently-validated breath-holding technique, we sought to test the hypothesis that gas exchange and ventilatory control deficits observed at admission are associated with subsequent adverse COVID-19 outcomes (composite primary outcome: non-invasive ventilatory support, intensive care admission, or death). METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 (N = 50) performed breath-holds to obtain measurements reflecting the predisposition to oxygen desaturation (mean desaturation after 20-s) and reduced chemosensitivity to hypoxic-hypercapnia (including maximal breath-hold duration). Associations with the primary composite outcome were modeled adjusting for baseline oxygen saturation, obesity, sex, age, and prior cardiovascular disease. Healthy controls (N = 23) provided a normative comparison. RESULTS: The adverse composite outcome (observed in N = 11/50) was associated with breath-holding measures at admission (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.020); specifically, greater mean desaturation (12-fold greater odds of adverse composite outcome with 4% compared with 2% desaturation, p = 0.002) and greater maximal breath-holding duration (2.7-fold greater odds per 10-s increase, p = 0.036). COVID-19 patients who did not develop the adverse composite outcome had similar mean desaturation to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Breath-holding offers a novel method to identify patients with high risk of respiratory failure in COVID-19. Greater breath-hold induced desaturation (gas exchange deficit) and greater breath-holding tolerance (ventilatory control deficit) may be independent harbingers of progression to severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Hypercapnia/physiopathology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Hypercapnia/complications , Inspiratory Capacity , Lung Volume Measurements/methods , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 632942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264341

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019 the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the center of global attention due to its rapid transmission and toll on health care systems and global economy. Population-based serosurveys measuring antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 provide one method for estimating previous infection rates including the symptom-free courses of the disease and monitoring the progression of the epidemic. Methods: In June 2020 we succeeded in testing almost half of the population of an Austrian township (1,359 inhabitants) with a reported higher incidence for COVID-19 infections (17 PCR positive cases have been officially reported until the date of sample collection, i.e., 1.2% of the total population). We determined the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in this population, factors affecting, and symptoms correlated with prior infection. Antibodies were determined using a CE-certified quality-controlled ELISA test for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA antibodies. Results: We found a high prevalence of 9% positive antibodies among the town population in comparison to 6% of the neighboring villages. This was considerably higher than the officially known RT-PCR-approved COVID-19 cases (1.2%) in the town population. Twenty percent of SARS-CoV-2-antibody positive cases declared being asymptomatic in a questionnaire. On the other hand, we identified six single major symptoms, including anosmia/ageusia, weight loss, anorexia, general debility, dyspnea, and fever, and especially their combination to be of high prognostic value for predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient. Conclusions: This population study demonstrated a high prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as a marker of past infections in an Austrian township. Several symptoms revealed a diagnostic value especially in combination.

7.
Clin Ther ; 43(6): 1007-1019, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a global urgency to discover an effective treatment for patients withthis disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the widely used antiparasitic drug ivermectin on outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, patients with COVID-19 admitted to 2 referral tertiary hospitals in Mazandaran, Iran, were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention and control. In addition to standard treatment for COVID-19, the intervention group received a single weight-based dose (0.2 mg/kg) of ivermectin; the control group received the standard of care. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from participants were recorded at baseline. Patients were assessed daily for symptoms and disease progression. The primary clinical outcome measures were the durations of hospital stay, fever, dyspnea, and cough; and overall clinical improvement. FINDINGS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled (mean [SD] ages: ivermectin, 47.63 [22.20] years; control, 45.18 [23.11] years; P = 0.65). Eighteen patients (51.4%) in the ivermectin group and 18 (52.9%) in control group were male (P = 0.90). The mean durations of dyspnea were 2.6 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group and 3.8 (0.4) days in the control group (P = 0.048). Also, persistent cough lasted for 3.1 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group compared to 4.8 (0.4) days in control group (PP = 0.019). The mean durations of hospital stay were 7.1 (0.5) days versus 8.4 (0.6) days in the ivermectin and control groups, respectively (P = 0.016). Also, the frequency of lymphopenia decreased to 14.3% in the ivermectin group and did not change in the control group (P = 0.007). IMPLICATIONS: A single dose of ivermectin was well-tolerated in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, and important clinical features of COVID-19 were improved with ivermectin use, including dyspnea, cough, and lymphopenia. Further studies with larger sample sizes, different drug dosages, dosing intervals and durations, especially in different stages of the disease, may be useful in understanding the potential clinical benefits ivermectin. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: IRCT20111224008507N3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Adult , Humans , Iran , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100122, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the leading symptoms during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are acute and the majority of patients fully recover, a significant fraction of patients now increasingly experience long-term health consequences. However, most data available focus on health-related events after severe infection and hospitalisation. We present a longitudinal, prospective analysis of health consequences in patients who initially presented with no or minor symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Hence, we focus on mild COVID-19 in non-hospitalised patients. METHODS: 958 Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were observed from April 6th to December 2nd 2020 for long-term symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We identified anosmia, ageusia, fatigue or shortness of breath as most common, persisting symptoms at month 4 and 7 and summarised presence of such long-term health consequences as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). Predictors of long-term symptoms were assessed using an uni- and multivariable logistic regression model. FINDINGS: We observed 442 and 353 patients over four and seven months after symptom onset, respectively. Four months post SARS-CoV-2 infection, 8•6% (38/442) of patients presented with shortness of breath, 12•4% (55/442) with anosmia, 11•1% (49/442) with ageusia and 9•7% (43/442) with fatigue. At least one of these characteristic symptoms was present in 27•8% (123/442) and 34•8% (123/353) at month 4 and 7 post-infection, respectively. A lower baseline level of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, anosmia and diarrhoea during acute COVID-19 were associated with higher risk to develop long-term symptoms. INTERPRETATION: The on-going presence of either shortness of breath, anosmia, ageusia or fatigue as long-lasting symptoms even in non-hospitalised patients was observed at four and seven months post-infection and summarised as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). The continued assessment of patients with PCS will become a major task to define and mitigate the socioeconomic and medical long-term effects of COVID-19. FUNDING: COVIM:"NaFoUniMedCovid19"(FKZ: 01KX2021).

9.
Lung ; 199(3): 249-253, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227841

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study presents prevalence data and associated risk factors of post-COVID-19 cough one year after hospital discharge in COVID-19 survivors. Individuals recovered from COVID-19 at three public hospitals in Madrid (Spain) were scheduled for a telephonic interview. They were systematically asked about the presence of respiratory symptoms, e.g., fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, and cough after hospital discharge. Clinical and hospitalization data were collected from hospital records. Overall, 1,950 patients (47% women, mean age:61, SD:16 years) were assessed at 11.2 months (SD 0.5) after hospital discharge. Just 367 (18.8%) were completely free of any respiratory post-COVID -19 symptom. The prevalence of long-term cough, chest pain, dyspnea, and fatigue was 2.5%, 6.5%, 23.3%, and 61.2%, respectively. Clinical and hospitalization factors were not associated with long-term post-COVID-19 cough. In conclusion, the prevalence of post-COVID-19 cough one year after SARS-CoV-2 infection was 2.5% in subjects who had survived hospitalization for COVID-19. No clear risk factor associated to long-term post-COVID-19 cough was identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Aged , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Chest Pain/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A year after the COVID-19 pandemic started, there are still few scientific reports on COVID-19 in Africa. This study explores the clinical profiles and factors associated with COVID-19 in Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we followed patients admitted for suspicion of COVID-19 at Djoungolo Hospital between 01st April and 31st July 2020. Patients were categorised by age groups and disease severity: mild (symptomatic without clinical signs of pneumonia), moderate (with clinical signs of pneumonia without respiratory distress) and severe cases (clinical signs of pneumonia and respiratory distress not requiring invasive ventilation). Demographic information and clinical features were summarised. Multivariable analysis was performed to predict risk. FINDINGS: A total of 313 patients were admitted during the study period; 259 were confirmed cases of COVID-19 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Among the confirmed cases, the male group aged 40 to 49 years (13.9%) was predominant. Disease severity ranged from mild (26.2%; n = 68) to moderate (59%; n = 153) to severe (14.7%; n = 38); the case fatality rate was 1% (n = 4). Dysgusia (46%; n = 119) and hyposmia/anosmia (37.8%; n = 98) were common features of COVID-19. Nearly one-third of patients had comorbidities (29%; n = 53), of which hypertension was the most common (18.9%; n = 49). Participation in mass gatherings (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.37; P = 0.03) and dysgusia (OR = 2.09, P = 0.02) were predictive of diagnosis of COVID-19. Age groups 60 to 69 (OR = 7.41; P = 0.0001), 50 to 59 (OR = 4.09; P = 0.03), 40 to 49 (OR = 4.54; P = 0.01), male gender (OR = 2.53; P = 0.04), diabetes (OR = 4.05; P = 0.01), HIV infection (OR = 5.57; P = 0.03), lung disease (OR = 6.29; P = 0.01), dyspnoea (OR = 3.70; P = 0.008) and fatigue (OR = 3.35; P = 0.02) significantly predicted COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases in this study were benign with low fatality. Age (40-70), male gender, HIV infection, lung disease, dyspnoea and fatigue are associated with severe COVID-19. Such findings may guide public health decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Female , HIV Infections , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 148-154, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. The disease has now become a global pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. METHODS: We collected and analyzed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 by high-throughput sequencing or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We reviewed electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: Among the 405 confirmed patients, 210 had no GI symptoms, 195 had GI symptoms, and the first symptom of 155 patients was GI. The prevalence of vascular and digestive diseases in the group with GI symptoms was significantly higher than in the group without GI symptoms. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with fever, cough, dysphoria, chest tightness, poor appetite, chest pain, and pharyngeal pain was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. There was no significant difference in imaging between the 2 groups. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with increased procalcitonin (PCT) level and decreased lymphocyte count was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms had significantly more vascular and digestive system diseases and were more likely to have clinical manifestations of fever, cough, poor appetite, chest tightness, chest pain, insomnia, and pharyngeal pain. There were more patients with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have increased PCT and decreased lymphocyte count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/blood , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Vomiting/blood , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218216

ABSTRACT

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare entity characterised by respiratory distress and/or hypoxia developing in the sitting/upright posture, which is relieved in the supine posture. It is caused by cardiac, pulmonary and non-cardiopulmonary diseases. COVID-19 can have varying respiratory manifestations including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sequelae-like pulmonary fibrosis. POS has been rarely reported in patients with COVID-19. Here we report a case of POS in a patient recovering from severe COVID-19 ARDS. As he was gradually mobilised after his improvement, he had worsening dyspnoea in the sitting position with significant relief on assuming a supine posture. He was diagnosed with POS after ruling out other causes of POS. He was treated with oxygen support in upright posture and chest physiotherapy was continued, to which he showed improvement. POS is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 which needs awareness as it can be diagnosed easily and can respond to continued supportive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 259, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Indonesia in March 2020, and the number of infections has grown exponentially. The situation is at its worst, overwhelming intensive care unit (ICU) resources and capacity. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a single-center observational case study of 21 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU from March 20, 2020, to April 31, 2020. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG) and chest imaging were obtained consecutively during patient care. We identified 21 patients with confirmed COVID-19 severe infection in our ICU. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the patients was 54 ± 10 years; 95% were men, with shortness of breath (90.6%) the most common symptom. Hypertension was identified as a comorbidity in 28.6% of patients. The most common reason for admission to the ICU was hypoxemic respiratory failure, with 80% (17 patients) requiring mechanical ventilation. Half of the patients (10) died between day 1 and day 18, with septic shock as the primary cause of death. Of the 11 surviving patients, five were discharged home, while six were discharged from the ICU but remained in the hospital ward. Even then, the median length of ICU stay amongst survivors was 18 days. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there are no known effective antiviral agents or specific therapy to treat COVID-19. As severe systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure seems to be the primary cause of death, supportive care in maintaining oxygenation and hemodynamic stability remain the mainstay goals in treating critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Middle Aged
14.
J Dig Dis ; 22(5): 271-281, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To discern the symptomatic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 932 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan were enrolled, including 52 severe and 880 non-severe cases. All patients were followed up for 3 months after discharge. The symptomatic features and follow-up data of the patients in both groups were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of the 932 patients, fever (60.0%), cough (50.8%) and fatigue (36.4%) were the most common symptoms. In total, 32.7% of the severe cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms at disease onset, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, which was significantly higher than that of the non-severe group (P = 0.0015). The incidence of olfactory disturbance and dysgeusia was only 3.1% and 6.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age and sex, multivariate regression analysis showed that fever lasting for over 5 days (odds ratio [OR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-3.62, P = 0.0498), anorexia at onset (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.26-5.40, P = 0.0096), and modified Medical Research Council level above grade 2 when dyspnea occurred (OR 14.19, 95% CI 7.01-28.71, P < 0.0001) were symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. During the follow-up, cough (6.2%), dyspnea (7.2%), fatigue (1.8%), olfactory disturbance and dysgeusia (1.5%) were the significant remaining symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 causes clusters of symptoms with multiple systems involved. Certain symptomatic characteristics have predictive value for severe COVID-19. Short-term follow-up data reveal that most patients have a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(4): 3863-3869, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198481

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe health issue, especially to the patients who develop silent hypoxia condition after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to the lack of dyspnoea and extremely low oxygen saturation level, these patients are at exceptionally higher risk. Although the prevalence of silent hypoxia in COVID-19 patients has been evident in several cases, the underlying pathomechanism behind this condition is still unclear. Silent hypoxia in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients can be diagnosed with the help of a pulse oximeter, blood gas levels, and a 6-min walking test. While the clinicians and researchers figure out the exact reason for this phenomenon, the patients must be under strict day-to-day monitoring. In this article, we aim to provide comprehensive insights into the underlying symptoms, mechanism, and possible factors behind the occurrence of silent hypoxia among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism , Oximetry , Practice Guidelines as Topic
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1478-1488, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196458

ABSTRACT

Anemia commonly aggravates the severity of respiratory diseases, whereas thus far, few studies have elucidated the impact of anemia on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with anemia, and to further explore the relationship between anemia and the severity of COVID-19. In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, a total of 222 confirmed patients admitted to Wuhan Ninth Hospital from 1 December 2019 to 20 March 2020 were recruited, including 79 patients with anemia and 143 patients without anemia. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, disease progression and prognosis were collected and analyzed. Risk factors associated with the severe illness in COVID-19 were established by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. In our cohort, compared to patients without anemia, patients with anemia were more likely to have one or more comorbidities and severe COVID-19 illness. More patients demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and creatinine in anemia group. Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, myoglobin, T-pro brain natriuretic peptide (T-pro-BNP) and urea nitrogen in patients with anemia were significantly higher than those without. In addition, the proportion of patients with dyspnea, elevated CRP, and PCT was positively associated with the severity of anemia. The odd ratio of anemia related to the severe condition of COVID-19 was 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-11.75; P = .046) and 3.77 (95% CI: 1.33-10.71; P = .013) after adjustment for baseline date and laboratory indices, respectively. Anemia is an independent risk factor associated with the severe illness of COVID-19, and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to the hemoglobin levels of COVID-19 patients on admission. Awareness of anemia as a risk factor for COVID-19 was of great significance.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1305-1310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186649

ABSTRACT

Hypercytokinemia induced by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is associated with severe pulmonary involvement, which may lead to respiratory failure. These conditions play an important role in the worsening of clinical symptoms in patients with severe COVID-19. There is no established treatment for hypercytokinemia. We report on two patients whose clinical symptoms improved after direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP), following the administration of the anti-inflammatory agent tocilizumab. Case A was a 70-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite treatment with ciclesonide and favipiravir, supplemental oxygen was administered due to the worsening of dyspnea with tachypnea. Although tocilizumab was started on day 6, the patient deteriorated into deoxygenation, presenting with the PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratio of 92. On days 8 and 10, the patient received PMX-DHP therapy. On day 11, his dyspnea improved. On day 13, his P/F ratio began to improve, and oxygen therapy was discontinued on day 18. The patient recovered without requiring mechanical ventilation. Case B was a 70-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and treated with favipiravir, starting on day 0. Despite starting ciclesonide inhalation and tocilizumab on day 2, his P/F ratio was 53. On day 5, he received PMX-DHP therapy. On day 6, his dyspnea improved, as did his P/F ratio, reaching 81 on day 8. Finally, his clinical symptoms resolved, and he was discharged from the intensive care unit without requiring mechanical ventilation. These cases indicate that PMX-DHP therapy might be a suitable treatment option for dyspnea and deoxygenation in COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in cases where an anti-inflammatory agent, such as tocilizumab, has failed to achieve the desired effect.

18.
J Med Ultrasound ; 29(1): 3-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175650

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was formally defined a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, and is still a global health issue. Since there is a high prevalence of acute cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19 infection, point-of-care cardiac ultrasound (PoCCUS) may be used for longitudinal monitoring of patients infected with COVID-19. However, there is still limited experience on the application of PoCCUS in the COVID-19 pandemic. Within the point of care setting in our system, focused cardiac US exams were performed with specific imaging protocols on the basis of suspicion of a specific disease, such as ruling out tamponade or thrombotic complications. Our preliminary experience shows that PoCCUS helps distinguish the causes of dyspnea in febrile patients. The COVID-19 infection may play a role in unmasking or exacerbating underlying chronic cardiovascular conditions, especially in patients with inadequate past history. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, CURB-65 score for pneumonia severity and raised D-dimer were significantly associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). COVID-19 patients with DVT had worse prognosis, and patients with lower leg edema deserve further evaluation by using point-of-care ultrasound for the lower legs and heart. In COVID-19 patients with arrhythmia, PoCCUS used by experienced hands may reveal abnormal right ventricle (RV) functional parameters and lead to a more comprehensive cardiac US study. When there is suspicion of cardiac disease, PoCCUS can be done first, and if information is inadequate, limited transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and critical care echocardiography (CCE) can be followed. Ultrasound practitioners should follow the standard precautions for COVID-19 as outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to prevent transmission of infection, regardless of suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(1): 542-549, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As the number of COVID-19 cases keeps on rising, a better awareness of the nature and severity of the disease will aid in clinical decision-making and management. Hence, this study was conducted to find the predictors of mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a single centre, prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in north India. We included patients with influenza like illness who tested positive for COVID-19. Information regarding patient demography, symptoms, and vital signs on presentation, laboratory values, chest imaging findings, and disease severity was collected by the emergency physician. QSOFA score and National early warning score (NEWS) score were calculated using initial vital signs. Each patient was followed up till discharge or death. RESULTS: We included 116 COVID-19 patients with 33 patients having mild, 46 patients with severe and 37 patients with critical disease. The median age of our patients was 47 years (39-59) with 63% males. About 58% of patients had at least one comorbidity and shortness of breath was the most common presenting feature. The patients with severe and critical disease had a significantly higher respiratory rate and heart rate as compared to mild disease (p < 0.05). SpO2 of those with critical disease was significantly lower as compared to those with mild disease. Mechanical ventilation was required in around 36% of patients which included 67% of patients with critical disease. The overall mortality was 51% with 90% among critical disease. Lower SpO2 and GCS were the only parameters that showed a significant association with mortality and need for mechanical ventilation. The receiver operating characteristics analysis showed NEWS score as a better predictor of mortality and need for mechanical ventilation as compared to qSOFA score. CONCLUSION: NEWS and qSOFA scores are useful tools in predicting fatal outcomes in COVID patients with NEWS score being a better score than qSOFA.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25339, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on recovered COVID-19 patients after weaning from mechanical ventilation. Therefore, this study assessed the efficacy of IMT on recovered COVID-19 patients following mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Forty-two recovered COVID-19 patients (33 men and 9 women) weaned from mechanical ventilation with a mean age of 48.05 ±â€Š8.85 years were enrolled in this pilot control clinical study. Twenty-one patients were equipped to 2-week IMT (IMT group) and 21 matched peers were recruited as a control (control group). Forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), dyspnea severity index (DSI), quality of life (QOL), and six-minute walk test (6-MWT) were assessed initially before starting the study intervention and immediately after intervention. RESULTS: Significant interaction effects were observed in the IMT when compared to control group, FVC% (F = 5.31, P = .041, ηP2 = 0.13), FEV1% (F = 4.91, P = .043, ηP2 = 0.12), DSI (F = 4.56, P = .032, ηP2 = 0.15), QOL (F = 6.14, P = .021, ηP2 = 0.17), and 6-MWT (F = 9.34, P = .028, ηP2 = 0.16). Within-group analysis showed a significant improvement in the IMT group (FVC%, P = .047, FEV1%, P = .039, DSI, P = .001, QOL, P < .001, and 6-MWT, P < .001), whereas the control group displayed nonsignificant changes (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: A 2-week IMT improves pulmonary functions, dyspnea, functional performance, and QOL in recovered intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients after consecutive weaning from mechanical ventilation. IMT program should be encouraged in the COVID-19 management protocol, specifically with ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Breathing Exercises/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Ventilator Weaning/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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