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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547719

ABSTRACT

Boerhaave's syndrome is an uncommon syndrome characterized by spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus with a high mortality rate. While excessive alcohol intake and binge-eating are the classic precipitants of this syndrome, medication-induced vomiting causing Booerhave's is quite uncommon. Traditionally managed operatively, conservative management is being increasingly reported in selected cases. We report the case of 21-year-old male with who developed sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea after pentazocine induced vomiting. He was referred after lack of response to initial treatment for acute severe asthma. A chest CT scan showed pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and oesophageal tear. He was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy, nil per mouth and antibiotics with improvement of symptoms and discharge after 8 days.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pentazocine/adverse effects , Vomiting/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Chest Pain/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/therapy , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/etiology , Mediastinal Diseases/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pentazocine/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/chemically induced , Young Adult
3.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14480, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389786

ABSTRACT

We present a 68-year-old male patient with persistent and complicated SARS-CoV-2 infection who was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The patient suffered from fever, cough and progressive dyspnea for 10 days and he was admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure and cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Despite a transient improvement of CRS by the implementation of supportive care, including also the administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and tocilizumab, his clinical course worsened over time. Thus, a bone marrow aspiration was performed revealing the presence of myeloblasts in a proportion of 32% and flow cytometry confirmed the diagnosis of AML-M1 according to FAB classification. Re-evaluation of peripheral blood tests revealed that the patient was admitted with anemia and thrombocytopenia that were never recovered during hospitalization. Due to the patient's poor clinical condition, no chemotherapy was applied, and he died of sepsis and multi-organ failure two days later. This case suggests that in all patients with a persistent and/or complicated infection, even during pandemics, the presence of an underlying hematologic malignancy should always be taken into consideration.

4.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311204

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω (type I IFNs) were recently reported as causative for severe COVID-19 in the general population. Autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω are present in almost all patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by biallelic deleterious or heterozygous dominant mutations in AIRE. We therefore hypothesized that autoantibodies against type I IFNs also predispose patients with APS-1 to severe COVID-19. We prospectively studied 6 patients with APS-1 between April 1, 2020 and April 1, 2021. Biobanked pre-COVID-19 sera of APS-1 subjects were tested for neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω. The ability of the patients' sera to block recombinant human IFN-α and IFN-ω was assessed by assays quantifying phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as well as infection-based IFN-neutralization assays. We describe 4 patients with APS-1 and preexisting high titers of neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω who contracted SARS-CoV-2, yet developed only mild symptoms of COVID-19. None of the patients developed dyspnea, oxygen requirement, or high temperature. All infected patients with APS-1 were females and younger than 26 years of age. Clinical penetrance of neutralizing autoantibodies against type I IFNs for severe COVID-19 is not complete.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Type I/immunology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/complications , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interferon-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcription Factors/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(5): ytab176, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rupture of sinus of Valsalva (RSV) to right atrium (RA) causes significant left to right shunt, tricuspid regurgitation, and right ventricular failure. If left uncorrected it can lead to biventricular heart failure. Hence, early invasive management is advised. To date, there is no report about platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) after device closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva. CASE SUMMARY: A 50-year-old woman with dyspnoea of exertion and rupture of sinus valsalva to right atrium was referred to our hospital. On admission, chest computed tomography (CT) was normal. After closure of the rupture, she developed orthostatic hypoxemia and frequent cough. A repeat chest CT was suggestive of COVID-19 infection which most probably occurred during the hospitalization. Although COVID-19 was thought to be the only culprit, her symptoms were not solely justified by COVID-19. Transthoracic echocardiography showed patent foramen ovale (PFO) with significant shunt. PFO device closure was performed under intracardiac echocardiography guidance. DISCUSSION: Interatrial septum deformation may happen after RSV correction and right to left shunt from PFO may become more significant. POS is an important indication for PFO closure which should be noticed by careful examination. As COVID-19 is the most frequent pathology these days, it may delay other probable diagnosis, and hence detailed history taking and physical examination is mandatory.

7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218216

ABSTRACT

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare entity characterised by respiratory distress and/or hypoxia developing in the sitting/upright posture, which is relieved in the supine posture. It is caused by cardiac, pulmonary and non-cardiopulmonary diseases. COVID-19 can have varying respiratory manifestations including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sequelae-like pulmonary fibrosis. POS has been rarely reported in patients with COVID-19. Here we report a case of POS in a patient recovering from severe COVID-19 ARDS. As he was gradually mobilised after his improvement, he had worsening dyspnoea in the sitting position with significant relief on assuming a supine posture. He was diagnosed with POS after ruling out other causes of POS. He was treated with oxygen support in upright posture and chest physiotherapy was continued, to which he showed improvement. POS is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 which needs awareness as it can be diagnosed easily and can respond to continued supportive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Rehabil Med Clin Commun ; 3: 1000044, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197496

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, characterized by dyspnoea and arterial desaturation while upright, is a rare complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report here 2 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were diagnosed with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome during commencement of rehabilitation, 18 and 9 days respectively after admission to the intensive care unit. Both patients presented with normocapnic hypoxaemia. One patient required mechanical ventilation with supplemental oxygen during intensive care, while the other required high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. The manifestations of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome were most prominent during physiotherapy, when verticalization was attempted, and hindered further mobilization out of bed, including ambulation. This report describes the clinical manifestations of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and the rehabilitative strategies carried out for these 2 patients. The platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome in these patients resolved after 65 and 22 days respectively from the day of detection. This report highlights this potentially under-recognized phenomenon, which may be unmasked during rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Good functional outcomes were achieved with a combination of verticalization training with supplemental oxygen support, respiratory techniques training and progressive endurance and resistance training, whilst awaiting resolution of the platypneaorthodeoxia syndrome.

9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 126, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shunt, pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch and others intrapulmonary abnormalities are involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of POS associated with two pathophysiological issues: one, cardiac POS caused by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and second, pulmonary POS due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interstitial pneumonia. POS has resolved after recovery of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left interatrial shunt and intrapulmonary shunt caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia contributed to refractory hypoxemia and POS. Therefore, in case of COVID-19 patient with unexplained POS, the existence of PFO must be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypoxia , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(8): 3361-3369, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166044

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess whether the application of a non-invasive tool, such as ratio of oxygen saturation (ROX) index, during triage can identify patients with COVID-19 at high risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: A multi-centre, observational, retrospective study. METHODS: Only COVID-19 positive patients who required an emergency department evaluation for dyspnoea were considered. The primary objective of the study was to compare the ROX value obtained during triage with the medical diagnosis of ARDS and intubation in 72 h of the triage evaluation. The ROX index value was also compared with objective outcomes, such as the pressure of arterial O2 (PaO2 )/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) ratio and the lung parenchyma volume involved in COVID-19-related inflammatory processes, based on 3D reconstructions of chest computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: During the study period, from 20 March 2020 until 31 May 2020, a total of 273 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. The predictive ability of ROX for the risk of developing ARDS in 72 h after triage evaluation was associated with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of 0.845 (0.797-0.892, p < 0.001), whereas the AUROC value was 0.727 (0.634-0.821, p < 0.001) for the risk of intubation. ROX values were strongly correlated with PaO2 /FiO2 values (r = 0.650, p < 0.001), decreased ROX values were associated with increased percentages of lung involvement based on 3D CT reconstruction (r = -0.371, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The ROX index showed a good ability to identify triage patients at high evolutionary risk. Correlations with objective but more invasive indicators (PaO2 /FiO2 and CT) confirmed the important role of ROX in identifying COVID-19 patients with extensive pathological processes. IMPACT: During the difficult triage evaluation of COVID-19 patients, the ROX index can help the nurse to identify the real severity of the patient. The triage systems could integrate the ROX in the rapid patient assessment to stratify patients more accurately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
11.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(3): ytaa447, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposes vulnerable patients to high risk of mortality. Patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) usually have symptoms such as cough, fever, and shortness of breath because of their cardiac condition and comorbidity, therefore these related symptoms challenge the correct diagnosis in time within the COVID-19 pandemic. CASE SUMMARY: We report two case studies of patients with LVAD in whom COVID-19 related symptoms were overlapped by their cardiac status and comorbidities. In the first case, the patient was admitted for suspicion of COVID-19 due to cough and shortness of breath for 1 month. The blood test evocated a high index of suspicion of COVID-19. The nasopharyngeal test for COVID-19 performed on admission and at Day 2 was inconclusive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the test obtained on Day 3 of admission was positive, whereas computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19. This patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and nasal epistaxis within 48 h during hospitalization. The ARDS was treated by non-invasive ventilation and probabilistic antibiotics for 3 days and resulted significant improvement. The nasal epistaxis due to international normalized ratio increase was treated by nasal packing and vitamin K antagonist was switched to parenteral heparin infusion. The patient was kept hospitalized for 1 month for further supportive treatment. In the second case, the patient was admitted for recurrent anaemia due to melaena, the patient was tested for COVID-19 because of new-onset symptoms of cough and rhinorrhoea. The first nasopharyngeal test was positive, and sudden increase of anticoagulation status was noted in the setting of gastrointestinal bleeding. The anticoagulation status was controlled by parenteral heparin infusion, and the melaena was disappeared at Day 3. The moderate dyspnoea of the patient was quickly improved with nasal oxygen delivery for 4 days. The patient was discharged at Day 5. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 specific symptoms are challenging to distinguish in patients with LVADs, although radiological evidence can be beneficial in the COVID-19 diagnosis. We also observed the need for precise anticoagulation control to avoid bleeding or thrombotic events in these patients.

12.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report is to provide the clinical presentation and physical therapist management for a patient with post-COVID syndrome. Secondarily, the report highlights the importance of assessing cognitive and emotional health in patients with post-COVID syndrome. METHODS (CASE DESCRIPTION): A 37-year-old woman tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and developed mild COVID-19 disease but did not require supplemental oxygen or hospitalization. The patient experienced persistent symptoms, including dyspnea, headaches, and cognitive fog. On day 62, they participated in an outpatient physical therapist evaluation that revealed deficits in exercise capacity, obtaining 50% of their age-predicted 6-minute walk distance. They had minor reductions in muscle strength and cognitive function. Self-reported quality of life was 50, and they scored above established cut-off scores for provisional diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: The patient participated in biweekly physical therapist sessions for 8 weeks, which included aerobic training, strengthening exercises, diaphragmatic breathing techniques, and mindfulness training. Metabolic equivalent for task levels increased with variability over the course of the program. The patient's muscle strength, physical function, and exercise capacity improved. 6-Minute walk distance increased by 199 m, equating to 80% of their age-predicted distance. Quality of life and PTSD scores did not improve. At evaluation after physical therapy, the patient was still experiencing migraines, dyspnea, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This case report described the clinical presentation and physical therapist management of a person with post-COVID syndrome, a novel health condition for which little evidence exists to guide rehabilitation examination and interventions. Physical therapists should consider cognitive function and emotional health in their plan of care for patients with post-COVID syndromes. IMPACT: This case alerts physical therapists to post-COVID syndrome-which can include debilitating symptoms of decreased aerobic tolerance, anxiety, PTSD, and cognitive dysfunction-and to the role that therapists can play in assessing these symptoms and managing these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Physical Therapy Modalities , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Walk Test
13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 91, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are a few reports of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a potential treatment for ARDS. In this phase 1 clinical trial, we present the safety, feasibility, and tolerability of the multiple infusions of high dose MSCs, which originated from the placenta and umbilical cord, in critically ill COVID-19-induced ARDS patients. METHODS: A total of 11 patients diagnosed with COVID-19-induced ARDS who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two hospitals enrolled in this study. The patients were critically ill with severe hypoxemia and required mechanical ventilation. The patients received three intravenous infusions (200 × 106 cells) every other day for a total of 600 × 106 human umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs; 6 cases) or placental MSCs (PL-MSCs; 5 cases). FINDINGS: There were eight men and three women who were 42 to 66 years of age. Of these, six (55%) patients had comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and cardiomyopathy (CMP). There were no serious adverse events reported 24-48 h after the cell infusions. We observed reduced dyspnea and increased SpO2 within 48-96 h after the first infusion in seven patients. Of these seven patients, five were discharged from the ICU within 2-7 days (average: 4 days), one patient who had signs of acute renal and hepatic failure was discharged from the ICU on day 18, and the last patient suddenly developed cardiac arrest on day 7 of the cell infusion. Significant reductions in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.01) were seen in all six survivors. IL-6 levels decreased in five (P = 0.06) patients and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels decreased in four (P = 0.14) patients. Four patients who had signs of multi-organ failure or sepsis died in 5-19 days (average: 10 days) after the first MSC infusion. A low percentage of lymphocytes (< 10%) and leukocytosis were associated with poor outcome (P = 0.02). All six survivors were well with no complaints of dyspnea on day 60 post-infusion. Radiological parameters of the lung computed tomography (CT) scans showed remarkable signs of recovery. INTERPRETATION: We suggest that multiple infusions of high dose allogeneic prenatal MSCs are safe and can rapidly improve respiratory distress and reduce inflammatory biomarkers in some critically ill COVID-19-induced ARDS cases. Patients that develop sepsis or multi-organ failure may not be good candidates for stem cell therapy. Large randomized multicenter clinical trials are needed to discern the exact therapeutic potentials of MSC in COVID-19-induced ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Placenta/cytology , Pregnancy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Sepsis/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Umbilical Cord/cytology
14.
Talanta ; 225: 121977, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003086

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV-2 is a novel coronavirus discovered in Wuhan in December 30, 2019, and is a family of SARS-COV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), that is, coronavirus family. After infection with SARS-COV-2, patients often experience fever, cough, gas prostration, dyspnea and other symptoms, which can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), kidney failure and even death. The SARS-COV-2 virus is particularly infectious and has led to a global infection crisis, with an explosion in the number of infections. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of the virus plays a vital role. At present, many detection methods are limited in their wide application due to their defects such as high preparation cost, poor stability and complex operation process. Moreover, some methods need to be operated by professional medical staff, which can easily lead to infection. In order to overcome these problems, a Surface molecular imprinting technology (SM-MIT) is proposed for the first time to detect SARS-COV-2 virus. For this SM-MIT method, this review provides detailed detection principles and steps. In addition, this method not only has the advantages of low cost, high stability and good specificity, but also can detect whether it is infected at designated points. Therefore, we think SM-MIT may have great potential in the detection of SARS-COV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Molecular Imprinting , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Microspheres , Ovalbumin/chemistry , Ovalbumin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/chemistry
15.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 12(4): 221-224, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993888

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many therapeutic strategies have been tried, with mixed results, to prevent and treat adult multisystem inflammatory syndrome in COVID-19 (AMIS-COVID-19). The reason behind this may the complex web of highly intertwined pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the corresponding human systemic response, leading to end-organ damage, disability, and death. Colchicine, high-dose aspirin, and montelukast are being investigated currently as potential modulators of AMIS-COVID-19 in patients who fail to improve with traditional therapeutic approaches. Here, we present a patient who presented with high fevers, extreme fatigue and dyspnea, and ongoing deterioration. As part of our clinical approach, we used the simultaneous combination of the three agents listed above, capitalizing on their different respective mechanisms of action against AMIS-COVID-19. Following the initiation of therapy, the patient showed symptomatic improvement within 24 h, with the ability to return to daily activities after 72 h of continued triple-agent approach. Based on this experience, we have reviewed the immunomodulatory basis of this regimen, including potential avenues in which it may prevent the development of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and its clinical manifestation, AMIS-COVID-19. By blocking the early stages of an inflammatory response, via diverse mechanistic pathways, the regimen in question may prove effective in halting the escalation of CRS and AMIS-COVID-19 in acutely symptomatic, nonimproving COVID-19 patients.

16.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 277, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies reported that 5 ~ 32% COVID-19 patients were critically ill, a situation that poses great challenge for the management of the patients and ICU resources. We aim to identify independent risk factors to serve as prediction markers for critical illness of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Fifty-two critical and 200 non-critical SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive patients hospitalized in 15 hospitals outside Wuhan from January 19 to March 6, 2020 were enrolled in this study. Multivariable logistic regression and LASSO logistic regression were performed to identify independent risk factors for critical illness. RESULTS: Age older than 60 years, dyspnea, respiratory rate > 24 breaths per min, leukocytosis > 9.5 × 109/L, neutrophilia > 6.3 × 109/L, lymphopenia < 1.1 × 109/L, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio > 3.53, fibrinogen > 4 g/L, d-dimer > 0.55 µg/mL, blood urea nitrogen > 7.1 mM, elevated aspartate transaminase, elevated alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin > 21 µM, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score ≥ 2 were identified as risk factors for critical illness. LASSO logistic regression identified the best combination of risk factors as SOFA score, age, dyspnea, and leukocytosis. The Area Under the Receiver-Operator Curve values for the risk factors in predicting critical illness were 0.921 for SOFA score, 0.776 for age, 0.764 for dyspnea, 0.658 for leukocytosis, and 0.960 for the combination of the four risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings advocate the use of risk factors SOFA score ≥ 2, age > 60, dyspnea and leukocytosis > 9.5 × 109/L on admission, alone or in combination, to determine the optimal management of the patients and health care resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847865

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In the older population, acute heart failure is a frequent, life-threatening complication of COVID-19 that requires urgent specific care. We aimed to explore the impact of point-of-care chest ultrasound (CUS) use in older bedridden inpatients during the COVID-19 pandemic as a tool to distinguish between cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and isolated viral pneumonia-related dyspnoea. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective series included 16 patients aged 75 or older, hospitalized for acute dyspnoea in an acute geriatric unit of a university hospital and testing positive for a SARS-Cov2 infection. We collected demographic characteristics, medical history, biological screening, clinical symptoms, CUS findings (n = 16) and chest CT-scan conclusions (n = 14). Mean age was 89 years (77-97). All patients presented asthenia and dyspnoea, 56% complained of coughing and diarrhoea, and 50% had fever. Acute heart failure was clinically suspected in seven patients. At CUS, evidence of heart failure was confirmed in three patients (including one without clinical suspicion); interstitial syndrome was confirmed in 12 patients on CUS vs. 9 patients with CT. CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with COVID-19 and acute dyspnoea, the use of point-of-care CUS allowed the clinician to quickly rule out heart failure in nearly half of suspected cases while easily identifying virus-related interstitial syndrome. The use of CUS appears to be suitable for the rapid bedside investigation of dyspnoea in older patients, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927304, 2020 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This case series describes 5 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in Ecuador who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) prior to their COVID-19 illness. CASE REPORT Case #1 reports a 29-year-old woman who had been treated with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day for 1 year and presented with flu-like symptoms, chest pain, fever, odynophagia, asthenia, dry cough, and chills. Case #2 was a 34-year-old woman whose treatment for SLE included 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2017. She arrived at the clinic with a dry cough, asthenia, and myalgias. Case #3 was a 24-year-old woman who had been using 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2010. She presented with asthenia, myalgias, headaches, hypogeusia, and anosmia. Case #4 was a 39-year-old woman taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine every day for SLE who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, odynophagia, hypogeusia, anosmia, diarrhea, and fever. Case #5 was a 46-year-old woman who had been taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine since 2019. She came to our hospital complaining of chest pain, fever, and dyspnea. In all 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed with a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test using the Cepheid/GeneXpert system. CONCLUSIONS All 5 of our patients with SLE who were taking hydroxychloroquine presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of COVID-19. This case series provides support for a lack of prevention of COVID-19 by hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Ecuador , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Risk Assessment , Sampling Studies , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(1): 25-33, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are scarce data about SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, observational study. We contacted all the patients being treated at our IBD unit to identify those patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, following the World Health Organization case definition. Data were obtained by patient electronical medical records and by phone interview. RESULTS: Eighty-two of 805 patients with IBD (10.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.3-12.5) were diagnosed as having confirmed (28 patients, 3.5%; 95% CI, 2.4-5.0) or suspected (54 patients, 6.7%) infection. Patient age was 46 ± 14 years, 44 patients were female (53.7%), 17.3% were smokers, 51.2% had Crohn disease (CD), and 39.0% had comorbidities. Digestive symptoms were reported in 41 patients (50.0%), with diarrhea as the most common (42.7%). One patient (1.2%) was diagnosed with IBD flare-up during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twenty-two patients (26.8%) temporarily withdrew from their IBD treatment because of COVID-19. Most of the patients had mild disease (79.3%), and 1 patient died (1.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of dyspnea was associated with moderate to severe infection (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7; P = 0.01) and myalgias (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17.9; P = 0.02) were related to a milder clinical course. Immunosuppression was not related to severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with IBD is not rare. Dyspnea is associated with a more severe infection. Therapy for IBD, including immunomodulators and biologic therapy, is not related to a greater severity of COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 infections do not appear to be related to IBD flare-ups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
20.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(8): 751-770, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684487

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Main clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are characterized by fever, dyspnea, and interstitial pneumonia, frequently evolving in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). AREAS COVERED: Features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents some common points with interstitial lung disease (ILD) both idiopathic and related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), typically characterized by a chronic progression over time and possibly complicated by acute exacerbation (AE). The study of common pathogenetic mechanisms, such as the involvement of toll-like receptor 4, could contribute to the knowledge and treatment of idiopathic and RA-ILD. Moreover, hyperinflammation, mainly characterized by increase of effector T-cells and inflammatory cytokines, and activation of coagulation cascade, observed in COVID-19 related ARDS have been already shown in patients with AE of idiopathic and RA-ILD. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, together with a manual search in COVID-resource centers of the main journals. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the uncertainty about pathogenetic aspects about COVID-19- pneumonia, it could be a possible model for other forms of ILD and AE. The great amount of data from studies on COVID-19 could be helpful in proposing safe therapeutic approaches for RA-ILD, in understanding pathogenesis of usual interstitial pneumonia and to develop new therapeutic strategies for AE.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
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