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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4208-e4213, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe adult respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January to 5 February. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy of treatment after hospitalization, and the differences between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with patients with general COVID-19 (45.2%), those with refractory disease were older, were more likely to be male, and had more underlying comorbid conditions, a lower incidence of fever, higher maximum temperatures among patients with fever, higher incidences of shortness of breath and anorexia, more severe disease assessment at admission, higher neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels, lower platelet counts and albumin levels, and higher incidences of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P < .05). Patients with refractory COVID-19 were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immune enhancers (P < .05). Considering the factors of disease severity at admission, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit transfer, patients with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to be male, have manifestations of anorexia on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant, and adjunctive agents (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In nearly 50% of patients with COVID-19 obvious clinical and radiological remission was not achieved within 10 days after hospitalization. Male, anorexia, and no fever at admission was predictive of poor treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311204

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω (type I IFNs) were recently reported as causative for severe COVID-19 in the general population. Autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω are present in almost all patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by biallelic deleterious or heterozygous dominant mutations in AIRE. We therefore hypothesized that autoantibodies against type I IFNs also predispose patients with APS-1 to severe COVID-19. We prospectively studied 6 patients with APS-1 between April 1, 2020 and April 1, 2021. Biobanked pre-COVID-19 sera of APS-1 subjects were tested for neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω. The ability of the patients' sera to block recombinant human IFN-α and IFN-ω was assessed by assays quantifying phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as well as infection-based IFN-neutralization assays. We describe 4 patients with APS-1 and preexisting high titers of neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω who contracted SARS-CoV-2, yet developed only mild symptoms of COVID-19. None of the patients developed dyspnea, oxygen requirement, or high temperature. All infected patients with APS-1 were females and younger than 26 years of age. Clinical penetrance of neutralizing autoantibodies against type I IFNs for severe COVID-19 is not complete.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Type I/immunology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/complications , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interferon-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcription Factors/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A year after the COVID-19 pandemic started, there are still few scientific reports on COVID-19 in Africa. This study explores the clinical profiles and factors associated with COVID-19 in Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we followed patients admitted for suspicion of COVID-19 at Djoungolo Hospital between 01st April and 31st July 2020. Patients were categorised by age groups and disease severity: mild (symptomatic without clinical signs of pneumonia), moderate (with clinical signs of pneumonia without respiratory distress) and severe cases (clinical signs of pneumonia and respiratory distress not requiring invasive ventilation). Demographic information and clinical features were summarised. Multivariable analysis was performed to predict risk. FINDINGS: A total of 313 patients were admitted during the study period; 259 were confirmed cases of COVID-19 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Among the confirmed cases, the male group aged 40 to 49 years (13.9%) was predominant. Disease severity ranged from mild (26.2%; n = 68) to moderate (59%; n = 153) to severe (14.7%; n = 38); the case fatality rate was 1% (n = 4). Dysgusia (46%; n = 119) and hyposmia/anosmia (37.8%; n = 98) were common features of COVID-19. Nearly one-third of patients had comorbidities (29%; n = 53), of which hypertension was the most common (18.9%; n = 49). Participation in mass gatherings (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.37; P = 0.03) and dysgusia (OR = 2.09, P = 0.02) were predictive of diagnosis of COVID-19. Age groups 60 to 69 (OR = 7.41; P = 0.0001), 50 to 59 (OR = 4.09; P = 0.03), 40 to 49 (OR = 4.54; P = 0.01), male gender (OR = 2.53; P = 0.04), diabetes (OR = 4.05; P = 0.01), HIV infection (OR = 5.57; P = 0.03), lung disease (OR = 6.29; P = 0.01), dyspnoea (OR = 3.70; P = 0.008) and fatigue (OR = 3.35; P = 0.02) significantly predicted COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases in this study were benign with low fatality. Age (40-70), male gender, HIV infection, lung disease, dyspnoea and fatigue are associated with severe COVID-19. Such findings may guide public health decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Female , HIV Infections , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 148-154, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. The disease has now become a global pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. METHODS: We collected and analyzed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 by high-throughput sequencing or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We reviewed electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: Among the 405 confirmed patients, 210 had no GI symptoms, 195 had GI symptoms, and the first symptom of 155 patients was GI. The prevalence of vascular and digestive diseases in the group with GI symptoms was significantly higher than in the group without GI symptoms. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with fever, cough, dysphoria, chest tightness, poor appetite, chest pain, and pharyngeal pain was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. There was no significant difference in imaging between the 2 groups. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with increased procalcitonin (PCT) level and decreased lymphocyte count was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms had significantly more vascular and digestive system diseases and were more likely to have clinical manifestations of fever, cough, poor appetite, chest tightness, chest pain, insomnia, and pharyngeal pain. There were more patients with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have increased PCT and decreased lymphocyte count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/blood , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Vomiting/blood , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218216

ABSTRACT

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare entity characterised by respiratory distress and/or hypoxia developing in the sitting/upright posture, which is relieved in the supine posture. It is caused by cardiac, pulmonary and non-cardiopulmonary diseases. COVID-19 can have varying respiratory manifestations including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sequelae-like pulmonary fibrosis. POS has been rarely reported in patients with COVID-19. Here we report a case of POS in a patient recovering from severe COVID-19 ARDS. As he was gradually mobilised after his improvement, he had worsening dyspnoea in the sitting position with significant relief on assuming a supine posture. He was diagnosed with POS after ruling out other causes of POS. He was treated with oxygen support in upright posture and chest physiotherapy was continued, to which he showed improvement. POS is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 which needs awareness as it can be diagnosed easily and can respond to continued supportive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(8): 166154, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) exhibits a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Despite the fact that SARS-CoV-2 has slower evolutionary rate than other coronaviruses, different mutational hotspots have been identified along the SARS-CoV-2 genome. METHODS: We performed whole-genome high throughput sequencing on isolates from 50 Egyptian patients to see if the variation in clinical symptoms was related to mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Then, we investigated the relationship between the observed mutations and the clinical characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: Among the 36 most common mutations, we found two frameshift deletions linked to an increased risk of shortness of breath, a V6 deletion in the spike glycoprotein's signal peptide region linked to an increased risk of fever, longer fever duration and nasal congestion, and L3606-nsp6 deletion linked to a higher prevalence of cough and conjunctival congestion. S5398L nsp13-helicase was linked to an increased risk of fever duration and progression. The most common mutations (241, 3037, 14,408, and 23,403) were not linked to clinical variability. However, the E3909G-nsp7 variant was more common in children (2-13 years old) and was associated with a shorter duration of symptoms. The duration of fever was significantly reduced with E1363D-nsp3 and E3073A-nsp4. CONCLUSIONS: The most common mutations, D614G/spike-glycoprotein and P4715L/RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase, were linked to transmissibility regardless of symptom variability. E3909G-nsp7 could explain why children recover so quickly. Nsp6-L3606fs, spike-glycoprotein-V6fs, and nsp13-S5398L variants may be linked to clinical symptom worsening. These variations related to host-virus interactions might open new therapeutic avenues for symptom relief and disease containment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Frameshift Mutation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sequence Deletion , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1478-1488, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196458

ABSTRACT

Anemia commonly aggravates the severity of respiratory diseases, whereas thus far, few studies have elucidated the impact of anemia on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with anemia, and to further explore the relationship between anemia and the severity of COVID-19. In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, a total of 222 confirmed patients admitted to Wuhan Ninth Hospital from 1 December 2019 to 20 March 2020 were recruited, including 79 patients with anemia and 143 patients without anemia. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, disease progression and prognosis were collected and analyzed. Risk factors associated with the severe illness in COVID-19 were established by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. In our cohort, compared to patients without anemia, patients with anemia were more likely to have one or more comorbidities and severe COVID-19 illness. More patients demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and creatinine in anemia group. Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, myoglobin, T-pro brain natriuretic peptide (T-pro-BNP) and urea nitrogen in patients with anemia were significantly higher than those without. In addition, the proportion of patients with dyspnea, elevated CRP, and PCT was positively associated with the severity of anemia. The odd ratio of anemia related to the severe condition of COVID-19 was 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-11.75; P = .046) and 3.77 (95% CI: 1.33-10.71; P = .013) after adjustment for baseline date and laboratory indices, respectively. Anemia is an independent risk factor associated with the severe illness of COVID-19, and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to the hemoglobin levels of COVID-19 patients on admission. Awareness of anemia as a risk factor for COVID-19 was of great significance.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
J Rehabil Med Clin Commun ; 3: 1000044, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197496

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, characterized by dyspnoea and arterial desaturation while upright, is a rare complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report here 2 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were diagnosed with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome during commencement of rehabilitation, 18 and 9 days respectively after admission to the intensive care unit. Both patients presented with normocapnic hypoxaemia. One patient required mechanical ventilation with supplemental oxygen during intensive care, while the other required high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. The manifestations of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome were most prominent during physiotherapy, when verticalization was attempted, and hindered further mobilization out of bed, including ambulation. This report describes the clinical manifestations of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and the rehabilitative strategies carried out for these 2 patients. The platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome in these patients resolved after 65 and 22 days respectively from the day of detection. This report highlights this potentially under-recognized phenomenon, which may be unmasked during rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Good functional outcomes were achieved with a combination of verticalization training with supplemental oxygen support, respiratory techniques training and progressive endurance and resistance training, whilst awaiting resolution of the platypneaorthodeoxia syndrome.

11.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2021: 6652819, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191398

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that has affected millions of individuals across the world. It was officially declared as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Although most patients with COVID-19 manifest as viral pneumonia characterized by symptoms such as fever, dyspnea, and cough, atypical presentations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney or cardiac injury have been reported amongst COVID-19 patients. Bilateral and peripheral ground-glass and opacities are the hallmarks of COVID-19 infection on imaging exams. Herein, we aim to describe a COVID-19 patient who presented with shortness of breath, neck pain, chest pain, and bilateral pneumothorax in his imaging exam.

12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 126, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shunt, pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch and others intrapulmonary abnormalities are involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of POS associated with two pathophysiological issues: one, cardiac POS caused by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and second, pulmonary POS due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interstitial pneumonia. POS has resolved after recovery of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left interatrial shunt and intrapulmonary shunt caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia contributed to refractory hypoxemia and POS. Therefore, in case of COVID-19 patient with unexplained POS, the existence of PFO must be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypoxia , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1305-1310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186649

ABSTRACT

Hypercytokinemia induced by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is associated with severe pulmonary involvement, which may lead to respiratory failure. These conditions play an important role in the worsening of clinical symptoms in patients with severe COVID-19. There is no established treatment for hypercytokinemia. We report on two patients whose clinical symptoms improved after direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP), following the administration of the anti-inflammatory agent tocilizumab. Case A was a 70-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite treatment with ciclesonide and favipiravir, supplemental oxygen was administered due to the worsening of dyspnea with tachypnea. Although tocilizumab was started on day 6, the patient deteriorated into deoxygenation, presenting with the PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratio of 92. On days 8 and 10, the patient received PMX-DHP therapy. On day 11, his dyspnea improved. On day 13, his P/F ratio began to improve, and oxygen therapy was discontinued on day 18. The patient recovered without requiring mechanical ventilation. Case B was a 70-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and treated with favipiravir, starting on day 0. Despite starting ciclesonide inhalation and tocilizumab on day 2, his P/F ratio was 53. On day 5, he received PMX-DHP therapy. On day 6, his dyspnea improved, as did his P/F ratio, reaching 81 on day 8. Finally, his clinical symptoms resolved, and he was discharged from the intensive care unit without requiring mechanical ventilation. These cases indicate that PMX-DHP therapy might be a suitable treatment option for dyspnea and deoxygenation in COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in cases where an anti-inflammatory agent, such as tocilizumab, has failed to achieve the desired effect.

14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(3): 462-468, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and paraclinical features and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study of pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age hospitalized between March and October 2020 in Tehran, Iran. Medical records were reviewed and women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR were included. Extracted data were compared and logistic regression performed. RESULTS: A total of 110 pregnant and 234 nonpregnant COVID-19-positive women were included. Frequency of severe disease was higher in nonpregnant women than pregnant women (29% vs 11.8%; P < 0.001). Symptoms including cough, dyspnea, chill, fatigue, and headache were more frequent in nonpregnant women (P < 0.05). Pregnant women had higher oxygen saturation levels and lower lymphocyte count (P = 0.001). Six (5.5%) pregnant and 12 (5.1%) nonpregnant women died (P = 0.80). No significant differences between the groups were found for ICU admission and end organ failure. Significantly more nonpregnant women had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 9.4% vs 0%; P = 0.001). Univariate regression indicated association between hypertension and death; oxygen saturation and ARDS; and body mass index and ICU admission. No association was found between pregnancy and death, ICU admission, or ARDS. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 are not at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with nonpregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Women , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248920, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tests are scarce resources, especially in low and middle-income countries, and the optimization of testing programs during a pandemic is critical for the effectiveness of the disease control. Hence, we aim to use the combination of symptoms to build a predictive model as a screening tool to identify people and areas with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to be prioritized for testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of individuals registered in "Dados do Bem," a Brazilian app-based symptom tracker. We applied machine learning techniques and provided a SARS-CoV-2 infection risk map of Rio de Janeiro city. RESULTS: From April 28 to July 16, 2020, 337,435 individuals registered their symptoms through the app. Of these, 49,721 participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, being 5,888 (11.8%) positive. Among self-reported symptoms, loss of smell (OR[95%CI]: 4.6 [4.4-4.9]), fever (2.6 [2.5-2.8]), and shortness of breath (2.1 [1.6-2.7]) were independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our final model obtained a competitive performance, with only 7% of false-negative users predicted as negatives (NPV = 0.93). The model was incorporated by the "Dados do Bem" app aiming to prioritize users for testing. We developed an external validation in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We found that the proportion of positive results increased significantly from 14.9% (before using our model) to 18.1% (after the model). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the combination of symptoms might predict SARS-Cov-2 infection and, therefore, can be used as a tool by decision-makers to refine testing and disease control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Dyspnea/etiology , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(6): 709-716, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical features of COVID-19 were mentioned in previous studies. However, risk factors for COVID-19 are not fully recognized. The aim of this study is to characterize risk factors and clinical features of COVID-19 disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective, chart-review, case-control study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on patients diagnosed between March 18 and May 18, 2020 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: We reviewed medical records on 297 suspected cases of COVID-19. Of these, 175 (59%) tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and considered as cases, while 122 (41%) tested negative and considered as control. COVID-19 positive cases were more likely to be males, and non-health care providers. Hypertension (15%), diabetes (10%) and two or more concurrent comorbidities (54.4%) were more prevalent among COVID-19 patients. Patients presented with fever, cough, and loss of taste/smell were more likely to test positive for COVID-19 (P = 0.001, 0.008, 0.008; respectively). Radiological evidence of pneumonia was associated with confirmed COVID-19 disease (P = 0.001). Shortness of breath and gastrointestinal symptoms were not associated with the risk of COVID-19 at presentation. On admission, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets were significantly lower among COVID-19 patients compared with controls. Surprisingly, D-Dimer levels were lower among COVID-19 positive patients when compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Male gender, hypertension, and diabetes are the most commonly observed risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. COVID-19 patient had significantly lower lymphocyte and neutrophil counts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
17.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(3): 325-333, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxemia has been described in absence of dyspnea ("silent" or "happy" hypoxemia). Our aim was to report its prevalence and outcome in a series of hypoxemic patients upon Emergency Department admission. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study we enrolled a study population consisting of 213 COVID-19 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 mmHg at hospital admission. Two groups (silent and dyspneic hypoxemia) were defined. Symptoms, blood gas analysis, chest X-ray (CXR) severity, need for intensive care and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Silent hypoxemic patients (68-31.9%) compared to the dyspneic hypoxemic patients (145-68.1%) showed greater frequency of extra respiratory symptoms (myalgia, diarrhea and nausea) and lower plasmatic LDH. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 225±68 mmHg and 192±78 mmHg in silent and dyspneic hypoxemia respectively (P=0.002). Eighteen percent of the patients with PaO2/FiO2 from 50 to 150 mmHg presented silent hypoxemia. Silent and dyspneic hypoxemic patients had similar PaCO2 (34.2±6.8 mmHg vs. 33.5±5.7 mmHg, P=0.47) but different respiratory rates (24.6±5.9 bpm vs. 28.6±11.3 bpm respectively, P=0.002). Even when CXR was severely abnormal, 25% of the population was silent hypoxemic. Twenty-six point five percent and 38.6% of silent and dyspneic patients were admitted to the ICU respectively (P=0.082). Mortality rate was 17.6% and 29.7% (log-rank P=0.083) in silent and dyspneic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Silent hypoxemia is remarkably present in COVID-19. The presence of dyspnea is associated with a more severe clinical condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Lung India ; 38(Supplement): S22-S26, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123948

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an extremely infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak of this virus has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. We have seen an unprecedented spread of this virus, leading to extreme pressure on health-care services. Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes atypical bacterial pneumonia and is known to co-infect patients with viral pneumonias. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients' data of 580 inpatients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed retrospectively over a 3-month period which included the the first peak of COVID-19 infections in the UK. RESULTS: Eight patients with COVID-19 and M. pneumoniae coinfection were identified - four males and four females. All patients were Caucasian, with an age range of 44-89 years. 37.5% of patients were hypertensive, whereas 25% had Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dyspnea, cough, and pyrexia were found to be very common in these patients. Majority of the patients had abnormal C-reactive protein, lymphopenia, neutrophilia along with bilateral consolidation, and ground-glass opacities. Two patients required admission to intensive care, both of whom unfortunately died along with one patient receiving ward based care. CONCLUSION: Our confirmed the presence of co-infection with M. pneumoniae and describes the clinical features, investigation results, clinical course, and outcomes for these patients. Further research is needed to review the role of procalcitonin in excluding bacterial co-infection and to assess the impact of co-infection of patients with COVID-19 on morbidity and mortality.

19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 258-263, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical evolution and predictors of symptom persistence during 2 months' follow-up in adults with noncritical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed descriptive clinical follow-up (day (D) 7, D30 and D60) of 150 patients with noncritical COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR at Tours University Hospital from 17 March to 3 June 2020, including demographic, clinical and laboratory data collected from the electronic medical records and by phone call. Persisting symptoms were defined by the presence at D30 or D60 of at least one of the following: weight loss ≥5%, severe dyspnoea or asthenia, chest pain, palpitations, anosmia/ageusia, headache, cutaneous signs, arthralgia, myalgia, digestive disorders, fever or sick leave. RESULTS: At D30, 68% (103/150) of patients had at least one symptom; and at D60, 66% (86/130) had symptoms, mainly anosmia/ageusia: 59% (89/150) at symptom onset, 28% (40/150) at D30 and 23% (29/130) at D60. Dyspnoea concerned 36.7% (55/150) patients at D30 and 30% (39/130) at D60. Half of the patients (74/150) at D30 and 40% (52/130) at D60 reported asthenia. Persistent symptoms at D60 were significantly associated with age 40 to 60 years old, hospital admission and abnormal auscultation at symptom onset. At D30, severe COVID-19 and/or dyspnoea at symptom onset were additional factors associated with persistent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Up to 2 months after symptom onset, two thirds of adults with noncritical COVID-19 had complaints, mainly anosmia/ageusia, dyspnoea or asthenia. A prolonged medical follow-up of patients with COVID-19 seems essential, whatever the initial clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Asthenia/epidemiology , Asthenia/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment
20.
Pulmonology ; 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083415

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic value of early physiotherapeutic treatment in critical respiratory settings has already been clearly outlined in the last fifteen years by several authors. However, there is still a controversial perception of mobilisation by healthcare professions. In-bed cycling has attracted increasing attention having been demonstrated as a feasible and safe intervention in critical settings. Patients with respiratory diseases are typically prone to fatigue and exertional dyspnoea, as we observe in COVID-19 pandemic; in fact, these patients manifest respiratory and motor damage that can even be associated with cognitive and mental limitations. COVID-19 is at risk of becoming a chronic disease if the clinical sequelae such as pulmonary fibrosis are confirmed as permanent outcomes by further analysis, particularly in those cases with overlapping pre-existent pulmonary alterations. In the present article, we propose a practical analysis of the effects of in-bed cycling, and further discuss its potential advantages if used in critical patients with COVID-19 in intensive care settings.

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