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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0197, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795077

ABSTRACT

We describe the intracranial pressure dynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in a coronavirus disease 2019 patient with acute encephalitis treated with cerebrospinal fluid drainage and therapeutic plasma exchange. DATA SOURCES: Coronavirus disease ICU, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. STUDY SELECTION: Case report. DATA EXTRACTION: Radiology, intracranial pressure, intracranial compliance (correlation between intracranial pressure amplitude and mean intracranial pressure), cerebral vasomotor reactivity (pressure reactivity index), arterial blood pressure, cerebrospinal fluid chemistry, and treatment. DATA SYNTHESIS: None. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of intracranial pressure monitoring in a patient with acute encephalitis following coronavirus disease 2019. Intracranial pressure data exhibited a high incidence of plateau waves with intracranial pressure insults above 40 mm Hg that required cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Intracranial compliance was low, and pressure reactivity was intact. It is probable that the combination of low intracranial compliance and intact pressure autoregulation explain the high degree of plateau intracranial pressure waves and intracranial pressure variability. This case illustrates that it could be of value to consider intracranial pressure monitoring in selected coronavirus disease 2019 patients with suspicion of increased intracranial pressure to be able to confirm and treat intracranial hypertension if needed. In this patient, therapeutic plasma exchange was safe and efficacious as the level of neuroinflammation decreased and the patient regained consciousness.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3491-3502, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, recent studies have reported the occurrence of neurological disorders such as stroke in relation to COVID-19 infection. Encephalitis is an inflammatory condition of the brain that has been described as a severe neurological complication of COVID-19. Despite a growing number of reported cases, encephalitis related to COVID-19 infection has not been adequately characterised. To address this gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to describe the incidence, clinical course, and outcomes of patients who suffer from encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19. METHODS: All studies published between 1 November 2019 and 24 October 2020 that reported on patients who developed encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 were included. Only cases with radiological and/or biochemical evidence of encephalitis were included. RESULTS: In this study, 610 studies were screened and 23 studies reporting findings from 129,008 patients, including 138 with encephalitis, were included. The average time from diagnosis of COVID-19 to onset of encephalitis was 14.5 days (range = 10.8-18.2 days). The average incidence of encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 was 0.215% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.056%-0.441%). The average mortality rate of encephalitis in COVID-19 patients was 13.4% (95% CI = 3.8%-25.9%). These patients also had deranged clinical parameters, including raised serum inflammatory markers and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although encephalitis is an uncommon complication of COVID-19, when present, it results in significant morbidity and mortality. Severely ill COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of suffering from encephalitis as a complication of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(12): 3919-3922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525534

ABSTRACT

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute behavioral and mood changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and encephalopathy. We describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis due to NMDAR antibody in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019) (COVID-19), without pulmonary involvement or fever. The patient presented with acute ataxia, rapidly developed encephalopathy, and autoimmune encephalitis was suspected. Steroid treatment was withheld because of lymphopenia and intravenous immunoglobulin was started. The absence of clinical response prompted plasmapheresis and, when lymphocyte counts improved, pulse steroid treatment was applied. The latter was followed by significant improvement and the patient was discharged in a conscious and ambulatory state. Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection and steroid treatment should be preferred unless limited by contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , COVID-19 , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3019-e3026, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related neurological manifestations involve cytokine release syndrome along with endothelial activation, blood brain barrier dysfunction, and immune-mediated mechanisms. Very few studies have fully investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlates of SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis. METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and encephalitis (COV-Enc), encephalitis without SARS-CoV-2 infection (ENC), and healthy controls (HC) underwent an extended panel of CSF neuronal (neurofilament light chain [NfL], T-tau), glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 [sTREM2], chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40]) and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-6, Il-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α, CXCL-13, and ß2-microglobulin). RESULTS: Thirteen COV-Enc, 21 ENC, and 18 HC entered the study. In COV-Enc cases, CSF was negative for SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR but exhibited increased IL-8 levels independently from presence of pleocytosis/hyperproteinorracchia. COV-Enc patients showed increased IL-6, TNF- α, and ß2-microglobulin and glial markers (GFAP, sTREM2, YKL-40) levels similar to ENC but normal CXCL13 levels. Neuronal markers NfL and T-tau were abnormal only in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis were associated with prominent glial activation and neuroinflammatory markers, whereas neuronal markers were increased in severe cases only. The pattern of CSF alterations suggested a cytokine-release syndrome as the main inflammatory mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(3): 141-143, 2021 08 13.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340761

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the different clinical manifestations of this infection pose a challenge for healthcare professionals. Respiratory involvement, the main symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection, means that other manifestations, such as neurological, take a back seat, with the consequent delay in diagnosis and treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All COVID-19 patients admitted with neurological symptoms or diagnosed with encephalitis since March 2020 in a tertiary hospital in Zaragoza, Spain. RESULTS: Two patients with COVID-19 infection confirmed by nasopharyngeal PCR and whose clinical picture consisted of neurological alterations compatible with encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiology was negative for bacteria and viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 but, given the clinical suspicion of encephalitis due to the latter, antiviral treatment with immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis was started early. Despite this, the evolution was not satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 encephalitis is a recently described clinical entity, whose pathophysiology is still unknown and no treatment with clinical evidence is available to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Spain
6.
Neurol Sci ; 42(9): 3527-3530, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274855

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognised and can arise as a result of direct viral invasion, para-infectious or postinfectious immune mechanisms. We report a delayed presentation of COVID-19 postinfectious immune-mediated encephalitis and status epilepticus occurring in a 47-year-old woman 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid with features of encephalitis evident in both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram. She made a complete recovery following treatment with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Diagnosis of COVID-19 postinfectious encephalitis may prove challenging in patients presenting many weeks following the initial infection. A high index of clinical suspicion and testing intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are key to its diagnosis. Early immunotherapy is likely to result in a good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(3): 141-143, 2021 08 13.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253373

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the different clinical manifestations of this infection pose a challenge for healthcare professionals. Respiratory involvement, the main symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection, means that other manifestations, such as neurological, take a back seat, with the consequent delay in diagnosis and treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All COVID-19 patients admitted with neurological symptoms or diagnosed with encephalitis since March 2020 in a tertiary hospital in Zaragoza, Spain. RESULTS: Two patients with COVID-19 infection confirmed by nasopharyngeal PCR and whose clinical picture consisted of neurological alterations compatible with encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiology was negative for bacteria and viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 but, given the clinical suspicion of encephalitis due to the latter, antiviral treatment with immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis was started early. Despite this, the evolution was not satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 encephalitis is a recently described clinical entity, whose pathophysiology is still unknown and no treatment with clinical evidence is available to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Spain
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 123, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, radiological data and outcome of pediatric cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by neurological involvement. STUDY DESIGN: A computerized search was conducted using PubMed. An article was considered eligible if it reported data on pediatric patient(s) with neurological involvement related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also described a case of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in a 5-year-old girl with SARS-CoV-2 infection: this case was also included in the systematic review. RESULTS: Forty-four articles reporting 59 cases of neurological manifestations in pediatric patients were included in our review. Most (32/59) cases occurred in the course of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Neurological disorders secondary to cerebrovascular involvement were reported in 10 cases: 4 children with an ischemic stroke, 3 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 1 with a cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, 1 with a subarachnoid hemorrhage, 1 with multiple diffuse microhemorrhages. Reversible splenial lesions were recognized in 9 cases, benign intracranial hypertension in 4 patients, meningoencephalitis in 4 cases, autoimmune encephalitis in 1 girl, cranial nerves impairment in 2 patients and transverse myelitis in 1 case. Five cases had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and two, including ours, had ADEM. Radiological investigations were performed in almost all cases (45/60): the most recurrent radiological finding was a signal change in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid was proved only in 2 cases. The outcome was favorable in almost all, except in 5 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our research highlights the large range of neurological manifestations and their presumed pathogenic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Nervous system involvement could be isolated, developing during COVID-19 or after its recovery, or arise in the context of a MIS-C. The most reported neurological manifestations are cerebrovascular accidents, reversible splenial lesions, GBS, benign intracranial hypertension, meningoencephalitis; ADEM is also a possible complication, as we observed in our patient. Further studies are required to investigate all the neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their underlying pathogenic mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Child , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3491-3502, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, recent studies have reported the occurrence of neurological disorders such as stroke in relation to COVID-19 infection. Encephalitis is an inflammatory condition of the brain that has been described as a severe neurological complication of COVID-19. Despite a growing number of reported cases, encephalitis related to COVID-19 infection has not been adequately characterised. To address this gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to describe the incidence, clinical course, and outcomes of patients who suffer from encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19. METHODS: All studies published between 1 November 2019 and 24 October 2020 that reported on patients who developed encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 were included. Only cases with radiological and/or biochemical evidence of encephalitis were included. RESULTS: In this study, 610 studies were screened and 23 studies reporting findings from 129,008 patients, including 138 with encephalitis, were included. The average time from diagnosis of COVID-19 to onset of encephalitis was 14.5 days (range = 10.8-18.2 days). The average incidence of encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 was 0.215% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.056%-0.441%). The average mortality rate of encephalitis in COVID-19 patients was 13.4% (95% CI = 3.8%-25.9%). These patients also had deranged clinical parameters, including raised serum inflammatory markers and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although encephalitis is an uncommon complication of COVID-19, when present, it results in significant morbidity and mortality. Severely ill COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of suffering from encephalitis as a complication of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 565778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219090

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2: SARS-CoV-2), which arose from Wuhan, China, has rapidly spread to other countries and developed into a pandemic. Although the respiratory manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are well-documented, there is a considerable challenge regarding the direct and/or indirect infection in other organs. Several preliminary reports confirmed neurological manifestations in the SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Here, we report the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from the nasopharyngeal swab and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a 34-month-old child with encephalitis. This finding expands the spectrum of the neurological manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106650, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post COVID-19 seizures are relatively rare. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of acute symptomatic seizures among patients with COVID-19 and to discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 439 cases with COVID-19 that were admitted to Assiut and Aswan University hospitals during the period from 1 June to 10 August 2020, 19 patients (4.3 %) presented with acute symptomatic seizures. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and conventional electroencephalography (EEG). Laboratory investigations included: blood gases, complete blood picture, serum D-Dimer, Ferritin, C-reactive protein, renal and liver functions, and coagulation profile. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 3 had new onset seizures without underlying pathology (0.68 % out of the total 439 patients); 2 others (0.46 %) had previously diagnosed controlled epilepsy with breakthrough seizures. The majority of cases (14 patients, 3.19 %) had primary pathology that could explain the occurrence of seizures: 5 suffered a post COVID-19 stroke (3 ischemic and 2 hemorrhagic stroke); 6 patients had COVID-related encephalitis; 2 patients were old ischemic stroke patients; 1 patient had a brain tumor and developed seizures post COVID-19. CONCLUSION: acute symptomatic seizure is not a rare complication of post COVID-19 infection. Both new onset seizures and seizures secondary to primary brain insult (post COVID encephalitis or recent stroke) were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Egypt/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 121(4): 859-866, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208875

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), that already appeared as a global pandemic. Presentation of the disease often includes upper respiratory symptoms like dry cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and rhinorrhea that can develop to respiratory failure, needing intubation. Furthermore, the occurrence of acute and subacute neurological manifestations such as stroke, encephalitis, headache, and seizures are frequently stated in patients with COVID-19. One of the reported neurological complications of severe COVID-19 is the demolition of the myelin sheath. Indeed, the complex immunological dysfunction provides a substrate for the development of demyelination. Nevertheless, few published reports in the literature describe demyelination in subjects with COVID-19. In this short narrative review, we discuss probable pathological mechanisms that may trigger demyelination in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and summarize the clinical evidence, confirming SARS-CoV-2 condition as a risk factor for the destruction of myelin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 206-222, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206776

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy and encephalitis are major and devastating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus-associated central nervous system complications. Hypoxic/metabolic changes produced by intense inflammatory response against the virus triggers cytokine storm and subsequently acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Hypoxic/metabolic changes result in encephalopathy. The presence of comorbidities predisposes to hypoxic/metabolic changes responsible for encephalopathy. Altered consciousness, ranging from mild confusion, delirium, to deep coma, is hallmark clinical features. Cortical and subcortical T2/FLAIR signal changes are common neuroimaging abnormalities. In a few isolated case reports of SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis, the virus has been demonstrated in cerebrospinal fluid. The presence of anosmia and ageusia can help in differentiation from other encephalopathies. We analyzed published reports on coronavirus disease 2019-associated encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is common in older patients, the majority are more than 50 years of age. The patients having encephalopathy/encephalitis are either severely or critically ill. Many patients were already on mechanical ventilation. Lung abnormalities are noted in almost all of the patients, presenting with encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is always preceded by commoner clinical features, like, fever, cough, dyspnoea, and headache. In majority, patients are already in the intensive care unit, when encephalopathy develops.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Age Factors , Ageusia , Brain Diseases/complications , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Headache , Humans
14.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14236, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200346

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, has proven neurotropism and causes a multitude of neurologic manifestations. Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis (AHNE), though rare, can be seen in patients with severe infection and is associated with devastating neurologic outcomes. The true prevalence of this syndrome is unknown due to underrecognition, difficulty in timely acquisition of neuroimaging, and high mortality in this subset of patients escaping detection. It is a distinct clinicoradiological syndrome, with patients suffering from rapidly worsening encephalopathy and coma within the first two weeks of severe illness and hemorrhagic necrotizing parenchymal changes on neuroimaging. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is unclear but hypothesized to occur due to cytokine storm, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction, and direct viral-mediated endotheliopathy. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion in patients who have unexplained persistent severe encephalopathy associated with COVID-19 infection. Most patients have elevated systemic inflammatory markers and severe lung disease with hypoxic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. MRI is the imaging modality of choice, with a distinct neuroimaging pattern. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) studies have a low yield for viral particle detection with currently available testing. While long-term outcomes are unclear, early immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, and steroids may portend a favorable outcome. We discuss two cases of COVID-19 related AHNE and also include a pertinent literature search of similar cases in PubMed to consolidate the AHNE clinical syndrome, neuroimaging characteristics, management strategies, and reported short-term prognosis.

15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(12): 3919-3922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182245

ABSTRACT

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute behavioral and mood changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and encephalopathy. We describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis due to NMDAR antibody in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019) (COVID-19), without pulmonary involvement or fever. The patient presented with acute ataxia, rapidly developed encephalopathy, and autoimmune encephalitis was suspected. Steroid treatment was withheld because of lymphopenia and intravenous immunoglobulin was started. The absence of clinical response prompted plasmapheresis and, when lymphocyte counts improved, pulse steroid treatment was applied. The latter was followed by significant improvement and the patient was discharged in a conscious and ambulatory state. Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection and steroid treatment should be preferred unless limited by contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , COVID-19 , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
16.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 498-500, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172094

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a 79-year-old woman infected by SARS-CoV-2 and purely neurological confusional syndrome without clinically relevant respiratory disease and NMR alterations of the limbic system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Limbic Encephalitis/virology , Aged , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Case Rep Neurol Med ; 2021: 6658000, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160967

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 has neurotropic potential. We report on two paediatric patients who presented with encephalopathy during COVID-19 illness. Both patients had ADEM-like changes in their neuroimaging, negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR in CSF, and paucity of PIMS-TS laboratory findings. However, the first patient was positive for serum MOG antibodies with normal CSF analysis, and the second had negative MOG antibodies but showed significant CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis. We concluded that the first case was a typical case of demyelination, which could have been triggered by different cofactors. In the second case, however, we postulated that the encephalopathic process was triggered by SARS-CoV-2, as no other cause was identified. With these two contrasting cases, we provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2-associated encephalitis can show ADEM-like changes, which can present during the postinfectious phase of COVID-19 illness. As ADEM is a relatively common type of postinfectious encephalitis in children, the distinguishing line between the two conditions of encephalitis and ADEM can be relatively fine. The development of more reliable diagnostic tools (e.g., anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in CSF) might play an assisting role in the differentiation of these encephalopathic processes.

18.
Germs ; 11(1): 111-115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159528

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several publications described neurological manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2. Immune-mediated neurological damages caused by COVID-19 are increasingly recognized. CASE REPORT: A young male presented in March 2020 with a new-onset seizure. Later, he started to experience a severe headache. During the second admission in May, the MRI of the brain showed left frontal lesion. Nasal PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative, but the serology was positive, raising the suspicion of immune-mediated encephalitis. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G with two oligoclonal bands were also seen. The patient received IV immunoglobulin and showed improvement in headache. Follow-up MRIs of the brain revealed complete resolution of the lesion. DISCUSSION: Neurological complications from COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. The proposed pathophysiology is either direct damage of neurological tissues, or indirectly through immune-mediated mechanisms. The timeline of the patient's presentation with seizure, as well as the lesion on the brain MRI with complete resolution after the IV immunoglobulin, strongly suggest that the patient had immune-mediated encephalitis after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Several cases of encephalitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been reported. Immune-mediated encephalitis as probable pathophysiology is described here.

19.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(4): 362, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120617

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may target the central nervous system and several neurological symptoms have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the present study, a case of a SARS-CoV-2 complicated with meningoencephalitis was reported. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses indicated hyperproteinorrachia but the specimen was negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Furthermore, 10 published articles reporting on patients with COVID-19-associated meningitis/encephalitis were reviewed. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19-associated meningitis/encephalitis had diverse clinical neurological manifestations, including consciousness disturbance, epileptic attacks, psychotic syndrome and meningeal irritation signs. CSF tests revealed elevated protein, lymphocytes and cytokines. SARS-CoV-2 may be detected in the CSF of certain cases. Neuroimaging findings included hyperintense signal changes in the white matter and enhancement of meninges on brain MRI. Certain patients responded well to corticosteroid therapy and had a favorable prognosis, while elderly patients tended to have poor outcomes due to multiple organ dysfunction.

20.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 2324709620986302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112425

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) as a global pandemic, various of its neurological manifestations have been reported. We report a case of a 54-year-old male with new-onset seizure who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a nasopharyngeal swab sample. Investigative findings, which included contrast-enhancing right posterior temporal lobe T2-hyperintensity on brain magnetic resonance imaging, right-sided lateralized periodic discharges on the electroencephalogram, and elevated protein level on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, supported the diagnosis of possible encephalitis from COVID-19 infection. The findings in this case are placed in the context of the existing literature.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Limbic Encephalitis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Comorbidity , Electroencephalography , Humans , Limbic Encephalitis/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Seizures/diagnosis
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