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1.
IUBMB Life ; 73(8): 1005-1015, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291220

ABSTRACT

The kidney is one of the main targets attacked by viruses in patients with a coronavirus infection. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the seventh member of the coronavirus family capable of infecting humans. In the past two decades, humankind has experienced outbreaks triggered by two other extremely infective members of the coronavirus family; the MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV. According to several investigations, SARS-CoV causes proteinuria and renal impairment or failure. The SARS-CoV was identified in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney of infected patients. Also, renal dysfunction was observed in numerous cases of MERS-CoV infection. And recently, during the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it was found that the novel coronavirus not only induces acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but also can induce damages in various organs including the liver, heart, and kidney. The kidney tissue and its cells are targeted massively by the coronaviruses due to the abundant presence of ACE2 and Dpp4 receptors on kidney cells. These receptors are characterized as the main route of coronavirus entry to the victim cells. Renal failure due to massive viral invasion can lead to undesirable complications and enhanced mortality rate, thus more attention should be paid to the pathology of coronaviruses in the kidney. Here, we have provided the most recent knowledge on the coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, and COVID19) pathology and the mechanisms of their impact on the kidney tissue and functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Viral Tropism/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis
2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 553: 25-29, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147359

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A sex-bias has been observed, with increased susceptibility and mortality in male compared to female patients. The gene for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is located on the X chromosome. We previously generated TP53 mutant pigs that exhibit a sex-specific patho-phenotype due to altered regulation of numerous X chromosome genes. In this study, we explored the effect of p53 deficiency on ACE2 expression in pigs. First, we identified the p53 binding site in the ACE2 promoter and could show its regulatory effect on ACE2 expression by luciferase assay in porcine primary kidney fibroblast cells. Later, quantitative PCR and western blot showed tissue- and gender-specific expression changes of ACE2 and its truncated isoform in p53-deficient pigs. We believe these findings will broaden the knowledge on ACE2 regulation and COVID-19 susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Organ Specificity , Sex Characteristics , Sus scrofa/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fibroblasts , Gene Deletion , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/deficiency , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , X Chromosome/genetics
3.
ACS Nano ; 15(4): 6340-6351, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139707

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide necessitates the development of therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and mediates viral entry into host cells. Herein, membrane nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from ACE2-rich cells were discovered to have potent capacity to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. The membranes of human embryonic kidney-239T cells highly expressing ACE2 were applied to prepare NPs using an extrusion method. The nanomaterials, termed ACE2-NPs, contained 265.1 ng mg-1 ACE2 on the surface and acted as baits to trap S1 in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in reduced recruitment of the viral ligand to HK-2 human renal tubular epithelial cells. Aside from affecting receptor recongnition, S1 translocated to the cytoplasm and induced apoptosis by reducing optic atrophy 1 expression and increasing cytochrome c release, which was also inhibited by ACE2-NPs. Further investigations revealed that ACE2-NPs efficiently suppressed SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirions entry into host cells and blocked viral infection in vitro and in vivo. This study characterizes easy-to-produce memrbane nanoantagonists of SARS-CoV-2 that enrich the existing antiviral arsenal and provide possibilities for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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