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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 579330, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389228

ABSTRACT

The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) has recently been demonstrated as a clinically relevant animal model for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, lack of knowledge about the tissue-specific expression pattern of various proteins in these animals and the unavailability of reagents like antibodies against this species hampers these models' optimal use. The major objective of our current study was to analyze the tissue-specific expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a proven functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in different organs of the hamster. Using two different antibodies (MA5-32307 and AF933), we have conducted immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence analysis to evaluate the ACE2 expression in different tissues of the hamster. Further, at the mRNA level, the expression of Ace2 in tissues was evaluated through RT-qPCR analysis. Both the antibodies detected expression of ACE2 in kidney, small intestine, tongue, and liver. Epithelium of proximal tubules of kidney and surface epithelium of ileum expresses a very high amount of this protein. Surprisingly, analysis of stained tissue sections showed no detectable expression of ACE2 in the lung or tracheal epithelial cells. Similarly, all parts of the large intestine were negative for ACE2 expression. Analysis of tissues from different age groups and sex didn't show any obvious difference in ACE2 expression pattern or level. Together, our findings corroborate some of the earlier reports related to ACE2 expression patterns in human tissues and contradict others. We believe that this study's findings have provided evidence that demands further investigation to understand the predominant respiratory pathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e503-e512, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily an acute respiratory tract infection. Distinctively, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients develop olfactory dysfunction. Especially in young patients, loss of smell can be the first or only symptom. The roles of inflammatory obstruction of the olfactory clefts, inflammatory cytokines affecting olfactory neuronal function, destruction of olfactory neurons or their supporting cells, and direct invasion of olfactory bulbs in causing olfactory dysfunction are uncertain. METHODS: We investigated the location for the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb in golden Syrian hamsters. RESULTS: After intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses were detected in the nasal turbinate tissues. The responses peaked between 2 and 4 days postinfection, with the highest viral load detected at day 2 postinfection. In addition to the pseudo-columnar ciliated respiratory epithelial cells, SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens were also detected in the mature olfactory sensory neurons labeled by olfactory marker protein, in the less mature olfactory neurons labeled by neuron-specific class III ß-tubulin at the more basal position, and in the sustentacular cells, resulting in apoptosis and severe destruction of the OE. During the entire course of infection, SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens were not detected in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to acute inflammation at the OE, infection of mature and immature olfactory neurons and the supporting sustentacular cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to the unique olfactory dysfunction related to COVID-19, which is not reported with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfactory Receptor Neurons , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , Olfactory Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 31-38, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294729

ABSTRACT

Virus-virus interactions influence the epidemiology of respiratory infections. However, the impact of viruses causing upper respiratory infections on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication and transmission is currently unknown. Human rhinoviruses cause the common cold and are the most prevalent respiratory viruses of humans. Interactions between rhinoviruses and cocirculating respiratory viruses have been shown to shape virus epidemiology at the individual host and population level. Here, we examined the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in the human respiratory epithelium in the presence or absence of rhinovirus. We show that human rhinovirus triggers an interferon response that blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mathematical simulations show that this virus-virus interaction is likely to have a population-wide effect as an increasing prevalence of rhinovirus will reduce the number of new coronavirus disease 2019 cases.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
4.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(2)2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV­2), led to an outbreak of viral pneumonia in December 2019. The present study aimed to investigate the host inflammatory response signature­caused by SARS­CoV­2 in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). The expression level of angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the human cornea was determined via immunofluorescence. In vitro experiments were performed in HCECs stimulated with the SARS­CoV­2 spike protein. Moreover, the expression levels of ACE2, IL­8, TNF­α, IL­6, gasdermin D (GSDMD) and IL­1ß in HCECs were detected using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and/or western blotting. It was identified that ACE2 was expressed in normal human corneal epithelium and HCECs cultured in vitro. Furthermore, the expression levels of IL­8, TNF­α and IL­6 in HCECs were decreased following SARS­CoV­2 spike protein stimulation, while the expression levels of GSDMD and IL­1ß were increased. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the SARS­CoV­2 spike protein suppressed the host inflammatory response and induced pyroptosis in HCECs. Therefore, blocking the ACE2 receptor in HCECs may reduce the infection rate of COVID­19.


Subject(s)
Epithelium, Corneal/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cornea/cytology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Epithelium, Corneal/virology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/genetics , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Up-Regulation
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251955, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262543

ABSTRACT

Newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of an ongoing global pandemic leading to severe respiratory disease in humans. SARS-CoV-2 targets epithelial cells in the respiratory tract and lungs, which can lead to amplified chloride secretion and increased leak across epithelial barriers, contributing to severe pneumonia and consolidation of the lungs as seen in many COVID-19 patients. There is an urgent need for a better understanding of the molecular aspects that contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced pathogenesis and for the development of approaches to mitigate these damaging pathologies. The multifunctional SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (E) protein contributes to virus assembly/egress, and as a membrane protein, also possesses viroporin channel properties that may contribute to epithelial barrier damage, pathogenesis, and disease severity. The extreme C-terminal (ECT) sequence of E also contains a putative PDZ-domain binding motif (PBM), similar to that identified in the E protein of SARS-CoV-1. Here, we screened an array of GST-PDZ domain fusion proteins using either a biotin-labeled WT or mutant ECT peptide from the SARS-CoV-2 E protein. Notably, we identified a singular specific interaction between the WT E peptide and the second PDZ domain of human Zona Occludens-1 (ZO1), one of the key regulators of TJ formation/integrity in all epithelial tissues. We used homogenous time resolve fluorescence (HTRF) as a second complementary approach to further validate this novel modular E-ZO1 interaction. We postulate that SARS-CoV-2 E interacts with ZO1 in infected epithelial cells, and this interaction may contribute, in part, to tight junction damage and epithelial barrier compromise in these cell layers leading to enhanced virus spread and severe dysfunction that leads to morbidity. Prophylactic/therapeutic intervention targeting this virus-host interaction may effectively reduce airway and/or gastrointestinal barrier damage and mitigate virus spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , PDZ Domains , Protein Binding , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tight Junctions/metabolism
6.
EMBO J ; 40(15): e107826, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261483

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes broad-spectrum immunopathological disease, exacerbated by inflammatory co-morbidities. A better understanding of mechanisms underpinning virus-associated inflammation is required to develop effective therapeutics. Here, we discover that SARS-CoV-2 replicates rapidly in lung epithelial cells despite triggering a robust innate immune response through the activation of cytoplasmic RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5. The inflammatory mediators produced during epithelial cell infection can stimulate primary human macrophages to enhance cytokine production and drive cellular activation. Critically, this can be limited by abrogating RNA sensing or by inhibiting downstream signalling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 further exacerbates the local inflammatory environment when macrophages or epithelial cells are primed with exogenous inflammatory stimuli. We propose that RNA sensing of SARS-CoV-2 in lung epithelium is a key driver of inflammation, the extent of which is influenced by the inflammatory state of the local environment, and that specific inhibition of innate immune pathways may beneficially mitigate inflammation-associated COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Janus Kinases/immunology , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophage Activation , NF-kappa B/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Virus Replication
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244067

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current data about the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its entry factors in oral tissues and cells. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was carried out based on the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Three databases were analyzed (Pubmed, Web of science and Scopus) by three independent researchers. From the 18 identified studies, 10 of them met the inclusion criteria. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 or its entry factors (angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), transmembrane serine proteases (TMPRSS), and furin) was analyzed in these 10 studies during the pandemic. Results: ACE2 expression was analyzed in 9 of the 10 studies. ACE2 is expressed mainly in the tongue, oral mucosa, salivary glands and epithelial cells. The expression of the TMPRSS2 gene or protein was analyzed in 6 studies. These studies reported that the expression of TMPRSS2 was mainly in the salivary glands, tongue, sulcular epithelium and oral mucosa; as well as in cells of the salivary glands (ductal, acinar and myoepithelial cells) and the tongue (the spinous-based cell layer, horny layer and the epithelial surface). Other TMPRSS were also reported. The expression of TMPRSS3, TMPRSS4, TMPRSS5, TMPRSS7 and TMPRSS11D was reported mainly in salivary glands and in epithelial-type cells. Furan expression was analyzed in three studies. The expression of furin was detected mainly in epithelial cells of the tongue. A variety of methods were used to carry out the detection of SARS-CoV-2 or its input molecules. Conclusions: These results show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide variety of oral tissues and cells, and that together with the theories dedicated to explaining the oral symptoms present in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, it provides us with a good scientific basis for understanding the virus infection in the oral cavity and its consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Furin , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Mouth Mucosa , Neoplasm Proteins , Pandemics , Serine Endopeptidases
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10475, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233721

ABSTRACT

Infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 disease. Therapeutic antibodies are being developed that interact with the viral spike proteins to limit viral infection of epithelium. We have applied a method to dramatically improve the performance of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enhancing avidity through multimerization using simple engineering to yield tetrameric antibodies. We have re-engineered six anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using the human p53 tetramerization domain, including three clinical trials antibodies casirivimab, imdevimab and etesevimab. The method yields tetrameric antibodies, termed quads, that retain efficient binding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, show up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in neutralization of pseudovirus infection and retain potent interaction with virus variant of concern spike proteins. The tetramerization method is simple, general and its application is a powerful methodological development for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that are currently in pre-clinical and clinical investigation.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Chain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry
9.
mBio ; 12(3)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225698

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) polypeptide of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consists of the S1 and S2 subunits and is processed by cellular proteases at the S1/S2 boundary that contains a furin cleavage site (FCS), 682RRAR↓S686 Various deletions surrounding the FCS have been identified in patients. When SARS-CoV-2 propagated in Vero cells, it acquired deletions surrounding the FCS. We studied the viral transcriptome in Vero cell-derived SARS-CoV-2-infected primary human airway epithelia (HAE) cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) with an emphasis on the viral genome stability of the FCS. While we found overall the viral transcriptome is similar to that generated from infected Vero cells, we identified a high percentage of mutated viral genome and transcripts in HAE-ALI. Two highly frequent deletions were found at the FCS region: a 12 amino acid deletion (678TNSPRRAR↓SVAS689) that contains the underlined FCS and a 5 amino acid deletion (675QTQTN679) that is two amino acids upstream of the FCS. Further studies on the dynamics of the FCS deletions in apically released virions from 11 infected HAE-ALI cultures of both healthy and lung disease donors revealed that the selective pressure for the FCS maintains the FCS stably in 9 HAE-ALI cultures but with 2 exceptions, in which the FCS deletions are retained at a high rate of >40% after infection of ≥13 days. Our study presents evidence for the role of unique properties of human airway epithelia in the dynamics of the FCS region during infection of human airways, which is likely donor dependent.IMPORTANCE Polarized human airway epithelia at an air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) are an in vitro model that supports efficient infection of SARS-CoV-2. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains a furin cleavage site (FCS) at the boundary of the S1 and S2 domains which distinguishes it from SARS-CoV. However, FCS deletion mutants have been identified in patients and in vitro cell cultures, and how the airway epithelial cells maintain the unique FCS remains unknown. We found that HAE-ALI cultures were capable of suppressing two prevalent FCS deletion mutants (Δ678TNSPRRAR↓SVAS689 and Δ675QTQTN679) that were selected during propagation in Vero cells. While such suppression was observed in 9 out of 11 of the tested HAE-ALI cultures derived from independent donors, 2 exceptions that retained a high rate of FCS deletions were also found. Our results present evidence of the donor-dependent properties of human airway epithelia in the evolution of the FCS during infection.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Furin/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transcriptome , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
10.
J Virol ; 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216778

ABSTRACT

Infections with SARS-CoV-2 can be asymptomatic, but they can also be accompanied by a variety of symptoms that result in mild to severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and are sometimes associated with systemic symptoms. Although the viral infection originates in the respiratory system, it is unclear how the virus can overcome the alveolar barrier, which is observed in severe COVID-19 disease courses. To elucidate the viral effects on the barrier integrity and immune reactions, we used mono-cell culture systems and a complex human chip model composed of epithelial, endothelial, and mononuclear cells. Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 efficiently infected epithelial cells with high viral loads and inflammatory response, including interferon expression. By contrast, the adjacent endothelial layer was neither infected nor did it show productive virus replication or interferon release. With prolonged infection, both cell types were damaged, and the barrier function was deteriorated, allowing the viral particles to overbear. In our study, we demonstrate that although SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on the epithelium for efficient replication, the neighboring endothelial cells are affected, e.g., by the epithelial cytokines or components induced during infection, which further results in the damage of the epithelial/endothelial barrier function and viral dissemination.IMPORTANCESARS-CoV-2 challenges healthcare systems and societies worldwide in unprecedented ways. Although numerous new studies have been conducted, research to better understand the molecular pathogen-host interactions are urgently needed. For this, experimental models have to be developed and adapted. In the present study we used mono cell-culture systems and we established a complex chip model, where epithelial and endothelial cells are cultured in close proximity. We demonstrate that epithelial cells can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, while the endothelium did not show any infection signs. Since SARS-CoV-2 is able to establish viremia, the link to thromboembolic events in severe COVID-19 courses is evident. However, whether the endothelial layer is damaged by the viral pathogens or whether other endothelial-independent homeostatic factors are induced by the virus is essential for understanding the disease development. Therefore, our study is important as it demonstrates that the endothelial layer could not be infected by SARS-CoV-2 in our in vitro experiments, but we were able to show the destruction of the epithelial-endothelial barrier in our chip model. From our experiments we can assume that virus-induced host factors disturbed the epithelial-endothelial barrier function and thereby promote viral spread.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(596)2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214961

ABSTRACT

Whereas recent investigations have revealed viral, inflammatory, and vascular factors involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lung pathogenesis, the pathophysiology of neurological disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly understood. Olfactory and taste dysfunction are common in COVID-19, especially in mildly symptomatic patients. Here, we conducted a virologic, molecular, and cellular study of the olfactory neuroepithelium of seven patients with COVID-19 presenting with acute loss of smell. We report evidence that the olfactory neuroepithelium is a major site of SARS-CoV2 infection with multiple cell types, including olfactory sensory neurons, support cells, and immune cells, becoming infected. SARS-CoV-2 replication in the olfactory neuroepithelium was associated with local inflammation. Furthermore, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 induced acute anosmia and ageusia in golden Syrian hamsters, lasting as long as the virus remained in the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory bulb. Last, olfactory mucosa sampling from patients showing long-term persistence of COVID-19-associated anosmia revealed the presence of virus transcripts and of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, together with protracted inflammation. SARS-CoV-2 persistence and associated inflammation in the olfactory neuroepithelium may account for prolonged or relapsing symptoms of COVID-19, such as loss of smell, which should be considered for optimal medical management of this disease.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Inflammation , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206005

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the COVID-19 pandemic calls for immediate interventions to avoid viral transmission, disease progression, and subsequent excessive inflammation and tissue destruction. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells are among the first targets of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show that ColdZyme medical device mouth spray efficiently protected against virus entry, excessive inflammation, and tissue damage. Applying ColdZyme to fully differentiated, polarized human epithelium cultured at an air-liquid interphase (ALI) completely blocked binding of SARS-CoV-2 and increased local complement activation mediated by the virus as well as productive infection of the tissue model. While SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in exaggerated intracellular complement activation immediately following infection and a drop in transepithelial resistance, these parameters were bypassed by single pretreatment of the tissues with ColdZyme mouth spray. Crucially, our study highlights the importance of testing already evaluated and safe drugs such as ColdZyme mouth spray for maintaining epithelial integrity and hindering SARS-CoV-2 entry within standardized three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models mimicking the in vivo human airway epithelium.IMPORTANCE Although our understanding of COVID-19 continuously progresses, essential questions regarding prophylaxis and treatment remain open. A hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is a hitherto-undescribed mechanism leading to excessive inflammation and tissue destruction associated with enhanced pathogenicity and mortality. To tackle the problem at the source, transfer of SARS-CoV-2, subsequent binding, infection, and inflammatory responses have to be avoided. In this study, we used fully differentiated, mucus-producing, and ciliated human airway epithelial cultures to test the efficacy of ColdZyme medical device mouth spray in terms of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, we found that pretreatment of the in vitro airway cultures using ColdZyme mouth spray resulted in significantly shielding the epithelial integrity, hindering virus binding and infection, and blocking excessive intrinsic complement activation within the airway cultures. Our in vitro data suggest that ColdZyme mouth spray may have an impact in prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Complement C3/immunology , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Oral Sprays , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects
13.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(4): 940-953, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually results in respiratory disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are of major clinical interest. Intestinal symptoms of COVID-19 are present in a significant number of patients, and include nausea, diarrhea, and viral RNA shedding in feces. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids (HIOs) represent an inexhaustible cellular resource that could serve as a valuable tool to study SARS-CoV-2 as well as other enteric viruses that infect the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 productively infects both proximally and distally patterned HIOs, leading to the release of infectious viral particles while stimulating a robust transcriptomic response, including a significant upregulation of interferon-related genes that appeared to be conserved across multiple epithelial cell types. These findings illuminate a potential inflammatory epithelial-specific signature that may contribute to both the multisystemic nature of COVID-19 as well as its highly variable clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Colon/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Organoids/pathology , Cell Line , Colon/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Inflammation/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Models, Biological , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
14.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211003983, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159169

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is a highly contagious infection and associated with high mortality rates, primarily in elderly; patients with heart failure; high blood pressure; diabetes mellitus; and those who are smokers. These conditions are associated to increase in the level of the pulmonary epithelium expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), which is a recognized receptor of the S protein of the causative agent SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Severe cases are manifested by parenchymal lung involvement with a significant inflammatory response and the development of microvascular thrombosis. Several factors have been involved in developing this prothrombotic state, including the inflammatory reaction itself with the participation of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction/endotheliitis, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and possibly the tissue factor (TF) overexpression. ARS-Cov-19 ACE-2 down-regulation has been associated with an increase in angiotensin 2 (AT2). The action of proinflammatory cytokines, the increase in AT2 and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies are known factors for TF activation and overexpression. It is very likely that the overexpression of TF in COVID-19 may be related to the pathogenesis of the disease, hence the importance of knowing the aspects related to this protein and the therapeutic strategies that can be derived. Different therapeutic strategies are being built to curb the expression of TF as a therapeutic target for various prothrombotic events; therefore, analyzing this treatment strategy for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is rational. Medications such as celecoxib, cyclosporine or colchicine can impact on COVID-19, in addition to its anti-inflammatory effect, through inhibition of TF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans
15.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001158, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156073

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally and become a major public health burden. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits increased human-to-human transmission dynamics, likely due to efficient early replication in the upper respiratory epithelium of infected individuals. Since different temperatures encountered in the human upper and lower respiratory tract (33°C and 37°C, respectively) have been shown to affect the replication kinetics of several respiratory viruses, as well as host innate immune response dynamics, we investigated the impact of temperature on SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection using the primary human airway epithelial cell culture model. SARS-CoV-2, in contrast to SARS-CoV, replicated to higher titers when infections were performed at 33°C rather than 37°C. Although both viruses were highly sensitive to type I and type III interferon pretreatment, a detailed time-resolved transcriptome analysis revealed temperature-dependent interferon and pro-inflammatory responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 that were inversely proportional to its replication efficiency at 33°C or 37°C. These data provide crucial insight on pivotal virus-host interaction dynamics and are in line with characteristic clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, as well as their respective transmission efficiencies.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Species Specificity , Temperature , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(4): 100242, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155661

ABSTRACT

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection often leads to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with profound pulmonary patho-histological changes post-mortem. It is not clear whether ARDS from SARS-CoV-2 is similar to that observed in influenza H1N1, another common viral cause of lung injury. Here, we analyze specific ARDS regions of interest utilizing a spatial transcriptomic platform on autopsy-derived lung tissue from patients with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 3), H1N1 (n = 3), and a dual infected individual (n = 1). Enhanced gene signatures in alveolar epithelium, vascular tissue, and lung macrophages identify not only increased regional coagulopathy but also increased extracellular remodeling, alternative macrophage activation, and squamous metaplasia of type II pneumocytes in SARS-CoV-2. Both the H1N1 and dual-infected transcriptome demonstrated an enhanced antiviral response compared to SARS-CoV-2. Our results uncover regional transcriptional changes related to tissue damage/remodeling, altered cellular phenotype, and vascular injury active in SARS-CoV-2 and present therapeutic targets for COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/pathology , Transcriptome , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Metaplasia , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spatial Analysis
17.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(9): 1275-1293, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151993

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nasal irrigation or nebulizing aerosol of isotonic or hypertonic saline is a traditional method for respiratory or nasal care. A recent small study in outpatients with COVID-19 without acute respiratory distress syndrome suggests substantial symptom resolution. We therefore analyzed pharmacological/pharmacodynamic effects of isotonic or hypertonic saline, relevant to SARS-CoV-2 infection and respiratory care. METHODS: Mixed search method. RESULTS: Due to its wetting properties, saline achieves an improved spreading of alveolar lining fluid and has been shown to reduce bio-aerosols and viral load. Saline provides moisture to respiratory epithelia and gels mucus, promotes ciliary beating, and improves mucociliary clearance. Coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 damage ciliated epithelium in the nose and airways. Saline inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero cells; possible interactions involve the viral ACE2-entry mechanism (chloride-dependent ACE2 configuration), furin and 3CLpro (inhibition by NaCl), and the sodium channel ENaC. Saline shifts myeloperoxidase activity in epithelial or phagocytic cells to produce hypochlorous acid. Clinically, nasal or respiratory airway care with saline reduces symptoms of seasonal coronaviruses and other common cold viruses. Its use as aerosol reduces hospitalization rates for bronchiolitis in children. Preliminary data suggest symptom reduction in symptomatic COVID-19 patients if saline is initiated within 48 h of symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Saline interacts at various levels relevant to nasal or respiratory hygiene (nasal irrigation, gargling or aerosol). If used from the onset of common cold symptoms, it may represent a useful add-on to first-line interventions for COVID-19. Formal evaluation in mild COVID-19 is desirable as to establish efficacy and optimal treatment regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Nasal Lavage/methods , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Saline Solution/pharmacology , Humans , Hygiene , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 31-38, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146657

ABSTRACT

Virus-virus interactions influence the epidemiology of respiratory infections. However, the impact of viruses causing upper respiratory infections on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication and transmission is currently unknown. Human rhinoviruses cause the common cold and are the most prevalent respiratory viruses of humans. Interactions between rhinoviruses and cocirculating respiratory viruses have been shown to shape virus epidemiology at the individual host and population level. Here, we examined the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in the human respiratory epithelium in the presence or absence of rhinovirus. We show that human rhinovirus triggers an interferon response that blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mathematical simulations show that this virus-virus interaction is likely to have a population-wide effect as an increasing prevalence of rhinovirus will reduce the number of new coronavirus disease 2019 cases.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
19.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 22: 101074, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of a patient presenting with unilateral keratouveitis associated with ocular hypertension six weeks after being discharged from the hospital for COVID-19. Ocular specimens were obtained for testing. OBSERVATIONS: A 69-year-old African American woman developed poor vision while hospitalized for COVID-19 in April but did not seek ophthalmic care until end of May. She had an edematous cornea, stromal keratitis, and highly elevated intraocular pressure by June. After lack of response to oral valacyclovir, aqueous fluid and swabs of her conjunctiva and limbal epithelium with corneal epithelium anterior to the limbus were sent for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epithelium from the cornea and limbus was positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR; specimens from the other two ocular sites were negative. All specimens were negative for herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus. The patient refused further treatment despite intraocular pressure above 50 mm Hg at last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: Although SARS-CoV-2 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been detected by PCR in the conjunctiva and tears of patients with acute respiratory infection, presence in corneal tissue has not been described. In addition, no one has studied whether ocular tissues in convalesced patients can harbor viral RNA. Here we describe unilateral keratouveitis in a convalesced patient whose corneal epithelium/limbal tissue was positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Further investigation is required to determine whether active viral replication or viral remnants account for this result.

20.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(7): 785-796, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134421

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Small case series have evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and/or RNA in situ hybridization (RNAish). OBJECTIVE.­: To compare droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, IHC, and RNAish to detect SARS-CoV-2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in a large series of lung specimens from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. DESIGN.­: Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and RNAish used commercially available probes; IHC used clone 1A9. Twenty-six autopsies of COVID-19 patients with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 62 lung specimens, 22 heart specimens, 2 brain specimens, and 1 liver, and 1 umbilical cord were included. Control cases included 9 autopsy lungs from patients with other infections/inflammation and virus-infected tissue or cell lines. RESULTS.­: Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction had the highest sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 (96%) when compared with IHC (31%) and RNAish (36%). All 3 tests had a specificity of 100%. Agreement between droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and IHC or RNAish was fair (κ = 0.23 and κ = 0.35, respectively). Agreement between IHC and in situ hybridization was substantial (κ = 0.75). Interobserver reliability was almost perfect for IHC (κ = 0.91) and fair to moderate for RNAish (κ = 0.38-0.59). Lung tissues from patients who died earlier after onset of symptoms revealed higher copy numbers by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (P = .03, Pearson correlation = -0.65) and were more likely to be positive by RNAish (P = .02) than lungs from patients who died later. We identified SARS-CoV-2 in hyaline membranes, in pneumocytes, and rarely in respiratory epithelium. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction showed low copy numbers in 7 autopsy hearts from ProteoGenex Inc. All other extrapulmonary tissues were negative. CONCLUSIONS.­: Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive and highly specific test to identify SARS-CoV-2 in lung specimens from COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization/methods , Lung/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
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