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1.
Res Sq ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.1 Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19.1-7 Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.8.

2.
Med Pr ; 72(3): 321-325, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413233

ABSTRACT

In 2019, COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, evolved into a pandemic which is still going on. The basic clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are: fever, dry cough, fatigue, muscle pain, respiratory problems, and the loss of smell or taste. Other symptoms, including those related to hearing and balance organs (hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness), are reported less frequently by patients. They are especially rarely reported as the first symptoms of this infection. In order to answer the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 can cause hearing and balance damage, the authors reviewed the literature sources from 2019-2020 included in EMBASE and PubMed, entering the following words: "hearing loss," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," "sensorineural hearing loss," "vertigo," and "dizziness." Ultimately, 9 studies on the possible relationship between hearing impairment and SARS-CoV-2, and 4 studies on the possible relationship between damage to the balance and SARS-CoV-2, were qualified for the study. The results of the analysis suggest a possible relationship between COVID-19 and hearing loss, with no evidence of a similar relationship between this virus and the balance system. The possible existence of such a relationship should be especially remembered by hospital emergency room doctors, otolaryngologists and audiologists, especially as regards the possibility of a sudden sensironeural hearing loss as the first symptom of COVID-19. This also applies to doctors of other specialties. The authors indicate the need for further, intensive and multifaceted research on this issue. Med Pr. 2021;72(3):321-5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hearing Disorders/etiology , Hearing , Postural Balance , Vestibular Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tinnitus/etiology , Vertigo/etiology , Young Adult
3.
Turk Thorac J ; 22(2): 163-168, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285475

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. As this disease continues to spread worldwide, it has posed enormous challenges on the healthcare of several diseases, especially cancer, because hospital facilities have invested health resources for patients with COVID-19. Indeed, patients with lung cancer are particularly vulnerable because of their poor baseline lung function and cancer-related treatment. In addition, once infected, they are at an increased risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19. Oncologists are thus facing a challenge as how to balance the treatment plans to control the disease while protecting the patients with lung cancer from COVID-19. In fact, it is crucial to provide individualized treatment recommendations to limit the risks during these difficult times. This review highlights the key challenges that oncologists face when diagnosing COVID-19 among patients with lung cancer and examines the current recommendations from available literature, clinical expertise, and expert opinions regarding managing lung cancer in the era of COVID-19. It also explores the treatment approach recommended for patients with lung cancer while avoiding putting them at excessive risk of contracting COVID-19 infection.

4.
J Bone Oncol ; 29: 100375, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267729

ABSTRACT

Optimum management of patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic has proved extremely challenging. Patients, clinicians and hospital authorities have had to balance the risks to patients of attending hospital, many of whom are especially vulnerable, with the risks of delaying or modifying cancer treatment. Those whose care has been significantly impacted include patients suffering from the effects of cancer on bone, where delivering the usual standard of care for bone support has often not been possible and clinicians have been forced to seek alternative options for adequate management. At a virtual meeting of the Cancer and Bone Society in July 2020, an expert group shared experiences and solutions to this challenge, following which a questionnaire was sent internationally to the symposium's participants, to explore the issues faced and solutions offered. 70 respondents, from 9 countries (majority USA, 39%, followed by UK, 19%) included 50 clinicians, spread across a diverse range of specialties (but with a high proportion, 64%, of medical oncologists) and 20 who classified themselves as non-clinical (solely lab-based). Spread of clinician specialty across tumour types was breast (65%), prostate (27%), followed by renal, myeloma and melanoma. Analysis showed that management of metastatic bone disease in all solid tumour types and myeloma, adjuvant bisphosphonate breast cancer therapy and cancer treatment induced bone loss, was substantially impacted. Respondents reported delays to routine CT scans (58%), standard bone scans (48%) and MRI scans (46%), though emergency scans were less affected. Delays in palliative radiotherapy for bone pain were reported by 31% of respondents with treatments often involving only a single dose without fractionation. Delays to, or cancellation of, prophylactic surgery for bone pain were reported by 35% of respondents. Access to treatments with intravenous bisphosphonates and subcutaneous denosumab was a major problem, mitigated by provision of drug administration at home or in a local clinic, reduced frequency of administration or switching to oral bisphosphonates taken at home. The questionnaire also revealed damaging delays or complete stopping of both clinical and laboratory research. In addition to an analysis of the questionnaire, this paper presents a rationale and recommendations for adaptation of the normal guidelines for protection of bone health during the pandemic.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256509

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: A balanced life is related to good health in young people, one of the groups most affected by confinement and social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the occupational balance of young adults during home confinement and its association with different sociodemographic factors. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed, and an online survey was disseminated to collect sociodemographic and occupational balance data, using the Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical software package version 24.0. (3) Results: 965 young adults between 18 and 30 years old participated in the study. A predictive model showed that the main predictors of a lower occupational balance were a negative self-perception (ß= 0.377; p = <0.0001), student status (ß = 0.521; p = 0.001), not receiving enough information (ß = 0.951; p = 0.001) and long periods of quarantine (ß = 0.036; p = 0.007). (4) Conclusions: Considering people's occupational health and related factors could lessen many of the psychosocial consequences of isolation and contribute to the well-being of young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 36(4): 705-712, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The clinical course of COVID-19 may be complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and thromboembolic events, which are associated with high risk of mortality. Although previous studies reported a lower rate of death in patients treated with heparin, the potential benefit of chronic oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between OAT with the risk of ARDS and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective Italian study including consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 22, 2020, at six Italian hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups according to the chronic assumption of oral anticoagulants. RESULTS: Overall, 427 patients were included; 87 patients (19%) were in the OAT group. Of them, 54 patients (13%) were on treatment with non-vitamin k oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and 33 (8%) with vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs). OAT patients were older and had a higher rate of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease compared to No-OAT group. The rate of ARDS at admission (26% vs 28%, P=0.834), or developed during the hospitalization (9% vs 10%, P=0.915), was similar between study groups; in-hospital mortality (22% vs 26%, P=0.395) was also comparable. After balancing for potential confounders by using the propensity score matching technique, no differences were found in term of clinical outcome between OAT and No-OAT patients CONCLUSION: Oral anticoagulation therapy, either NOACs or VKAs, did not influence the risk of ARDS or death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin K
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227043

ABSTRACT

The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence regarding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with the possibly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to establish a hypothesis that explains the ways in which this interaction could take place. A literature search up from 1 January 2020 to 21 March 2021 was conducted in three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, in order to identify studies on periodontal disease alone or in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, reporting any relation with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a primary outcome. Only articles published in the English language were included. Due to the lack of studies, we decided to collect all the theoretical and clinical evidence suggesting a possible biological pathway evidencing the relationship among PD, DM, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. From a total of 29 articles, 12 were included for final review studies (five reviews, two hypotheses, one Special Issue, one perspective, one commentary, one case-control study, and one case report). In addition, this systematic review article hypothesizes the correlation between PD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in periodontal tissue and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from altered insulin secretion or action. Likewise, periodontitis and T2DM are inflammatory disorders with a bidirectional association, and both diseases have a similar immunomodulatory cascade and cytokine profile. ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the key factor of entry in the cells by the new SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is widely distributed in the lung and kidneys, and interestingly has a great distribution in the oral cavity, principally in the tongue and periodontal tissue. ACE2 in periodontal tissue plays a crucial role between health and disease. Moreover, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis is downregulated in the dysbiotic and inflammatory periodontal environment. Nevertheless, the balance of ACE2 activity is modified in the context of concurrent diabetes, increasing the expression of ACE2 by the uncontrolled glycemia chronic in T2DM. Therefore, the uncontrolled hyperglycemia possibly increases the risk of developing periodontitis and triggering overexpression of ACE2 in periodontal tissue of T2DM patients, with these events potentially being essential to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of mild-to-severe form of COVID-19. In this sense, we would like to point out that the need for randomized controlled trials is imperative to support this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Periodontal Diseases , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Sociol ; 6: 614271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222000

ABSTRACT

This article addresses the short-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and hints at its potential long-term effects. Though many might want it to, birth does not stop during a pandemic. In emergency times, birth practices need to be adjusted to safeguard the health of birthing mothers, babies, birth providers, and the general population. In Bologna, Italy, one of the emergency measures employed by local hospitals in response to COVID-19 was to suspend women's right to be accompanied by a person of their choice for the whole duration of labor and childbirth. In this work, we look at how this measure was disputed by the local activist birth community. Through the analysis of a social campaign empowered by Voci di Nascita-an association of parents, birth providers, and activists-we examine how social actors negotiated the balance between public health and reproductive rights in a time of crisis. We argue that this process unveils several structural issues that characterize maternity care at the local and national levels, including the (re)medicalization of birth, the discourse on risk and safety, the internal fragmentation of Italian midwifery, and the fragility of reproductive rights. The Covidian experience forced the reshaping of the birth carepath during the peak of the emergency. We suggest that it also offered an opportunity to rethink how birth is conceived, experienced, and accompanied in times of unprecedented global uncertainty-and beyond.

9.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(4): 628-632, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219329

ABSTRACT

The high comorbidity between cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVMD) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the consequent high mortality and the potential risk of cardiovascular damage have brought great challenges to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The latest studies found that advanced age, immune function defects, inflammatory factor storms and oxidative stress damage all potentially contribute to the high comorbidity of the two. Direct virus invasion, myocardial oxygen supply and demand imbalance and vascular endothelial and coagulation dysfunction may be important mechanisms for cardiovascular injury in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the expression level of ACE2 (the cell membrane receptor of SARS-CoV-2) in various organs and the peripheral blood not only mediates the direct invasion and damage of the organs, but also participates in regulation of the balance of systematic inflammation and oxidative stress, thus affecting the susceptibility and outcomes of the patients. Herein we review the recent research progress in the comorbidity between COVID-19 and CVMD and explore the mechanisms of cardiovascular damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, thus to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 with underlying CVMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Metabolic Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 13(4): 781-797, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210310

ABSTRACT

As health systems rapidly respond to COVID-19, it is unclear how these changes influence the experiences and well-being of female healthcare providers (FHCPs), including the potential for FHCPs to develop compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress. We conducted qualitative interviews (n = 15) with FHCPs at three locations (Washington, California, and New York). Interviews explored FHCP's perspectives on how care delivery changed, processes of information delivery and decision-making, gender inclusion, and approaches to managing stress and well-being. An inductive coding process was used to generate themes. FHCPs described significant changes to the way they delivered care, and their work environments, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Five themes emerged that characterized the experiences of FHCPs during COVID-19, including conflicting feelings while providing care, managing information and decisions, balancing roles, coping and well-being, and considerations for moving forward. FHCPs experienced many impacts to their professional and personal lives during COVID-19 that further complicated their ability to manage stress and well-being. The themes identified through this work offer important lessons about how to support the well-being of FHCPs and signify the widespread potential for compassion fatigue among FHCPs as a result of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Tsunamis
11.
Clin Imaging ; 79: 104-109, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To radiologically examine how the spleen size, which has important functions in hematological and immunological balance, is affected in COVID-19. METHODS: Between July 1 and August 31, 2020, consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were analyzed. Among these patients, those who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) examination at the time of presentation, patients with follow-up CT due to clinical deterioration were included in the study. The CTs of the patients were evaluated in terms of spleen size and volume. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (88 females, 55%) were included in the study. The mean time between the initial and follow-up CT was 7.2 ± 2.8 days. The splenic volume (244.3 ± 136.7 vs. 303.5 ± 156.3 cm3) and splenic index (421.2 ± 235.5 vs. 523.2 ± 269.4 cm3) values were significantly higher in the follow-up CT compared to the initial CT (p < 0.001). The increase in the splenic volume and splenic index values was 59.2 ± 52.4 cm3 and 101.9 ± 90.3 cm3 (p < 0.001), respectively. The COVID-19 severity score was significantly higher in the follow-up CT compared to the initial CT (3.7 ± 4.2 vs. 12.5 ± 5.7, respectively; p < 0.001). The spleen width measured separately on the initial and follow-up CTs showed a highest positive correlation (r = 0.982, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that spleen size increases slightly-moderately in the first stages of the infection, and this increase is correlated with the COVID-19 severity score calculated on the chest CT data, and in this respect, it is similar to infections presenting with cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immune Tolerance , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1265-1275, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196456

ABSTRACT

Being a pandemic and having a high global case fatality rate directed us to assess the evidence strength of hydroxychloroquine efficacy in treating coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) arising from clinical trials and to update the practice with the most reliable clinical evidence. A comprehensive search was started in June up to 18 July, 2020 in many databases, including PubMed, Embase, and others. Of 432 studies found, only six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, which includes: clinical trials, age more than 12 years with nonsevere COVID-19, polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine is the intervention beyond the usual care. Data extraction and bias risk assessment were done by two independent authors. Both fixed-effect and random-effect models were utilized for pooling data using risk difference as a summary measure. The primary outcomes are clinical and radiological COVID-19 progression, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 clearance in the pharyngeal swab, and mortality. The secondary outcomes are the adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine. Among 609 COVID-19 confirmed patients obtained from pooling six studies, 294 patients received hydroxychloroquine and 315 patients served as a control. Hydroxychloroquine significantly prevents early radiological progression relative to control with risk difference and 95% confidence interval of -0.2 (-0.36 to -0.03). On the other hand, hydroxychloroquine did not prevent clinical COVID-19 progression, reduce 5-day mortality, or enhance viral clearance on days 5, 6, and 7. Moreover, many adverse effects were reported with hydroxychloroquine therapy. Failure of hydroxychloroquine to show viral clearance or clinical benefits with additional adverse effects outweigh its protective effect from radiological progression in nonsevere COVID-19 patients. Benefit-risk balance should determine the hydroxychloroquine use in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects
13.
Med Pr ; 72(3): 321-325, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175785

ABSTRACT

In 2019, COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, evolved into a pandemic which is still going on. The basic clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are: fever, dry cough, fatigue, muscle pain, respiratory problems, and the loss of smell or taste. Other symptoms, including those related to hearing and balance organs (hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness), are reported less frequently by patients. They are especially rarely reported as the first symptoms of this infection. In order to answer the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 can cause hearing and balance damage, the authors reviewed the literature sources from 2019-2020 included in EMBASE and PubMed, entering the following words: "hearing loss," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," "sensorineural hearing loss," "vertigo," and "dizziness." Ultimately, 9 studies on the possible relationship between hearing impairment and SARS-CoV-2, and 4 studies on the possible relationship between damage to the balance and SARS-CoV-2, were qualified for the study. The results of the analysis suggest a possible relationship between COVID-19 and hearing loss, with no evidence of a similar relationship between this virus and the balance system. The possible existence of such a relationship should be especially remembered by hospital emergency room doctors, otolaryngologists and audiologists, especially as regards the possibility of a sudden sensironeural hearing loss as the first symptom of COVID-19. This also applies to doctors of other specialties. The authors indicate the need for further, intensive and multifaceted research on this issue. Med Pr. 2021;72(3):321-5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hearing Disorders/etiology , Hearing , Postural Balance , Vestibular Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tinnitus/etiology , Vertigo/etiology , Young Adult
14.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(3): 167-171, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171412

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 infection produce a prothrombotic state. This is initiated through multiple pathways and is finally aggravated by cross talks with cytokine storm and neutrophil, platelet, complement activation. All these combine towards the second week of illness to produce thrombosis in the lung capillaries surrounding the alveolus producing characteristic pulmonary dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 > 300, normal or minimally increased lung compliance and very high d-dimer levels) and a high rate of peripheral venous thrombosis. International and many national guidelines have approached this state in different ways but all emphasized the need for management and prevention of widespread thrombosis. It is felt more aggressive and graded thrombosis prevention and management should be initiated early in the treatment. d-Dimer, neutrophil count, SaO2, fibrinogen levels should be used to control the hypercoagulability. Drugs like statins which have anti-inflammatory action as well as ability to reduce fibrinogen and other clotting factors should be used in the beginning along with antiplatelet drugs and progressively complement activation and neutrophil extracellular traps inhibitors, oral mucopolysaccharides, full-scale anticoagulation along with judicial use of fibrinolysis supporting drugs should be added. In the present review, we have evaluated the various studies and argued the rationality that the anticoagulation in this condition should be initiated early during the infection and should be increased in a graded manner depending on clinical and laboratory progression of the condition until a strong specific antiviral drug for coronavirus disease 2019 infection is available.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycosaminoglycans/pharmacology , Glycosaminoglycans/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use
15.
J Relig Health ; 60(3): 1556-1575, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137156

ABSTRACT

Psychological well-being was assessed by affect balance (a function of negative and positive affect) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 among 4449 clergy and laity in the Church of England. Better well-being was promoted by preference for feeling over thinking in the psychological type judging process, being older, belonging to the Evangelical wing of the Church, and living in rural areas. Psychological well-being was lowered among people with a general tendency toward neuroticism, among those with an Epimethean (Sensing-Judging: SJ) psychological temperament, among Anglo-Catholics, among those living in inner cities, among clergy, and among those living with children under 13. The mitigating effects of relevant support were evident for both clergy and lay people. A key finding was that it was those sources of support that were least often rated highly that may have had the strongest positive effects on well-being, particularly on those groups where well-being was lowest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Clergy , Communicable Disease Control , England , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105534, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medications are frequently prescribed to people with dementia to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms. Using a global federated research network, the objectives were to determine: 1) if COVID-19 is associated with 30-day thromboembolic events and mortality for people with dementia receiving antipsychotic medications; and 2) if the proportion of people with dementia receiving antipsychotics is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. The network was searched for people aged ≥ 65 years with dementia, COVID-19 and use of antipsychotics in the 30-days prior to COVID-19 recorded in electronic medical records between 20/01/2020 and 05/12/2020. These individuals were compared to historical controls from 2019 with dementia and use of antipsychotics in the 30-days before a visit to a participating healthcare organisation. Propensity score matching for age, sex, race, co-morbidities and use of antidepressants and anticonvulsants was used to balance cohorts with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: Within the TriNetX network, 8414 individuals with COVID-19, dementia and use of antipsychotics and 31,963 historical controls were identified. After propensity score matching there were 8396 individuals with COVID-19 and 8396 historical controls. The cohorts were well balanced for age, sex, race, co-morbidities and use of antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The odds of 30-day thromboembolic events and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in adults with COVID-19 (Odds Ratios: 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.52) and 1.93 (1.71-2.17), respectively). The number of people with dementia with a visit to a participating healthcare organisation was lower between 20/01/2020 and 05/12/2020 (n = 165,447) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 217,391), but the proportion receiving antipsychotics increased from 14.7% (95%CI: 14.6-14.9%) to 16.4% (95%CI: 16.2-16.5%), P < .0001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence base that during the COVID-19 pandemic there was an increase in the proportion of people with dementia receiving antipsychotics. The negative effects of antipsychotics in patients with dementia may be compounded by concomitant COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Dementia/psychology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors
17.
Thromb Res ; 201: 100-112, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087279

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis affecting the pulmonary and systemic vasculature is common during severe COVID-19 and causes adverse outcomes. Although thrombosis likely results from inflammatory activation of vascular cells, the mediators of thrombosis remain unconfirmed. In a cross-sectional cohort of 36 severe COVID-19 patients, we show that markedly increased plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels were accompanied by a partial reduction in the VWF regulatory protease ADAMTS13. In all patients we find this VWF/ADAMTS13 imbalance to be associated with persistence of ultra-high-molecular-weight (UHMW) VWF multimers that are highly thrombogenic in some disease settings. Incubation of plasma samples from patients with severe COVID-19 with recombinant ADAMTS13 (rADAMTS13) substantially reduced the abnormally high VWF activity, reduced overall multimer size and depleted UHMW VWF multimers in a time and concentration dependent manner. Our data implicate disruption of normal VWF/ADAMTS13 homeostasis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and indicate that this can be reversed ex vivo by correction of low plasma ADAMTS13 levels. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic role for rADAMTS13 in helping restore haemostatic balance in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Recombinant Proteins , Thrombosis , ADAMTS13 Protein , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor
18.
Redox Biol ; 41: 101902, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087240

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection can cause a severe respiratory distress syndrome. The risk of severe manifestations and mortality characteristically increase in the elderly and in the presence of non-COVID-19 comorbidity. We and others previously demonstrated that the low molecular weight (LMW) and protein thiol/disulfide ratio declines in human plasma with age and such decline is even more rapid in the case of inflammatory and premature aging diseases, which are also associated with the most severe complications of COVID-19 infection. The same decline with age of the LMW thiol/disulfide ratio observed in plasma appears to occur in the extracellular fluids of the respiratory tract and in association with many pulmonary diseases that characteristically reduce the concentrations and adaptive stress response of the lung glutathione. Early evidence in literature suggests that the thiol to disulfide balance of critical Cys residues of the COVID-19 spike protein and the ACE-2 receptor may influence the risk of infection and the severity of the disease, with a more oxidizing environment producing the worst prognosis. With this hypothesis paper we propose that the age-dependent decline of LMW thiol/disulfide ratio of the extracellular fluids, could play a role in promoting the physical (protein-protein) interaction of CoV-2 and the host cell in the airways. Therefore, this redox-dependent interaction is expected to affect the risk of severe infection in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis can be verified in experimental models of in vitro CoV-2 infection and at the clinical level in that LMW thiols and protein thiolation can now be investigated with standardized, reliable and versatile laboratory protocols. Presenting the verification strategy of our hypothesis, we also discuss available nutritional and ancillary pharmacological strategies to intervene on the thiol/disulfide ratio of extracellular fluids of subjects at risk of infection and COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Aged , Disulfides , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(11): 4441-4448, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may experience fears regarding cancer recurrence (FoR) and of catching COVID-19. There could be unease for attending hospital clinics for face to face (F2F) examination. F2F benefit in cancer surveillance has to be balanced against the risk of virus transmission. This study aimed to report perceptions of fear of cancer and fear of COVID-19 and to report patient preference for follow-up consultation in HNC survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study ran from lockdown in England on 24th March to 29th July 2020. Patients were offered preference to postpone their consultation, to have it by telephone, or F2F. A postal survey was undertaken in the 2 weeks post-consultation (actual or postponed). RESULTS: There were 103 patients. Initial action by consultant and patient resulted in 51 postponed consultations, 35 telephone consultations and 17 F2F meetings, with 10 F2F triggered by the patient. There were 58 responders to the survey and most (39) had a clear preference for one mode of follow-up consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic, with half (19) preferring F2F. A similar response was seen regarding their consultations in general to address unmet needs and concerns, with 38 having a preferred mode, 29 preferring F2F. Serious fears about recurrence and COVID-19 were at relatively low levels with a tendency to be more concerned about recurrence. CONCLUSION: Any redesign of mode and frequency of out-patient follow-up in light of COVID-19 should be undertaken in discussion with patient groups and with individual patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Fear , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Anesthesiology ; 134(3): 457-467, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hemostatic balance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to be shifted toward a hypercoagulable state. The aim of the current study was to assess the associated coagulation alterations by point-of-care-diagnostics, focusing on details of clot formation and lysis in these severely affected patients. METHODS: The authors' prospective monocentric observational study included critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Demographics and biochemical data were recorded. To assess the comprehensive hemostatic profile of this patient population, aggregometric (Multiplate) and viscoelastometric (CloPro) measures were performed in the intensive care unit of a university hospital at a single occasion. Coagulation analysis and assessment of coagulation factors were performed. Data were compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: In total, 27 patients (21 male; mean age, 60 yr) were included. Impedance aggregometry displayed no greater platelet aggregability in COVID-19 in comparison with healthy controls (area under the curve [AUC] in adenosine diphosphate test, 68 ± 37 U vs. 91 ± 29 U [-27 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -48 to -1); P = 0.043]; AUC in arachidonic acid test, 102 ± 54 U vs. 115 ± 26 U [-21 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -51 to 21); P = 0.374]; AUC in thrombin receptor activating peptide 6 test, 114 ± 61 U vs. 144 ± 31 U [-31 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -69 to -7); P = 0.113]). Comparing the thromboelastometric results of COVID-19 patients to healthy controls, the authors observed significant differences in maximum clot firmness in fibrin contribution to maximum clot firmness assay (37 ± 11 mm vs. 15 ± 4 mm [21 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, 17 to 26); P < 0.001]) and lysis time in extrinsic activation and activation of fibrinolysis by tissue plasminogen activator assay (530 ± 327 s vs. 211 ± 80 s [238 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, 160 to 326); P < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboelastometry in COVID-19 patients revealed greater fibrinolysis resistance. The authors did not find a greater platelet aggregability based on impedance aggregometric tests. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the hypercoagulable state of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolysis , Critical Illness , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
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