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1.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e296-e298, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Roseola infantum is always considered to be among the differential diagnosis of young patients with fever and leukopenia whom to be strictly isolated with the preliminary diagnosis of COVID-19 until otherwise proven during the pandemic. RESULTS: Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) blood test was performed in 4 of 7 patients with a clinical diagnosis of roseola infantum and all found to be HHV-6 PCR positive. The most striking laboratory finding in all patients was leukopenia. HHV-6 PCR tests were found to be positive. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 testing were found to be negative in all patients. CONCLUSION: During the peak of the pandemic, children continued to present with fever because of viral infections other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Exanthema Subitum/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 72-77, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been covered insufficiently in the literature. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients admitted to the study hospital with confirmed COVID-19 who experienced various skin manifestations during hospitalization or in the convalescence period, were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with COVID-19, admitted to the study hospital between 23 March and 12 September 2020, had intra-infectious rash or lesions of cutaneous vasculitis during convalescence. The most common cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 were erythematous and erythematous papular rash. Twenty-seven of the 39 patients had anosmia (69.2%), 26 patients had ageusia (66.7%), 34 patients had pneumonia (87.2%) and 24 patients had intra-infectious enterocolitis (61.5%). Skin biopsies were rarely performed in these patients. This article reports the results of biopsies performed in two patients, showing histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in erythematous rash and erythema multiforme-like lesions. Both skin biopsies revealed early fibrous remodelling of the dermis, suggesting similarity with changes that occur in the lungs and other tissues in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between skin lesions and anosmia, ageusia and enteritis in patients with COVID-19 do not seem to be accidental, but are associated with a similar response to ACE2 receptor expression in these tissues.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Enteritis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
5.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(3): e14934, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125280

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the purpose was to evaluate the presence of dermatological symptoms and the effects of mask use on existing dermatological diseases associated with face in patients admitting with any dermatological disease. The present study consisted of 150 patients, including 91 volunteering women and 59 men, admitting to our dermatology clinic with any dermatological symptoms. The presence of symptoms, such as itching, rash, drying and peeling, discomfort, redness, burning, pain, swelling, acne, oily skin symptoms because of mask use, and previous history of facial dermatological disease, whether this disease increased with the use of mask, were questioned. The diagnosis made after dermatological examination and the dermatological examination findings were evaluated with the results of the survey. The most common finding in all patients after mask use was itching with a rate of 64.7%. Similar rates were detected for other symptoms. A significant increase was detected in the severity of acneiform and inflammatory dermatosis after the use of masks (P < .05). Our study showed that long-term mask use caused primary skin symptoms, such as itching, redness, rash, dryness and peeling, burning, oily skin, and acne formation in individuals who have dermatological diseases, and also increased the existing dermatological facial diseases. Therefore, it should be recommended to use water-based moisturizers as it may have a barrier effect on the faces of individuals who use a face mask and have any facial dermatosis, and patients should be closely monitored for skin diseases on the face.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatology , Facial Dermatoses , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Hum Pathol ; 107: 39-45, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065107

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 is getting wider with the exponential increase of patients worldwide. Initially described with flu-like symptoms, variable cutaneous manifestations have been reported, with only few histopathological descriptions. Detection of the virus in cutaneous samples has been assessed in very few cases until now, and the causative role of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been proven for every type of cutaneous manifestations yet. We aimed to describe histological features of cutaneous eruptions occurring concomitantly to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess by immunochemistry and in situ hybridization using RNAscope validation techniques the presence of the virus in skin lesions. We retrieved all skin biopsies received in the departments of pathology and dermatopathology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, performed in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presenting concomitant cutaneous manifestations since March 2020. In situ hybridization and immunostaining using a polyclonal SARS nucleocapsid protein antibody were performed on each sample. Skin biopsies from six patients presenting morbilliform eruption concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection were available for evaluation. All six samples showed varying degrees of spongiosis, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates of the dermis, and, for some of them, discrete interface dermatitis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were negative in all cutaneous samples. Morbilliform rash concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by mild and unspecific histopathological features with no detectable viral RNA and protein and appears then not to be directly caused by the virus. Even if, at least for a few cases, the differential diagnosis with drug hypersensitivity reaction can be difficult, these cutaneous eruptions seem to rather correspond to paraviral rashes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dermatitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Diseases/virology , Dermatitis/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases/pathology
7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(2): e13793, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042801
8.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(1): e44-e48, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033820

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a child with progressive abdominal pain and rash admitted to a large tertiary children's hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area and subsequently found to have immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This patient presented with abdominal pain, purpuric lesions, hematochezia, increasingly elevated D-dimer, and abnormal inflammatory markers on laboratory evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this article describes the only reported pediatric case of COVID-19 associated with IgA vasculitis. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(1):e44-e48.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A , Abdominal Pain/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Child, Preschool , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male
9.
Br J Dermatol ; 184(5): 880-887, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the challenging aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection is its diverse multisystemic disease presentation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate their duration and timing in relation to other COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 336 847 UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app to assess the diagnostic value of body rash or an acral rash in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and data from an independent online survey of 11 544 respondents to investigate skin-specific symptoms and collect their photographs. RESULTS: Using data from the app, we show significant association between skin rashes and a positive swab test result (odds ratio 1·67, 95% confidence interval 1·42-1·97). Strikingly, among the respondents of the independent online survey, we found that 17% of SARS-CoV-2-positive cases reported skin rashes as the first presentation, and 21% as the only clinical sign of COVID-19. Together with the British Association of Dermatologists, we have compiled a catalogue of images of the most common skin manifestations of COVID-19 from 400 individuals (https://covidskinsigns.com), which we have made publicly available to assist clinicians in recognition of this early clinical feature of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Skin rashes cluster with other COVID-19 symptoms, are predictive of a positive swab test, and occur in a significant number of cases, either alone or before other classical symptoms. Recognizing rashes is important in identifying new and earlier cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 4(1): 206-212, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028336

ABSTRACT

The instrumental role of CK2 in the SARS-CoV-2 infection has pointed out this protein kinase as promising therapeutic target in COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity has been reported by CK2 inhibitors in vitro; however, no anti-CK2 clinical approach has been investigated in COVID-19. This trial aimed to explore the safety and putative clinical benefit of CIGB-325, an anti-CK2 peptide previously assessed in cancer patients. A monocentric, controlled, and therapeutic exploratory trial of intravenous CIGB-325 in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 was performed. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to receive CIGB-325 (2.5 mg/kg/day during 5-consecutive days) plus standard-of-care (10 patients) or standard-of-care alone (10 patients). Adverse events were classified by the WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were performed according to the type of variable. Considering the small sample size, differences between groups were estimated by Bayesian analysis. CIGB-325 induced transient mild and/or moderate adverse events such as pruritus, flushing, and rash in some patients. Both therapeutic regimens were similar with respect to SARS-CoV-2 clearance in nasopharynx swabs over time. However, CIGB-325 significantly reduced the median number of pulmonary lesions (9.5 to 5.5, p = 0.042) at day 7 and the proportion of patients with such an effect was also higher according to Bayesian analysis (pDif > 0; 0.951). Also, CIGB-325 significantly reduced the CPK (p = 0.007) and LDH (p = 0.028) plasma levels at day 7. Our preliminary findings suggest that this anti-CK2 clinical approach could be combined with standard-of-care in COVID-19 in larger studies.

11.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 424-438, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002465

ABSTRACT

The current life-threatening and tenacious pandemic eruption of coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a significant global hazard concerning high mortality rate, economic meltdown, and everyday life distress. The rapid spread of COVID-19 demands countermeasures to combat this deadly virus. Currently, there are no drugs approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19. Therefore, discovering small molecule therapeutics for treating COVID-19 infection is essential. So far, only a few small molecule inhibitors are reported for coronaviruses. There is a need to expand the small chemical space of coronaviruses inhibitors by adding potent and selective scaffolds with anti-COVID activity. In this context, the huge antiviral chemical space already available can be analysed using cheminformatic and machine learning to unearth new scaffolds. We created three specific datasets called "antiviral dataset" (N = 38,428) "drug-like antiviral dataset" (N = 20,963) and "anticorona dataset" (N = 433) for this purpose. We analyzed the 433 molecules of "anticorona dataset" for their scaffold diversity, physicochemical distributions, principal component analysis, activity cliffs, R-group decomposition, and scaffold mapping. The scaffold diversity of the "anticorona dataset" in terms of Murcko scaffold analysis demonstrates a thorough representation of diverse chemical scaffolds. However, physicochemical descriptor analysis and principal component analysis demonstrated negligible drug-like features for the "anticorona dataset" molecules. The "antiviral dataset" and "drug-like antiviral dataset" showed low scaffold diversity as measured by the Gini coefficient. The hierarchical clustering of the "antiviral dataset" against the "anticorona dataset" demonstrated little molecular similarity. We generated a library of frequent fragments and polypharmacological ligands targeting various essential viral proteins such as main protease, helicase, papain-like protease, and replicase polyprotein 1ab. Further structural and chemical features of the "anticorona dataset" were compared with SARS-CoV-2 repurposed drugs, FDA-approved drugs, natural products, and drugs currently in clinical trials. Using machine learning tool DCA (DMax Chemistry Assistant), we converted the "anticorona dataset" into an elegant hypothesis with significant functional biological relevance. Machine learning analysis uncovered that FDA approved drugs, Tizanidine HCl, Cefazolin, Raltegravir, Azilsartan, Acalabrutinib, Luliconazole, Sitagliptin, Meloxicam (Mobic), Succinyl sulfathiazole, Fluconazole, and Pranlukast could be repurposed as effective drugs for COVID-19. Fragment-based scaffold analysis and R-group decomposition uncovered pyrrolidine and the indole molecular scaffolds as the potent fragments for designing and synthesizing the novel drug-like molecules for targeting SARS-CoV-2. This comprehensive and systematic assessment of small-molecule viral therapeutics' entire chemical space realised critical insights to potentially privileged scaffolds that could aid in enrichment and rapid discovery of efficacious antiviral drugs for COVID-19.

12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(11): 2492.e5-2492.e6, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962170

ABSTRACT

Early reports of COVID-19 in pediatric populations emphasized a mild course of disease with severe cases disproportionately affecting infant and comorbid pediatric patients. After the peak of the epidemic in New York City, in late April to early May, cases of severe illness associated with COVID-19 were reported among mostly previously healthy children ages 5-19. Many of these cases feature a toxic shock-like syndrome or Kawasaki-like syndrome in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 positive diagnostic testing and the CDC has termed this presentation Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). It is essential to disseminate information among the medical community regarding severe and atypical presentations of COVID-19 as prior knowledge can help communities with increasing caseloads prepare to quickly identify and treat these patients as they present in the emergency department. We describe a case of MIS-C in a child who presented to our Emergency Department (ED) twice and on the second visit was found to have signs of distributive shock, multi-organ injury and systemic inflammation associated with COVID-19. The case describes two ED visits by an 11- year-old SARS-CoV-2-positive female who initially presented with fever, rash and pharyngitis and returned within 48 hours with evidence of cardiac and renal dysfunction and fluid-refractory hypotension requiring vasopressors and PICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Exanthema/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Pharyngitis/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
13.
J Dermatol ; 48(1): 14-20, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919237

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Thailand in January 2020. Thailand was the first to report a confirmed case outside China. Cutaneous eruption in COVID-19 has been reported since the disease became pandemic but limited in tropical countries such as Thailand. The aim of this study was to observe the incidence, characteristics and relation of cutaneous eruption with COVID-19 at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, a referral center of emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. An observational descriptive study observed the incidence and characteristics of cutaneous eruption in 204 COVID-19-infected patients at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute. We report five patients, who represented six incidences of skin eruption with four characteristics: maculopapular rash (50%), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (16.67%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (16.67%) and urticarial vasculitis (16.67%). Incidences of cutaneous eruption in COVID-19 at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute were low. Most of the incidents were associated with medication used to treat COVID-19 infection, so drug allergy cannot be excluded as a cause of the rashes. Therefore, drug allergy should always be ruled out, and skin manifestation in COVID-19-infected patients should be further observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Exanthema/virology , Adult , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Exanthema/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 513, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although symptoms and signs of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) in children are milder than adults, there are reports of more severe cases which were defined as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). The purpose of this report was to describe the possible association between COVID-19 and PIMS in children. METHODS: From 28 March to 24 June 2020, 10 febrile children were admitted with COVID-19 infection showing characteristics of PIMS in Buali tertiary hospital of Sari, in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, and therapeutic modalities were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.37 ± 3.9 years (13 months to 12 years). Six of them were boys. Kawasaki disease, myocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, appendicitis, sepsis, urosepsis, prolonged febrile seizure, acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, and COVID-19-related pneumonia were their first presentation. All of them had increased C-reactive protein levels, and most of them had elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lymphopenia, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Three of them had thrombocytopenia(PLT < 106). Six of them were serologically or polymerase chain reaction positive for COVID-19, and 4 of them were diagnosed as COVID-19 just by chest computed tomography scan. Most of the patients improved without a residual sequel, except one who died with multiorgan failure and another case was discharged with a giant coronary aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: Children with COVID-19 may present symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease and inflammatory syndromes. PIMS should be considered in children with fever, rash, seizure, cough, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Iran , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
15.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 10(2): 51-80, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872938

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently a pandemic. Although pulmonary health has been the primary focus of studies during the early days of COVID-19, development of a comprehensive understanding of this emergent disease requires knowledge of all possible disease manifestations in affected patients. This Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-compliant review focuses on cutaneous manifestations reported in COVID-19 patients. Approach: Literature review was conducted using the PubMed database to examine various cutaneous manifestations related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Published articles (n = 56) related to search criteria from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to June 30, 2020, were included. The primary literature articles included in this study were mainly from France, Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Results: Unique to many other symptoms of COVID-19, its cutaneous manifestations have been found in people of all age groups, including children. The cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 are varied and include maculopapular, chilblain-like, urticarial, vesicular, livedoid, and petechial lesions. In addition, rashes are common in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, a new and serious health condition that shares symptoms with Kawasaki disease and is likely related to COVID-19. In addition, personal protective equipment-related skin wounds are of serious concern since broken cutaneous barriers can create an opening for potential COVID-19 infections. Innovation and Conclusion: As this virus continues to spread silently, mainly through asymptomatic carriers, an accurate and rapid identification of these cutaneous manifestations may be vital to early diagnosis and lead to possible better prognosis in COVID-19 patients. This systematic review and photo atlas provide a detailed analysis of the skin pathologies related to COVID-19. Study of these cutaneous manifestations and their pathogenesis, as well their significance in human health will help define COVID-19 in its entirety, which is a prerequisite to its effective management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin Diseases , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Skin Diseases/classification , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/therapy , Skin Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
16.
18.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 72: 101611, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642307

ABSTRACT

Fear, anxiety and even paranoia can proliferate during a pandemic. Such conditions, even when subclinical, tend to be a product of personal and predispositional factors, as well as shared cultural influences, including religious, literary, film, and gaming, all of which can lead to emotional and less than rational responses. They can render people vulnerable to engage in implausible conspiracy theories about the causes of illness and governmental responses to it. They can also lead people to give credence to simplistic and unscientific misrepresentations about medications and devices which are claimed to prevent, treat or cure disease. In turn such vulnerability creates predatory opportunities for the unscrupulous. This article notes the eruption of quackery during the 1889-1892 Russian Flu and the 1918-1920 Spanish Flu and the emergence during 2020 of spurious claims during the COVID-19 pandemic. It identifies consumer protection strategies and interventions formulated during the 2020 pandemic. Using examples from the United States, Japan, Australia and the United Kingdom, it argues that during a pandemic there is a need for three responses by government to the risks posed by conspiracy theories and false representations: calm, scientifically-based messaging from public health authorities; cease and desist warnings directed toward those making extravagant or inappropriate claims; and the taking of assertive and well publicised legal action against individuals and entities that make false representations in order to protect consumers rendered vulnerable by their emotional responses to the phenomenology of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fraud/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health Practice/statistics & numerical data , Quackery/prevention & control , Truth Disclosure , Australia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Fraud/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Public Health , Quackery/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United States
19.
JAAD Case Rep ; 6(9): 892-897, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639879
20.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1148): 351-354, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of our study was to investigate potential adverse reactions in healthcare professionals working in Level 3 barrier protection personal protective equipment (L3PPE) to treat patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: By using a convenience sampling approach, 129 out of 205 randomly selected healthcare professionals from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were invited to take part in a WeChat messaging app survey, Questionnaire Star, via a survey link. Healthcare personnel details were collected, including profession, years of professional experience and adverse reactions while wearing L3PPE. Survey results were divided by profession and years of professional experience; differences in adverse reactions were compared. RESULTS: Among the 129 healthcare professionals surveyed, 21 (16.28%) were doctors and 108 (83.72%) were nurses. A total of 122 (94.57%) healthcare professionals experienced discomfort while wearing L3PPE to treat patients with COVID-19. The main reasons for adverse reactions and discomfort include varying degrees of adverse skin reactions, respiratory difficulties, heat stress, dizziness and nausea. Doctors had a lower incidence of rashes (χ2=4.519, p=0.034) and dizziness (χ2=4.123, p=0.042) when compared with nurses. Junior (8.5 years of experience or fewer) healthcare personnel also experienced a higher rate of heat stress when compared with senior personnel (more than 8.5 years greater) (χ2=5.228, p=0.022). CONCLUSION: More attention should be offered to healthcare personnel wearing L3PPE to treat patients with COVID-19 because they are susceptible to developing adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
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