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1.
Front Psychol ; 11: 594837, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933808

ABSTRACT

Unemployed benefit recipients are stigmatized and generally perceived negatively in terms of their personality characteristics and employability. The COVID19 economic shock led to rapid public policy responses across the globe to lessen the impact of mass unemployment, potentially shifting community perceptions of individuals who are out of work and rely on government income support. We used a repeated cross-sections design to study change in stigma tied to unemployment and benefit receipt in a pre-existing pre-COVID19 sample (n = 260) and a sample collected during COVID19 pandemic (n = 670) by using a vignette-based experiment. Participants rated attributes of characters who were described as being employed, working poor, unemployed or receiving unemployment benefits. The results show that compared to employed characters, unemployed characters were rated substantially less favorably at both time points on their employability and personality traits. The difference in perceptions of the employed and unemployed was, however, attenuated during COVID19 with benefit recipients perceived as more employable and more Conscientious than pre-pandemic. These results add to knowledge about the determinants of welfare stigma highlighting the impact of the global economic and health crisis on perception of others.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(10)2020 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725630

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe, becoming a major public health challenge not for China only, but also for countries around the world. Despite worldwide efforts to contain viral spread, the outbreak has not been stopped yet. Among healthcare personnel, dentists seem to be at elevated risk of exposure to COVID-19. This risk is even more serious in pediatric dentistry, since affected children, frequently, present an asymptomatic, mild or moderate clinical viral infection and, therefore, they may play a major role in community-based COVID-19 transmission. To date, despite no universal guidelines are available for dental procedures in pediatric dentistry during COVID-19 outbreak, routine dental practice should be postponed and only severe dental emergencies must be treated. In the case of a dental emergency, involving a pediatric patient, dentists should be aware of which recommended management protocol can be adopted during the practice to protect patient health, to safeguard their-self and to prevent viral transmission. The aim of this paper is to provide clinical recommendations, presenting a needed tool for dentists to allow a valid and safe how-to-do protocol. Pediatric dentists should keep a high level of awareness to help patients, minimize risk and prevent viral spread.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentists/psychology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S121-S123, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726834

ABSTRACT

Currently Covid-19 pandemic is a leading challenge across the globe. It is mandatory to attain and maintain good nutritional status to fight against virus. Nutritional status of individual is affected by several factors such as age, sex, health status, life style and medications. Nutritional status of individuals has been used as resilience towards destabilization during this COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition and dietary nutrient intake impact the immune system, therefore the only sustainable way to survive in current context is to strengthen the immune system. There is no evidence found that supplement can cure the immune system except Vit C, which is one of the best way to improve immune system. A proper diet can ensure that the body is in proper state to defeat the virus. However along with the dietary management guidelines the food safety management and good food practices is compulsory. This article explores the importance of nutrition to boost immunity and gives some professional and authentic dietary guidelines about nutrition and food safety to withstand COVID-19.

5.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(S1): 5-8, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718309

ABSTRACT

This Special Issue is dedicated to the healthcare workers across the globe. It draws together studies from different disciplines and regions to identify important lessons learned on weaknesses as well as on opportunities for health workforce innovation through a global health lens. Beginning with strategic reflections on the role of the health workforce and public health competences in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, major themes include the protection and experiences of frontline healthcare workers, the role of health systems and policy, planning and management issues, and education and health labour markets. Developed in collaboration with European Public Health Association 'Health Workforce Research' section, the Special Issue contributes to the WHO International Year of Health and Care Workers (YHCW) in 2021 in recognition of their dedication to providing care during the COVID-19 pandemic, even risking their own health and life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Health Workforce , Staff Development , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Curr Res Struct Biol ; 3: 9-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587997

ABSTRACT

With the rapid growth of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic across the globe, therapeutic attention must be directed to fight the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, developing new antiviral drugs and vaccines is time-consuming, so one of the best solutions to tackle this virus at present is to repurpose ready-to-use drugs. This paper proposes the repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, purchasable, and naturally occurring drugs for preventive and therapeutic use. We propose to design a dual-inhibitor for the SARS-CoV-2 cysteine proteases-3 Chemotrypsin-like protease or main protease (3CLpro or Mpro) and Papain-like protease (PLpro) responsible for processing the translated polyprotein chain from the viral RNA yielding functional viral proteins. For virtual screening, an unbiased blind docking was performed from which the top nine dual-targeting inhibitors for 3CLpro and PLpro were selected. The nine repurposed drugs, block the catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) of 3CLpro as well as the catalytic triad (Cys111, His272, and Asp286) of PLpro. Repurposing known drugs will not only pave the way for rapid in-vitro and in-vivo studies to battle the SARS-CoV-2 but will also expedite the quest for a potent anti-coronaviral drug.

7.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
8.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 104-106, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436202

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare negatively across the globe. The practice of gastroenterology has been affected especially gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy which is considered high risk for transmission of the virus. As a community of practitioners there is the need to share information and make evidence-based statements to guide GI practice in Ghana. This GASLIDD position statement based on the growing and rapidly evolving body of knowledge is to provide up to date information on the COVID-19 disease and guidance for the practice of gastroenterology in Ghana and beyond. It is to help the GI community of practice to maintain the highest level of health delivery and safety for our patients, staff, community and GI practitioners. FUNDING: Self-funded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/standards , Gastroenterology/standards , Infection Control/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Ghana , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
9.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 514-526, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435870

ABSTRACT

The pandemic spread of COVID 19 caused by the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV- 2) produced a tremendous effect on the life of humanity across the globe. The epidemiological studies revealed the drastic spectrum of SARS-CoV 2 infection ranging from mere flu-like symptoms to severe respiratory suppression within a short period. Initially, cases have been confined in the emerging point, Wuhan, China. But, within a few months, it has spread all over 212 countries around the globe and presently has become a severe threat to human life. Even though it is a severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, recent reports came with multiple organ effects of SARS-CoV 2, suggesting the virulence potential of this novel virus to sweep the planet in the absence of a proper vaccine or therapy. In this review, we discuss the multi-organ pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection, together with the treatment methods adopted and innovative diagnostic methods used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 480-483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435869

ABSTRACT

Ocular tissues can serve as a reservoir for the SARS-CoV-2 virus which can not only cause conjunctivitis but also serve as a source of infection transmission to others. Additionally, the eye and its tear drainage apparatus can track the SARS-CoV-2 from the eye into the respiratory tract of the patient. The potential ocular presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in the eye of a patient can target ACE2 receptors in the endothelium of the conjunctival vessels and use the lacrimal sac a potential space to evade immune detection and clinical isolation. The recently reported case of COVID-19 after the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 from a COVID-19 patient should alert the healthcare professionals dealing with COVID-19 patients that wearing masks alone cannot guarantee protection against infection transmission. Further studies, like isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from the eyes of patients with COVID-19, are needed to identify the eyes as a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctiva , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(3): 285-292, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present or eventually develop central nervous system and ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Varying reports have emerged regarding isolation of viral RNA from these tissue sites, as well as largely autopsy-based histopathologic descriptions of the brain and the eye in patients with COVID-19. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A primary literature search was performed in literature databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Keywords were used alone and in combination including the following: SARS CoV-2, COVID-19, eye, brain, central nervous system, histopathology, autopsy, ocular pathology, aqueous, tears, vitreous, neuropathology, and encephalitis. RESULTS: The reported ophthalmic pathologic and neuropathologic findings in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are varied and inconclusive regarding the role of direct viral infection vs secondary pathology. The authors own experience with autopsy neuropathology in COVID-19 patients is also described. There is a particular paucity of data regarding the histopathology of the eye. However, it is likely that the ocular surface is a potential site for inoculation and the tears a source of spread of viral particles. CONCLUSIONS: Additional large postmortem studies are needed to clarify the role of SARS-CoV in the ophthalmic and neuropathologic manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics
12.
Iran J Microbiol ; 12(5): 370-375, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362778

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus COVID-19 is wrecking a havoc across the globe and has been declared as a pandemic by WHO. Apart from transmission and shedding of the virus through respiratory secretions in the form of droplets (mainly), several studies have shown the presence of the virus in various samples such as stool, urine and occasionally in blood, semen, tears and breastmilk. Whereas government authority guidelines consider a person as cured from COVID-19 when along with clinical improvement no more virus can be detected primarily on respiratory samples along with clinical improvement; the persistence of the virus in these body fluids even after clinical recovery and negative RT-PCR test results on respiratory samples, has raised many questions about the elusive nature of this novel virus along with the possibility of other routes of transmission of this virus in the community. Although studies performed till now across the globe on persistence of SARSCOV-2 in various body fluids are sparse, in this review we would like to present and analyse the results of those studies performed globally on the aforesaid topic to get a better insight of this side of the COVID-19 story.

13.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 10(5): 297-306, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343057

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) emerged in 2019 and proliferated rapidly across the globe. Scientists are attempting to investigate antivirals specific to COVID-19 treatment. The 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV utilize the same receptor of the host which is COVID-19 of the main protease (Mpro).COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is burdensome to overcome by presently acquired antiviral candidates. So the objective and purpose of this work was to investigate the plants with reported potential antiviral activity. With the aid of in silico techniques such as molecular docking and druggability studies, we have proposed several natural active compounds including glycyrrhizin, bicylogermecrene, tryptanthrine, ß-sitosterol, indirubin, indican, indigo, hesperetin, crysophanic acid, rhein, berberine and ß-caryophyllene which can be encountered as potential herbal candidate exhibiting anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Promising docking outcomes have been executed which evidenced the worthy of these selected herbal remedies for future drug development to combat coronavirus disease.

14.
Blood Res ; 56(2): 61-64, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335331

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as a major threat to all healthcare systems across the globe, and it was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). The novel coronavirus affects the respiratory system, producing symptoms such as fever, cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. The association between COVID-19 and coagulation has been previously reported. Due to several inflammatory changes that occur in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections such as alterations in the levels of clotting factors, platelet activation leads to thrombus formation in coronary and cerebral vessels, leading to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents, respectively. Unfortunately, the progression of hypercoagulability in COVID-19 is rapid in patients with and without comorbidities. Hence, the proper monitoring of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19 is essential to avoid further complications. The implementation of guidelines for antithrombotic treatments based on the presentation of the disease is recommended. This review discusses the symptoms and mechanisms of upregulated coagulation in patients with COVID-19.

16.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(1): 87-94, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327386

ABSTRACT

Diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been listed as risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since the first report of the disease in January 2020. However, this report did not mention chronic kidney disease (CKD) nor did it provide information on the relevance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or albuminuria. As the disease spread across the globe, information on larger populations with greater granularity on risk factors emerged. The recently published OpenSAFELY project analysed factors associated with COVID-19 death in 17 million patients. The picture that arose differs significantly from initial reports. For example, hypertension is not an independent risk factor for COVID-19 death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.89], but renal disease very much is. Dialysis (aHR 3.69), organ transplantation (aHR 3.53) and CKD (aHR 2.52 for patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) represent three of the four comorbidities associated with the highest mortality risk from COVID-19. The risk associated with CKD Stages 4 and 5 is higher than the risk associated with diabetes mellitus (aHR range 1.31-1.95, depending upon glycaemic control) or chronic heart disease (aHR 1.17). In another recent publication, the Global Burden of Disease collaboration identified that worldwide, CKD is the most prevalent risk factor for severe COVID-19. Moreover, the distribution of risk factors for COVID-19 mortality appears to be different in patients with CKD when compared with the general population. The high prevalence of CKD in combination with the elevated risk of mortality from COVID-19 in CKD necessitates urgent action for this group of patients. This article defines essential action points (summarized in Box 1), among which is advocating the inclusion of CKD patients in clinical trials testing the efficacy of drugs and vaccines to prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Prevalence , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Societies, Medical
17.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5704-5713, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327136

ABSTRACT

Many viral infections do not have treatments or resistant to existing antiviral therapeutic interventions, and a novel strategy is required to combat virus-mediated fatalities. A novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. COVID-19 has impacted human society with life-threatening and unprecedented health, social, and economic issues, and it continues to affect millions of people. More than 5,800 clinical trials are in place worldwide to develop treatments to eradicate COVID-19. Historically, traditional medicine or natural products, such as medicinal plants, marine organisms and microbes, have been efficacious in treating viral infections. Nevertheless, important parameters for natural products, including clinical trial information, pharmacokinetic data, potency and toxicity profiles, in vivo and in vitro data, and product safety require validation. In this review article, an evaluation is performed of the potential application of natural product-based antiviral compounds, including crude extracts and bioactive chemical compounds obtained from medicinal plants, marine organisms, and microbes, to treat the viral infections COVID-19.

18.
Appl Econ Perspect Policy ; 43(1): 292-303, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308946

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered life in innumerable ways in many countries across the globe. In this article I review what the virus did to patterns of US and Brazilian exports of major commodities during the first surge of the virus during April and May 2020, and also speculate on what may happen during the beginning of North American winter in late 2020. The analysis highlights how grains versus meats have been vulnerable to trade disruptions due to the coronavirus pandemic. US exports of beef and pork were particularly impacted by a wave of processing facility shutdowns in the wake of COVID-19 outbreaks among workers. Poultry exports saw declines from their highs but remain strong, even though poultry-processing facilities have also faced issues with outbreaks and shutdowns. Trends in 2020 grain and oilseed exports have not been affected by the pandemic.

19.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 76-83, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300693

ABSTRACT

As of July 9, 2020, there were more than 12 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the globe, with more than 550,000 deaths. Many European countries, including Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain, have had the highest numbers of fatalities per capita. This indicates the potential for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus to overwhelm even the most advanced health care systems despite extreme societal interventions. Since its emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has disseminated across the globe, affecting the structure of global societies, infrastructure, and economies. Patients with alopecia are a diverse group who, for various indications, are prescribed a number of antimicrobials and antiandrogen treatments in addition to immunomodulatory therapies such as hydroxychloroquine, oral corticosteroids, and a range of broad immunosuppressants. These drugs are being scrutinized for their capacity to potentially affect SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. We examine these treatments and highlight the critical role that patient registries will play in generating real-world evidence to assess their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Alopecia/classification , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 32(4): 338-342, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Although airborne spread through infectious respiratory droplets is the primary source of transmission, recent literature has suggested the ocular surface may be able to harbor viral particles. Here, we aim to discuss how SARS-CoV-2 affects the ocular surface and updated guidance on how SARS-CoV-2 transmission should be considered in the setting of eye banking and corneal transplantation procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be found on the ocular surface, which may suggest the eye as a site of viral replication. However, there is poor correlation between PCR positivity on the ocular surface and ocular symptoms. To date, although viral particles can be found on the ocular surface, use of standard antiseptic procedures during corneal tissue procurement appears to sufficiently reduce viral load. In addition, preprocedure testing may further decrease the chances of transplanting an infected cornea without significantly impacting the overall accessibility to corneal tissue by decreasing the donor pool. SUMMARY: Corneal transplantation remains a well tolerated and highly successful procedure with no evidence of viral transmission with transplantation. Although the ocular surface has the required receptors to allow for viral replication, there is no clear evidence that the eye is a site for primary viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cornea/virology , Corneal Transplantation/standards , Eye Banks , Tissue and Organ Procurement/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution
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