Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
1.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 232: 9-16, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare ocular complications and efficacy of preseptal (PST) versus those of pretarsal (PTS) botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy in cases of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Setting: university hospital. PATIENTS: 24 participants with BEB were enrolled from August 2019 to June 2020. All patients and the outcome evaluator were masked to the injection allocation. INTERVENTIONS: for each participant, 1 eye was randomized to receive PST BoNT-A injection, and the fellow eye received PTS BoNT-A injection of the same amount from a single investigator. At baseline, 1, and 3 months after the injection, we collected the symptoms of tearing, lagophthalmos, ptosis, and diplopia and measured margin-to-reflex distance (MRD) 1 and 2 (mm), degree of lagophthalmos (mm), presence of ectropion, entropion, limitation of ocular motility, tear film breakup time (second), Schirmer's test (mm) , ocular surface staining scores (Oxford's scheme), and Jankovic rating scale of both eyes separately. Main outcome measurements were complications of the injection. RESULTS: There were statistically significant higher rates of self-reported lagophthalmos in PTS (n = 12; 52.17%) than in PST (n = 7; 30.43%) BoNT-A injections (P = .024) and significantly higher estimated measurements of lagophthalmos in PTS (0.59 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.72) than in PST (0.26 mm; 95% CI: 0.12-0.40) injection at 1 month using an interaction model (Bonferroni-corrected P = .001). No significant differences in the efficacy and other complication outcomes between the injection locations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PTS BoNT-A injection had a higher rate of lagophthalmos than PST BoNT-A injection for BEB.


Subject(s)
Blepharospasm , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases , Neuromuscular Agents , Blepharospasm/drug therapy , Humans , Tears , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(2): 154-165, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) documented in the literature thus far. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched using the keywords: Neuro-Ophthalmology, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and coronavirus. A manual search through reference lists of relevant articles was also performed. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The literature on COVID-associated neuro-ophthalmic disease continues to grow. Afferent neuro-ophthalmic complications associated with COVID-19 include optic neuritis, papillophlebitis, papilledema, visual disturbance associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and vision loss caused by stroke. Efferent neuro-ophthalmic complications associated with COVID-19 include cranial neuropathies, Miller Fisher syndrome, Adie's pupils, ocular myasthenia gravis, nystagmus and eye movement disorders. Proposed mechanisms of neurologic disease include immunologic upregulation, vasodilation and vascular permeability, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and direct viral neurotropism. When patients present to medical centers with new onset neuro-ophthalmic conditions during the pandemic, COVID-19 infection should be kept on the differential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Pandemics , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14494, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356869

ABSTRACT

AIM: The primary objective of this article is to understand the various complications caused by the coronavirus in the paediatric population. METHOD: An electronic search was conducted using PubMed and incorporated forward and backward research methods on clinical trials, case reports, case series, guidelines and reports from the centre for disease control and prevention (CDC), and the keywords included COVID-19, paediatrics, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), complications, acute kidney injury and heart failure. Secondary resources included one study from preprint servers (www.preprints.org), last search 8 May 2021, with notion of nonpeer review status. Data were collected and analysed to stay current with the most recent alerts and guidelines for the best care for children during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Evaluation and analysis of literature revealed MIS-C to be the most prevalent followed by neurological complications. Whereas the least prevalent were septic shock and ophthalmic complications. CONCLUSION: Even though COVID-19 is known to be a less severe in the paediatric population, the complications of the virus have caused a great deal of stress to the paediatric patients' parents and paediatricians worldwide, and hence, emphasis should be given to the management of coronavirus complications in paediatrics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatrics , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 10(3): 691-697, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275000

ABSTRACT

In the late 1970s, prone positioning was established as an efficient treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, with the world facing a global health crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become an accepted routine practice in intensive care units dealing with critically ill COVID-19 patients. Ophthalmic complications associated with the prone position are not a novelty in clinical practice. Indeed, it is estimated that in patients undergoing spine surgery, prone positioning carries a tenfold increased risk of eye injury when compared to supine and lateral positioning. The majority of these complications are treatable ocular surface disorders, but irreversible sight-threatening conditions also occur. We report a unique and dramatic case of a ruptured globe in a COVID-19 patient placed in prolonged prone position, emphasizing its difficult diagnosis and management while focusing on life-saving support.

5.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931665, 2021 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, extensive research has been conducted on the pulmonary implications of this novel disease. However, there has been limited data on the extrapulmonary manifestations. There have been few documented causes of optic involvement and little is understood about the pathophysiology around its presentation and the possible treatments to prevent long-term complications. Here, we describe a case of optic neuritis in a female patient concurrently infected with SARS-CoV-2. Given the plethora of evidence supporting neurological manifestations of the virus, we hypothesize that there is an association between our patient's optic neuritis and her infection with SARS-CoV-2. CASE REPORT A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history who presented with blurry vision in her left eye. Optic neuritis was suspected with physical examination and confirmed with imaging of the optic nerve. Further diagnostic evaluation was nonsuggestive of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases; however, the patient was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. Steroids and remdesivir treatment were started, but without the presence of any respiratory symptoms. The patient's symptoms completely resolved by day 5 of hospitalization and she was discharged home without any complications. CONCLUSIONS Optic neuritis has remained an uncommon complication of SARS-CoV-2. This rather rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 is one that clinicians should be cognizant of due to the long-term implications of optic neuritis. Furthermore, it is pertinent to consider ophthalmic involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection to appropriately guide patient care during the pandemic, as prompt treatment can lead to improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Optic Neuritis , Adult , Female , Humans , Optic Neuritis/diagnosis , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 238(5): 555-560, 2021 May.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238038

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of 2020, SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen of COVID-19, has led to a global pandemic that also affects ophthalmology. Ophthalmologists can be confronted at any time with potentially COVID-19 associated ocular symptoms or manifestations in patients and also become infected through close patient contact. Even without systemic infection, the ocular surface can come into direct contact with aerosols or liquids containing SARS-CoV-2 particles. A smear infection through hand-to-eye contact is also possible. A purely isolated ocular infection has not yet been shown. Rather, it seems that ocular complications occur in the context of a systemic infection. However, ocular symptoms can also be the first symptom of COVID-19. The most common ocular complication of COVID-19 is mild follicular conjunctivitis. Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis, dry eye disease, episcleritis, or retinal involvement can also occur less frequently. There are currently no evidence-based therapy recommendations for COVID-19 associated diseases of the ocular surface. Artificial tears might be helpful for symptom relief. There is no evidence for antiviral, antibiotic, or anti-inflammatory therapies, but these medications might be used in individual cases. Potential intraocular complications include retinal artery occlusions and haemorrhages, as well as cotton wool spots caused by complement-mediated thrombotic angiopathy. Neuro-ophthalmological complications including Miller-Fisher syndrome or infarct-related central blindness can also occur in very rare cases. Knowledge of potential transmission routes and personal protective equipment is just as essential for each ophthalmologist as a basic knowledge of potential ocular symptoms and complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis , Conjunctivitis/diagnosis , Eye , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 10(3): 200-210, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak has manifested into a major public health concern across the globe, affecting particularly the most vulnerable population groups. Currently, there are various clinical trials being conducted to develop effective treatments. It is estimated that it could take one or more years before these drugs pass all safety tests and concrete results with regard to their effectiveness become available. In addition, despite the recent development of vaccines (licensed for use under conditional licenses) and the commencement of COVID-19 vaccination programs in several countries, there is still a need for safe and novel strategies that may reduce the symptomatology and/or prevent the severe complications associated with COVID-19. Natural compounds previously shown to have antiviral potential should be thoroughly considered and investigated for use in prophylactic treatment of COVID-19 due to their availability and safety. RECENT FINDINGS: The current narrative review investigates whether there is evidence in the literature that supplementation with dietary minerals and vitamins may have a role in preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2 or in reducing COVID-19 symptomatology and disease progression. The current evidence from the literature supports that zinc and vitamin C have a potential in reducing the inflammatory response associated with SARS-CoV-2 while folate and vitamin D may have a role in antagonizing the entry of SARs-CoV-2 virus in host calls. Thus, further research should be conducted that could lead to the development of nutritional supplements involving natural and widely available compounds such as zinc, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin D. The latter could be an effective, safe, and inexpensive way to either prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and/or lessen the burden of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid , Dietary Supplements , Folic Acid , Humans , Pandemics , Vitamin D , Zinc
8.
J Glaucoma ; 30(5): e256-e258, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203760

ABSTRACT

It is the consensus of the medical community that ocular complications associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are mild, self-limiting, and there are no reports to date of a sight-threatening event. We report a patient with a systemic inflammatory syndrome in the context of COVID-19, with ophthalmological (uveitis), dermatological (erythema and skin nodules), and cardiovascular (edema) manifestations. The anterior uveitis led to an increase in the intraocular pressure that failed to respond to clinical treatment and prompted a surgical intervention to save the vision. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a COVID-19-related ocular hypertension. Timely surgical intervention was key to save the vision in the patient's only eye.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Uveitis, Anterior/complications , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tonometry, Ocular
9.
Clin Exp Med ; 22(1): 125-135, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198467

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify prevalence and association of comorbid chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI) and utilization prevalence of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in COVID-19-hospitalized patients as a function of severity status. With the ongoing struggle across the globe to combat COVID-19 disease, published literature has described the role of kidney disease in COVID-19 patients based on single/multicenter experiences across the globe. We extracted data from observational studies describing comorbid CKD, AKI and CRRT and outcomes and severity of COVID-19-hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019-August 20, 2020 following PRISMA guidelines. Severity of COVID-19 includes intensive care unit admission, oxygen saturation < 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation utilization, in-hospital admission and mortality. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate pooled estimates, and forest plots were created. In total, 29 studies with 15,017 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. The overall prevalence of AKI was 11.6% [(430/3693)], comorbid CKD 9.7% [(1342/13,728)] and CRRT 2.58% [(102/3946)] in our meta-analysis. We also found higher odds of comorbid CKD (pooled OR: 1.70; 95%CI: 1.21-2.40; p = 0.002), AKI (8.28; 4.42-15.52; p < 0.00001) and utilization of CRRT (16.90; 9.00-31.74; p < 0.00001) in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that comorbid CKD, AKI and utilization of CRRT were significantly associated with COVID-19 disease severity. Clinicians should focus on early triaging of COVID-19 patients with comorbid CKD and at risk for AKI to prevent complication and mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Pathogens ; 10(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178373

ABSTRACT

Recent Ebola epidemics, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and emerging infectious disease threats have highlighted the importance of global infectious diseases and responses to public health emergencies. Ophthalmologists are essential health care workers who provide urgent and emergent vision care services during outbreaks and address the ocular consequences of epidemic and pandemic infectious diseases. In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified high priority pathogens likely to cause a future epidemic with the goal of guiding research and development to improve diagnostic tests, vaccines, and medicines. These measures were necessary to better inform and respond to public health emergencies. Given the ocular complications associated with emerging infectious diseases, there is a need to recognize the ophthalmic sequelae for future vision health preparedness for potential future outbreaks. The WHO High Priority pathogens list provides a roadmap for ophthalmologists and subspecialty providers that will guide strategic areas of research for clinical care and preparedness for future pandemic threats. This review summarizes these key viral pathogens, summarizes major systemic disease findings, and delineates relevant ocular complications of the WHO High Priority pathogens list, including Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Filovirus diseases (Ebola virus disease and Marburg hemorrhagic fever), human Coronaviruses, Lassa Fever, Nipah virus infection, Zika, and Rift Valley fever.

11.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 14: 205-210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175486

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ophthalmic trauma is defined as injuries affecting the ocular structures, including the globe, eyelid, lacrimal system, and surrounding orbital walls. Blunt trauma acts as the leading cause of injury and it may affect both the anterior and posterior parts of the globe. Prompt diagnosis, early management, and sustained follow-up are mandatory for an optimal outcome. PURPOSE: This report presents a one-step surgery management process for an intricate case of blunt facial trauma with complex ophthalmic and nasal injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 45-year-old male with blunt force trauma of the left eye from a wooden block, suffered from naso-orbital-ethmoidal fractures, eyelid laceration with canalicular, close-globe injuries of traumatic cataract and vitreous hemorrhage with retinal detachment. A simultaneous one-step surgery was performed by a trauma team of ophthalmological and ENT surgeons during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic to lessen the risk of cross-transmission. After ruling out the possibility of open-globe rupture, traumatic cataract extraction, retinal detachment surgery, the repair of an eyelid laceration with canalicular involvement, and septorhinoplasty were performed on concomitantly. RESULTS: Anatomical success was achieved for the repair of the nasoorbitoethmoidal (NOE) type II fracture and close-globe injuries, including the anatomical reattachment of the retina. However, the functional outcome remained unsatisfactory. Visual acuity failed to show further improvement at a later follow-up. Traumatic optic neuropathy was, at the final follow-up, considered to be the cause of the suboptimal visual acuity. CONCLUSION: A single-step multi-procedure for a complex ophthalmic blunt trauma, as demonstrated in this case, may be beneficial for reducing the complications that might arise due to treatment delay. The complex nature of the injury, however, creates the higher possibility for residual post-operative complications. Risks of residual functional impairment should be considered in such complex trauma prior to surgery, to determine the surgical prognostic value and provide appropriate consent to the patient.

12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 122-126, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156231

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic causes vital concerns due to the lack of proved, effective, and safe therapy. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine seem to be useful, but recently serious concerns regarding their adverse events have risen. The aim of the study was to broaden the general perspective of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine use in COVID-19 treatment, based on an analysis of their current safety profile among patients with rheumatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on a group of 152 patients with rheumatic diseases, aged 20-78 years, treated either with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. Analyzed data included age, gender, comorbidities, type of drug, dosage, treatment duration, and reported adverse events. Cases of drug withdrawal related to adverse events were also recorded. RESULTS: The dosage was consistent in both groups: 250 mg of chloroquine or 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily. 77.6% of patients did not experience any adverse reactions to the treatment. Hydroxychloroquine showed better safety profile, with 10.9% of patients reporting side-ffects, compared to 28.9% in patients treated with chloroquine. The overall incidence of ophthalmic complications was 6.6%. For both drugs, no statistically significant correlation between adverse events and age, chronic heart or liver disease, or hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine at lower doses, as used in rheumatic diseases, prove to be relatively safe. Data from the literature show that high dosage as recommended in COVID-19 treatment may pose a risk of toxicity and require precise management, but prophylactic, long-term use of lower, safe doses might be a promising solution.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Eye/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155946

ABSTRACT

Soft tissue fillers used for facial rejuvenation can cause complications. We present two cases of late migration of injected fillers mimicking other pathology in the periocular area. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman referred with chronic bilateral upper lid swelling, mimicking blepharochalasis syndrome, 51/2 years after undergoing injection of hyaluronic acid filler in both brows. Extensive blood investigations were normal. Bilateral, sequential upper lid biopsy revealed migrated hyaluronic acid filler, which was successfully treated with hyaluronidase. Case 2 is a 62-year-old woman who presented with a right lower lid mass 8 years after undergoing injection of polyalkylimide gel into both cheeks. CT scanning confirmed an intermediate density soft tissue mass overlying the inferior orbital rim. Histology from surgical excision reported chronic granulomatous inflammation due to migrated polyalkylimide gel. An awareness of late migration of fillers causing eyelid swelling and masses in the periocular area will prevent unnecessary investigations and facilitate prompt management.


Subject(s)
Cosmetic Techniques , Eyelids/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase , Middle Aged , Rejuvenation
14.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(5): 1138-1143, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117604

ABSTRACT

Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is a very rare condition, known to have a profound negative impact on vision and eye movement function and is usually associated with orbital infections, inflammation, tumors, or carotid cavernous fistulae. There is an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis associated with COVID-19, the presence of which is related to a significantly increased risk of mortality. We report an index case of superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis in a 61-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonitis and a concomitant saddle pulmonary embolus. He was swiftly treated with low molecular weight heparin which led to the resolution of the thrombosis within 3 weeks. This case highlights the importance of considering this entity in the context of COVID-19 as well as providing prompt treatment to reduce the risk of complications.

15.
Clin Pract ; 11(1): 81-91, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060784

ABSTRACT

The virus that causes COVID-19 is rapidly spreading across the globe. Elderly patients with multiple pre-existing conditions are at a higher risk. This case study describes acute inpatient treatment of a COVID-19 patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, kidney complications, heart failure, chronic pain, depression, and other comorbidities in an isolation ward without mechanical ventilation.

16.
Stem Cell Res ; 51: 102200, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051937

ABSTRACT

Recently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread around the world and is receiving worldwide attention. Approximately 20% of infected patients are suffering from severe disease of multiple systems and in danger of death, while the ocular complications of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have not been reported generally. Herein, we focus on two major receptors of SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and CD147 (BSG), in human ocular cells, and interpret the potential roles of coronaviruses in human ocular tissues and diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Eye/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Eye/cytology , Eye/metabolism , Eye Diseases/pathology , Eye Diseases/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Pathog Dis ; 79(2)2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038286

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains to be a threat across the globe. SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host is mediated by binding of viral spike protein to the Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. ACE2 is an essential member of the Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) involved in maintaining the blood pressure and vascular remodelling. Although ACE2 receptor is the entry point to the host, recent studies show activation of ACE2 to modulate the host to develop a suitable environment for its replication. However, the ACE2 activating the immune signals on SARS-CoV-2 attachment is still under investigation. We have used systems biological approach to construct the host regulatory network upon SARS-CoV-2 attachment to the ACE2 receptor. Since lungs are the primary infection site, we integrate human lung gene expression profile along with the host regulatory network to demonstrate the altered host signalling mechanism in viral infection. Further, the network was functionally enriched to determine immune modulation in the network. We also used the proteomic database to assess the occurrence of similar signalling events in other human tissues that exhibit lineage of infection across different organs. The constructed network contains 133 host proteins with 298 interactions that directly or indirectly connect to the ACE2 receptor. Among 133 proteins, 29 were found to be differentially regulated in the host lungs on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altered proteins connect multiple proteins in a network that modulates kinase, carboxypeptidase and cytokine activity, leading to changes in the host immune system, cell cycle and signal transduction mechanisms. Further investigation showed the presence of similar signalling events in the kidneys, placenta, pancreas, testis, small intestine and adrenal gland as well. Overall, our results will help in understanding the immune molecular regulatory networks influenced by the ACE2 mediated interaction in other body tissues, which may aid in identifying the secondary health complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunomodulation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Protein Binding , Proteomics , Signal Transduction
18.
Glob Health Med ; 2(6): 395-397, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976743

ABSTRACT

Ocular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) do not essentially cause serious visual loss. However, due to the characteristics of this disease, delays in diagnosis and treatment in hospitalized patients may leave them with serious visual impairment. If conjunctivitis is suspected, ophthalmological follow-up is needless because it is expected spontaneous healing. Diplopia is often complicated for extra-ocular neurological findings and need neurological consults. Ophthalmologists should be consulted for ocular surface disease, high intraocular pressure, and ocular inflammation that may cause visual loss if patients complain of blurred vision, visual loss, and ocular pain. The problem is unconscious patients with risk of developing high intraocular pressure or keratitis. An ophthalmologist should be consulted as soon as possible if eye redness or pupil abnormalities appear in these patients. We developed a flowchart for ophthalmic consultations in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, for facilities where an ophthalmologist is not always present, and for third or fourth waves or, a pandemic of another infectious disease.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243766, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971380

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular findings, structural ocular complications, and vision impairment in a cohort of Lassa fever survivors in Kenema, Sierra Leone. A retrospective, uncontrolled, cross-sectional study of 31 Lassa fever survivors (62 eyes) who underwent an ophthalmic evaluation in January 2018 at the Kenema Government Hospital in Kenema, Sierra Leone was performed. Data collection included demographic information, ocular/systemic symptoms, visual acuity (VA), and ophthalmic examination findings. Main outcome measures included anterior and posterior segment ophthalmic manifestations and level of VA impairment in Lassa fever survivors. Anterior segment findings included cataract (18%) and pterygium (2%), while posterior segment manifestations consisted of glaucoma (6%), preretinal hemorrhage (2%), and lattice degeneration (2%). Findings suggestive of prior sequelae of uveitis included chorioretinal scarring (5%), retinal fibrosis (3%), and vitreous opacity (2%). Visual acuity was normal/mildly impaired in 53 eyes (85%), moderately impaired in 6 eyes (10%), and 3 eyes (5%) were considered blind by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Median VA was worse in Lassa fever survivors with ophthalmic disease findings (p<0.0001) for both anterior segment (p<0.0001) and posterior segment disease (p<0.013). Untreated cataract was a significant cause of visual acuity impairment (p<0.0001). Lassa fever survivors in this cohort were found to have cataract and posterior segment findings that potentially represent sequelae of uveitis associated with visual impairment. Future studies are warranted to improve our understanding of the spectrum of ocular disease in this emerging infectious disease of public health consequence.


Subject(s)
Lassa Fever/complications , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Vision Disorders/complications , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Laeknabladid ; 106(12): 574-579, 2020 Dec.
Article in Icelandic | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused public health and economic turmoil across the globe. Severe COVID-19 disease most often presents with pneumonia and complications in acutely ill patients often stem from the lungs. The associations of lung disease, smoking and e-cigarette use with the incidence and severity of COVID-19 are unclear on a population level. METHODS: Data on 1761 patients from the Icelandic outpatient Landspitali COVID-19 Clinic were used. The prevalence of smoking, e-cigarette use and underlying lung diseases was calculated in the cohort, with stratification based on age groups and a clinical classification of symptom severity. It was tested whether these prevalences differed between age groups and classes of symptom severity. RESULTS: Most patients were in the age group between 35-54 years of age and a large majority had mild symptoms at diagnosis. The prevalence of smoking was 6% with the highest prevalence among 35-54 year olds. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 4%. It was most prevalent in the age group between 18-34 years. There was no difference in the prevalence of smoking or e-cigarette use between classes of symptom severity. The prevalence of lung disease was 9%. It was higher among older patients and patients with more severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: The age distribution and prevalence of lung disease and their risk factors are described in the context of COVID-19 incidence and symptom severity in a whole-nation cohort of Icelanders. The cohort is younger and had less severe symptoms than in many previosly published studies of COVID-19. Interestingly, the prevalences of smoking and e-cigarette use were lower than in the Icelandic general population and they were not associated with symptom severity at diagnosis. To conclude, the results presented here indicate that underlying lung diseases are prevalent among people with severe COVID-19 symptoms but fail to demonstrate an association between cigarette smoking or e-cigarette smoking with COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Vaping/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL