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1.
Microb Pathog ; 156: 104941, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213436

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together, and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Although, the incidence of co-infections could be up to 94.2% in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the fate of co-infections among SARS-CoV-2 infected hosts often depends on the balance between the host's protective immunity and immunopathology. Predominantly identified co-pathogens of SARS-CoV-2 are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Legionella pneumophila and Clamydia pneumoniae followed by viruses including influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The cross-talk between co-pathogens (especially lung microbiomes), SARS-CoV-2 and host is an important factor that ultimately increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19. Simultaneously, co-infecting microbiotas may use new strategies to escape host defense mechanisms by altering both innate and adaptive immune responses to further aggravate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Better understanding of co-infections in COVID-19 is critical for the effective patient management, treatment and containment of SARS-CoV-2. This review therefore necessitates the comprehensive investigation of commonly reported microbial co-pathogens amid COVID-19, their transmission pattern along with the possible mechanism of co-infections and outcomes. Thus, identifying the possible co-pathogens and their underlying molecular mechanisms during SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis may shed light in developing diagnostics, appropriate curative and preventive interventions for suspected SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Communicable Diseases , Microbiota , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201865

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly worldwide. The major transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 are recognised as inhalation of aerosol/droplets and person-to-person contact. However, some studies have demonstrated that live SARS-CoV-2 can be isolated from the faeces and urine of infected patients, which can then enter the wastewater system. The currently available evidence indicates that the viral RNA present in wastewater may become a potential source of epidemiological data. However, to investigate whether wastewater may present a risk to humans such as sewage workers, we investigated whether intact particles of SARS-CoV-2 were observable and whether it was possible to isolate the virus in wastewater. Using a correlative strategy of light microscopy and electron microscopy (CLEM), we demonstrated the presence of intact and degraded SARS-like particles in RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-positive sewage sample collected in the city of Marseille. However, the viral infectivity assessment of SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater was inconclusive, due to the presence of other viruses known to be highly resistant in the environment such as enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and adenoviruses. Although the survival and the infectious risk of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater cannot be excluded from our study, additional work may be required to investigate the stability, viability, fate, and decay mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 thoroughly in wastewater.

3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(6): H2240-H2254, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180981

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that first emerged in Wuhan in December 2019 has resulted in the devastating pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, creating an emerging need for knowledge sharing. Meanwhile, myocardial infarction is and will probably remain the foremost cause of death in the Western world throughout the coming decades. Severe deregulation of the immune system can unnecessarily expand the inflammatory response and participate in target and multiple organ failure, in infection but also in critical illness. Indeed, the course and fate of inflammatory cells observed in severe ST-elevation myocardial infarction (neutrophilia, monocytosis, and lymphopenia) almost perfectly mirror those recently reported in severe coronavirus disease 2019. A pleiotropic proinflammatory imbalance hampers adaptive immunity in favor of uncontrolled innate immunity and is associated with poorer structural and clinical outcomes. The goal of the present review is to gain greater insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this canonical activation and downregulation of the two arms of the immune response in both entities, to better understand their pathophysiology and to open the door to innovative therapeutic options. Knowledge sharing can pave the way for therapies with the potential to significantly reduce mortality in both infectious and noninfectious scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125580, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116993

ABSTRACT

Considerable attention has been recently given to possible transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via water media. This review addresses this issue and examines the fate of coronaviruses (CoVs) in water systems, with particular attention to the recently available information on the novel SARS-CoV-2. The methods for the determination of viable virus particles and quantification of CoVs and, in particular, of SARS-CoV-2 in water and wastewater are discussed with particular regard to the methods of concentration and to the emerging methods of detection. The analysis of the environmental stability of CoVs, with particular regard of SARS-CoV-2, and the efficacy of the disinfection methods are extensively reviewed as well. This information provides a broad view of the state-of-the-art for researchers involved in the investigation of CoVs in aquatic systems, and poses the basis for further analyses and discussions on the risk associated to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in water media. The examined data indicates that detection of the virus in wastewater and natural water bodies provides a potentially powerful tool for quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) and for wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) for the evaluation of the level of circulation of the virus in a population. Assays of the viable virions in water media provide information on the integrity, capability of replication (in suitable host species) and on the potential infectivity. Challenges and critical issues relevant to the detection of coronaviruses in different water matrixes with both direct and surrogate methods as well as in the implementation of epidemiological tools are presented and critically discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Water
5.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(1): 209-211, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734445

ABSTRACT

In a pilot study, we wanted to influence the food selection of employees in a pediatric clinic bistro aiming to increase the sale of "healthy" grain buns (number and proportion of all sold buns). During basic assessment, the mean weekly sale of grain buns was 98 (52.3%) and in the second week of highlighting them on a green napkin under a transparent hood (intervention 1) reached 124 (54.6%). However, just when starting intervention 2 (position in front of the display), the bistro was closed due to the Coronavirus pandemic. Thus, necessary public health measures stopped our interventional public health experiment.


Subject(s)
Consciousness , Diet , Environment , Food Preferences , Health Promotion/methods , Social Marketing , Whole Grains , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19 , Commerce , Communicable Disease Control , Communication , Feasibility Studies , Food Preferences/psychology , Food Service, Hospital , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Research Design
6.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(9): 1667-1670, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773003

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic, the evolutionary fate of SARS-CoV-2 becomes a matter of utmost concern. Mutation D614G in the spike (S) protein has become dominant, and recent evidence suggests it yields a more stable phenotype with higher transmission efficacy. We carry out a structural analysis that provides mechanistic clues on the enhanced infectivity. The D614G substitution creates a sticky packing defect in subunit S1, promoting its association with subunit S2 as a means to stabilize the structure of S1 within the S1/S2 complex. The results raise the therapeutic possibility of immunologically targeting the epitope involved in stabilizing the G614 phenotype as a means of reducing the infection efficacy of SARS-CoV-2. This therapeutic modality would not a-priori interfere directly with current efforts toward the immunological targeting of the RBD epitope; hence, it could be exploited as a complementary treatment.

7.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 147: 105290, 2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3102

ABSTRACT

Dehydroandrographolide succinate (DAS) injection, which was approved in China for the treatment of viral pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infections, is often off-label used for nebulization therapy to avoid the adverse drug reactions associated with the injection. However, the aerodynamic properties and pulmonary fate of nebulized DAS was largely uninvestigated. In this study, the main objectives were to evaluate the in vitro aerodynamic deposition profiles of nebulizer generated aerosols and comparatively investigate the local drug availability and anti-inflammatory efficacy of DAS between intratracheal and intravenous dosing. The in vitro evaluation of aerodynamic characteristics and droplet size distribution showed more than 50% aerosol particles with size being <5 µm, allowing the aerosols to reach the lower respiratory tract. Following intratracheal administration, the drug underwent pulmonary absorption into the bloodstream, rendering an absolute bioavailability of 47.3%. Compared to the intravenous delivery, the intratracheal administration dramatically increased the drug availability in the lung tissue in rats by more than 80-fold, leading to an improved and prolonged local anti-inflammatory efficacy in a lipopolysaccharide induced lung injury model in mice. The present results demonstrated that inhalation delivery of DAS is a convenient and effective alternative to intravenous injections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Diterpenes/administration & dosage , Diterpenes/pharmacokinetics , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Administration, Intravenous , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/blood , Biological Availability , Diterpenes/blood , Lung/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Animal , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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