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1.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 12(3): 196-199, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the eating behaviour of Malaysian children aged 2 to 11 years old during the Movement Control Order (MCO) due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 204 Malaysian parents of children aged 2 to 11 years old were recruited for this study using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling approaches. Parents were required to fill an online questionnaire hosted on Google Forms, which consisted of socio-demographic characteristics (including child's gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as parental income during the MCO) and a 35-item list from the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Data analysis was conducted by further stratifying the children's eating behaviour according to socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the eating behaviour of the children across age and parental income groups during the MCO. Malaysian Indian children had significantly lower mean scores for the food responsiveness (2.50±0.64) and emotional over-eating (2.13±0.72) subscales than Malaysian Chinese children. Girls had a significantly higher mean score for the slowness in eating subscale during the MCO than boys. CONCLUSION: Children's eating behaviour were comparable across socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, the findings of the current study provide an overview of Malaysian children's eating behaviour during the MCO.

2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 1987-1997, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The precautions taken during the pandemic period may cause stress-related eating behavior disorders. It was aimed to test this hypothesis, and the study was carried out to examine pandemic measures the effect of on the nutritional, depression and stress conditions of people with obesity. METHODS: The individuals who participated in the study were people with obesity who received follow-up dietary therapy in a private hospital. Three separate scales were applied to the individuals, which measured the desire to overeating request, depression status and stress-fighting status. RESULTS: This study was conducted on 368 individuals. Women had lower values of BMI (28.57±3.89 kg/cm2) than men (30.64±2.87 kg/cm2). When the scores of the excessive eating request scale mean scores before and during the pandemic were examined, it was seen that the scores of the individuals increased during the pandemic. In the multivariate regression model, it was seen that the increase of stress and BMI increased the FCQ score (p<0.001). Multiple regression models were created by taking into account the criteria that caused the score increase. Each variable can predict the FCQ score separately. The predictor significance order of variants on FCQ score ß values is as follows: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) (ß=0.774), before pandemic FCQ (ß=0.601), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (ß=-0.268), before pandemic BMIa (ß=-0.223), during pandemic BMIb (ß=0.073), and age (ß=-0.013). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic, making applications such as quarantine in pandemic processes has successful results in being able to combat its. However, undesirable conditions such as stress can have serious negative consequences on other health measurements. It was observed in the results of this study that excessive eating food desire developed in people with obesity.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225179

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemics has created unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Among other important risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, obesity has emerged along with undernutrition-malnutrition as a strong predictor of disease risk and severity. Obesity-related excessive body fat may lead to respiratory, metabolic and immune derangements potentially favoring the onset of COVID-19 complications. In addition, patients with obesity may be at risk for loss of skeletal muscle mass, reflecting a state of hidden malnutrition with a strong negative health impact in all clinical settings. Also importantly, obesity is commonly associated with micronutrient deficiencies that directly influence immune function and infection risk. Finally, the pandemic-related lockdown, deleterious lifestyle changes and other numerous psychosocial consequences may worsen eating behaviors, sedentarity, body weight regulation, ultimately leading to further increments of obesity-associated metabolic complications with loss of skeletal muscle mass and higher non-communicable disease risk. Therefore, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies should be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients in the presence of obesity; lockdown-induced health risks should also be specifically monitored and prevented in this population. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing clinical practice guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients with obesity in various clinical settings.

4.
Foods ; 10(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194618

ABSTRACT

Sensory perception alterations are common in relation to COVID-19 disease, but less is known about the characteristic of the sensory alterations, and how they associate with alterations in appetite and eating behaviour. The current study aims to investigate the acute and long-term effects of COVID-19 disease on (1) the desire for food, hunger, and satiety sensations; (2) smell, taste, and flavour perception; (3) meals and intake of food types; and (4) the frequency of commonly applied strategies to tackle potential changes in appetite and sensory perception. An online survey was conducted among Danish adults (n = 102) who had experienced changes in appetite, sensory perception, and/or food-related pleasure due to COVID-19 disease. Key results include appetite-altering effects at all times during the day when suffering from COVID-19 and often associated with impaired sensory function. Severe sensory perception alterations were found, namely, for the perception of taste, ageusia > hypogeusia > hypergeusia, and for the perception of smell, anosmia > parosmia > hyposmia > hyperosmia. Eating behavioural changes included alteration in quantitative and qualitative aspects of intake. The effects were, in general, more pronounced during the acute phase of disease than during the post-acute phase. The findings illustrate the complexity by which COVID-19 affects human appetite, sensory perception, and eating behaviour, but also point to strategies to cope with these changes.

5.
Appetite ; 161: 105120, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163356

ABSTRACT

Emotional eating, generally defined as (over)-eating in response to negative emotions, has been associated with poor physical and psychological outcomes. During a time of heightened negative affect, it is important to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures on eating behaviours, and further elucidate the ways in which emotional eating is related to emotion dysregulation and impaired abilities to identify emotions (i.e. alexithymia). The aims of this study were to explore perceived changes in eating behaviours in relation to self-reported negative affect during the pandemic and to examine direct and indirect effects of alexithymia on emotional eating. An online questionnaire measured these constructs in the general population of the United Kingdom (n = 136). Findings demonstrated that those who reported changes to their eating behaviours during the pandemic also reported greater levels of depression during the same time frame. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulties identifying and describing feelings both predicted emotional eating indirectly via emotion dysregulation. Findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between alexithymia and emotional eating and describe changes to eating behaviours during COVID-19. We discuss how these findings should be applied, and recommendations for future research.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Affective Symptoms/psychology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Appetite ; 163: 105209, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135250

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions and mandates have had pronounced implications on the well-being of individuals. This study conducted exploratory analyses of the relationship between COVID-19-related life changes and COVID-19-related perceived stress and associations between COVID-19-related perceived stress and dysregulated maternal eating behaviors, child feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in Los Angeles mothers. Mothers (Mage = 37.6 ± 6.9) of children aged 5-11 (N = 197, response rate 92.5%) completed an online questionnaire assessing COVID-19-related life changes, COVID-19-related perceived stress, mechanisms used to cope with COVID-19, child feeding practices, their own eating behavior, demographics, and height and weight. The highest proportion of participants reported changes to work, disruptions due to childcare challenges, and increased home responsibilities. Higher COVID-19-related perceived stress was experienced by those who reported loss of work hours (29%), loss of job (15.2%), reduced ability to afford childcare (18.8%), and reduced ability to afford rent/mortgage (19.8%) (ps < 0.05) than those who did not. The most common strategy that mothers indicated using to cope with COVID-19 related stress was eating comfort foods (e.g., candy and chips) (58.7%). COVID-19-related perceived stress was positively associated with mother's BMI and emotional eating (ps < 0.05). Rewarding their child's eating and behavior with food were both positively associated with the number of COVID-19 related life changes (ps < 0.05). This study yields new knowledge of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mothers' dysregulated eating behaviors and child feeding practices. The results highlight the importance of conducting further research to confirm these findings and understand the nature of associations between COVID-19-related perceived stress and health. This is crucial in order to explore ways in which lasting impacts of the pandemic on mental and physical health can be prevented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , Adult , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Child , Child Behavior , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Los Angeles , Mother-Child Relations , Pandemics , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(6): 1165-1174, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that eating habits are an area particularly affected by the lockdown imposed by many countries to curb the COVID-19 epidemic. Individuals that received bariatric surgery may represent a particularly susceptible population to the adverse effects of lockdown for its potential impact on eating, psychological, and weight loss outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to investigate the incremental impact of COVID-19 lockdown on treatment outcomes of postbariatric patients in the risk period for weight regain. SETTING: Main hospital center. METHODS: This work uses data from an ongoing longitudinal study of bariatric patients assessed before surgery (T0), 1.5 years after sugery (T1), and 3 years after surgery (T2). Two independent groups were compared: the COVID-19_Group (n = 35) where T0 and T1 assessments were conducted before the pandemic started and T2 assessment was conducted at the end of the mandatory COVID-19 lockdown; and the NonCOVID-19_Group (n = 66), covering patients who completed T0, T1, and T2 assessments before the epidemic began. Assessment included self-report measures for disordered eating, negative urgency, depression, anxiety, stress, and weight outcomes. RESULTS: General linear models for repeated measures showed that the COVID-19_Group presented significantly higher weight concern (F = 8.403, P = .005, ƞ2p = .094), grazing behavior (F = 7.166, P = .009, ƞ2p = .076), and negative urgency (F = 4.522, P = .036, ƞ2p = .05) than the NonCOVID-19_Group. The COVID-19_Group also showed less total weight loss (F = 4.029, P = .05, ƞ2p = .04) and larger weight regain at T2, with more COVID-19_Group participants experiencing excessive weight regain (20% versus 4.5%). CONCLUSION: These results show evidence for the impact of the coronavirus outbreak on eating-related psychopathology and weight outcomes in postbariatric surgery patients.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 7, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052532

ABSTRACT

Background: Pandemic confinement of COVID-19 may influence dietary behaviors and physical activity, and increases the risk of stress, especially among adolescents. This increases the subsequent risk of degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc., which can lead to a higher risk of death. This study aims to evaluate the effect of confinement on the weight load, physical activity and dietary behavior of higher education students during the period of confinement. Methods: Data was collected by an anonymous online questionnaire with 406 students. Physical activity was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A reference score of the National Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS-GS) was used to determine the dietary habits. Stress appreciation was assessed by using a psychological instrument known as the "Perceived Stress Scale" provided by Mind Garden. Results: More than a quarter of the students were overweight or obese. During the confinement of COVID-19, most of the students suffered from nutritional disorders, only one-third were moderately physically active, and the majority of students were at risk of stress. Multivariate analysis showed that the concept of threat of Stress increases the risk of weight gain at a risk level of 2.4 [95% CI 1.09-5.43], low physical activity increases the risk level to 1.9 [95% CI 1.18-3.04]. However, a balanced diet is protective against the occurrence of weight gain (ORa = 0.30, [95% CI 0.15-0.61]). Conclusion: The study showed that confinement appeared to contribute to weight gain and those students were more sedentary than active with unhealthy eating behaviors. Understanding these behaviors during COVID-19 confinement will help public health authorities implement future policies on recommendations when new pandemics arrive and confinement policies are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Students/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Female , Humans , Male , Morocco/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000273

ABSTRACT

Assessing healthy diet literacy and eating behaviors is critical for identifying appropriate public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the psychometric properties of digital healthy diet literacy (DDL) and its association with eating behavior changes during the COVID-19 pandemic among nursing and medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 7 April to 31 May 2020 at 10 public universities in Vietnam, in which 7616 undergraduate students aged 19-27 completed an online survey to assess socio-demographics, clinical parameters, health literacy (HL), DDL, and health-related behaviors. Four items of the DDL scale loaded on one component explained 71.32%, 67.12%, and 72.47% of the scale variances for the overall sample, nursing, and medical students, respectively. The DDL scale was found to have satisfactory item-scale convergent validity and criterion validity, high internal consistency reliability, and no floor or ceiling effect. Of all, 42.8% of students reported healthier eating behavior during the pandemic. A 10-index score increment of DDL was associated with 18%, 23%, and 17% increased likelihood of healthier eating behavior during the pandemic for the overall sample (OR, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.13, 1.24; p < 0.001), nursing students (OR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.10, 1.35; p < 0.001), and medical students (OR, 1.17; 95%CI, 1.11, 1.24; p < 0.001), respectively. The DDL scale is a valid and reliable tool for the quick assessment of digital healthy diet literacy. Students with higher DDL scores had a higher likelihood of healthier eating behavior during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Students, Medical , Students, Nursing , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam , Young Adult
10.
J Behav Addict ; 9(3): 826-835, 2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Since mid-March 2020, over 3 billion people have been confined as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic eating behaviors are likely to be impacted by the pandemic through multiple pathways. This study examined the relationships between stress related to lockdown measures and binge eating and dietary restriction in a population of French students during the first week of confinement. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (N = 5,738) completed an online questionnaire 7 days after lockdown measures were introduced. The survey comprised variables related to lockdown measures and the COVID-19-pandemic, mood, stress, body image, binge eating and dietary restriction during the past 7 days, as well as intent to binge eat and restrict in the following 15 days. RESULTS: Stress related to the lockdown was associated with greater likelihood of binge eating and dietary restriction over the past week and intentions to binge eat and restrict over the next 15 days. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related media was associated with increased eating restriction over the past week. Binge eating and restriction (past and intentions) were associated with established risk factors, including female gender, low impulse regulation, high body dissatisfaction, and having a concurrent probable eating disorder. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The higher the stress related to the first week of confinement, the higher the risk of problematic eating behaviors among students, particularly those characterized by eating-related concerns. Screening for risk factors and providing targeted interventions might help decrease problematic eating behaviors among those who are most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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