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1.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 160-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rapidly spread globally. Due to different testing strategies, under-detection of positive subjects and COVID-19-related-deaths remains common. Aim of this analysis was to assess the real impact of COVID-19 through the analysis of 2020 Italian all-cause mortality data compared to historical series. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2020 and 2015-2019 all-cause mortality data released by the Italian National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for the time period January 1st-March 21st. This preliminary sample included 1084 Italian municipalities showing at least 10 deaths during the above-mentioned timeframe and an increase in mortality of more than 20% as compared to the previous five years (2015-2019), with a resulting coverage of 21% of Italian population. The difference between 2020 observed and expected deaths (mean of weekly deaths in 2015-2019) was computed, together with mortality rate ratio (MRR) for each of the four weeks following detection of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Italy (February 23rd, 2020 - March 21st, 2020), as well as for this entire timeframe. Subgroup analysis by age groups was also performed. RESULTS: Overall MRR was 1.79 [1.75-1.84], with an observed excess mortality of 8750 individuals in the investigated sample, which in itself outweighs Italian Civil Protection report of only 4,825 COVID-19-related deaths across Italy, as of March 21. Subgroup analysis did not show any difference in mortality rate in '0-14 years' age group, while MRRs were significantly increased in older age groups, in particular in patients >75 years (MRR 1.84 [1.79-1.89]). In addition, week-by-week analysis showed a progressive increase in MRR during this period, peaking in the last week (March 15th, 2020 - March 21st, 2020) with an estimated value of 2.65 [2.53-2.78]. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all-cause mortality data in Italy indicates that reported COVID-19-related deaths are an underestimate of the actual death toll. All-cause death should be seen as the epidemiological indicator of choice to assess the real mortality impact exerted by SARS-CoV-2, given that it also best reflects the toll on frail patient subsets (e.g. the elderly or those with cardiovascular disease).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1810-1815, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 long-term sequelae are ill-defined since only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of this disease so far. AIMS: To evaluate the 6-month respiratory outcome and exercise capacity of COVID-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study included COVID-19 patients with ARF. Interventions included CPAP during hospitalisation and 6-month follow up. Frailty assessment was carried out through frailty index (FI), pO2 /FiO2 during hospitalisation and at follow up, respiratory parameters, 6-min walking test (6MWT) and the modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Borg scale at follow up. RESULTS: More than half of the patients had no dyspnoea according to the mMRC scale. Lower in-hospital pO2 /FiO2 correlated with higher Borg scale levels after 6MWT (ρ 0.27; P 0.04) at the follow-up visit. FI was positively correlated with length of hospitalisation (ρ 0.3; P 0.03) and negatively with the 6MWT distance walked (ρ -0.36; P 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Robust and frail patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with CPAP outside the intensive care unit setting had good respiratory parameters and exercise capacity at 6-month follow up, although more severe patients had slightly poorer respiratory performance compared with patients with higher PaO2 /FiO2 and lower FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 2(3): e163-e170, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the scarcity of resources has necessitated triage of critical care for patients with the disease. In patients aged 65 years and older, triage decisions are regularly based on degree of frailty measured by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). However, the CFS could also be useful in patients younger than 65 years. We aimed to examine the association between CFS score and hospital mortality and between CFS score and admission to intensive care in adult patients of all ages with COVID-19 across Europe. METHODS: This analysis was part of the COVID Medication (COMET) study, an international, multicentre, retrospective observational cohort study in 63 hospitals in 11 countries in Europe. Eligible patients were aged 18 years and older, had been admitted to hospital, and either tested positive by PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or were judged to have a high clinical likelihood of having SARS-CoV-2 infection by the local COVID-19 expert team. CFS was used to assess level of frailty: fit (CFS1-3), mildly frail (CFS4-5), or frail (CFS6-9). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was admission to intensive care. Data were analysed using a multivariable binary logistic regression model adjusted for covariates (age, sex, number of drugs prescribed, and type of drug class as a proxy for comorbidities). FINDINGS: Between March 30 and July 15, 2020, 2434 patients (median age 68 years [IQR 55-77]; 1480 [61%] men, 954 [30%] women) had CFS scores available and were included in the analyses. In the total sample and in patients aged 65 years and older, frail patients and mildly frail patients had a significantly higher risk of hospital mortality than fit patients (total sample: CFS6-9 vs CFS1-3 odds ratio [OR] 2·71 [95% CI 2·04-3·60], p<0·0001 and CFS4-5 vs CFS1-3 OR 1·54 [1·16-2·06], p=0·0030; age ≥65 years: CFS6-9 vs CFS1-3 OR 2·90 [2·12-3·97], p<0·0001 and CFS4-5 vs CFS1-3 OR 1·64 [1·20-2·25], p=0·0020). In patients younger than 65 years, an increased hospital mortality risk was only observed in frail patients (CFS6-9 vs CFS1-3 OR 2·22 [1·08-4·57], p=0·030; CFS4-5 vs CFS1-3 OR 1·08 [0·48-2·39], p=0·86). Frail patients had a higher incidence of admission to intensive care than fit patients (CFS6-9 vs CFS1-3 OR 1·54 [1·21-1·97], p=0·0010), whereas mildly frail patients had a lower incidence than fit patients (CFS4-5 vs CFS1-3 OR 0·71 [0·55-0·92], p=0·0090). Among patients younger than 65 years, frail patients had an increased incidence of admission to intensive care (CFS6-9 vs CFS1-3 OR 2·96 [1·98-4·43], p<0·0001), whereas mildly frail patients had no significant difference in incidence compared with fit patients (CFS4-5 vs CFS1-3 OR 0·93 [0·63-1·38], p=0·72). Among patients aged 65 years and older, frail patients had no significant difference in the incidence of admission to intensive care compared with fit patients (CFS6-9 vs CFS1-3 OR 1·27 [0·92-1·75], p=0·14), whereas mildly frail patients had a lower incidence than fit patients (CFS4-5 vs CFS1-3 OR 0·66 [0·47-0·93], p=0·018). INTERPRETATION: The results of this study suggest that CFS score is a suitable risk marker for hospital mortality in adult patients with COVID-19. However, treatment decisions based on the CFS in patients younger than 65 years should be made with caution. FUNDING: LOEY Foundation.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048503, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand and report on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the everyday lives of frail older persons living in nursing homes by exploring their experiences of how the pandemic-related restrictions had influenced them and in what way. DESIGN: Empirical qualitative interview study. SETTING: A publicly run nursing home in an urban area in Sweden in June 2020. The nursing home had visitor restrictions, cancelled activities and physical distancing requirements since March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 persons, 85-100 years, living in a Swedish nursing home during the COVID-19 pandemic, were recruited through nursing home management and interviewed in June 2020 using medically approved visors and physical distancing. ANALYSIS: Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, which involves familiarisation, coding and definition of themes. Transcripts were coded into data-driven categories before being organised into categories that described and explained the data. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in the main theme 'It is like living in a bubble', that describes everyday life in the nursing home during the pandemic as a world of its own in which the older persons felt both protected and isolated. This is described in four subthemes: living 1 day at a time, without fear of the virus; feeling taken care of; having limited freedom and missing out on the little extras. CONCLUSIONS: Contributing to the growing area of COVID-19-related research, our findings provide novel insights into how pandemic-related restrictions in nursing homes represent a risk of isolating older people from the outside world and diminishing their freedom. Put in relation to the previous research, these findings could be applied beyond the pandemic, to develop research and practice that puts focus on how to support older people to decide for themselves how to spend the rest of their lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Nursing Homes , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
Br J Cancer ; 125(5): 658-671, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 30 million COVID-19 cases have been diagnosed worldwide from late 2019. Among frail persons, cancer patients are at high risk of death from COVID-19. METHODS: The French prospective cohort ONCOVID-19 enrolled patients with solid or haematological tumour, receiving anticancer treatment and presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 was confirmed through detectable SARS-CoV2 by RT-PCR (repeated twice if negative first) and/or specific CT-scan. The study aims to assess the 28-day mortality rate after the first COVID test. RESULTS: From March 1st to May 21st 2020, 23 French cancer centres and hospitals enrolled 1230 cancer patients with suspicion of COVID-19, including 1162 (94.5%) matching the inclusion criteria. We identified 425 (36.6%) COVID-19 positive patients including 155 (13.3%) diagnosed with CT-scan only, while 737 (63.4%) patients were COVID-19 negative. Death at day-28 occurred in 116/425 (27.8%) COVID-19 positive patients, and in 118/737 (16.3%) COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0·0001). With a median follow-up of 2.1 (1.6-2.4) months, 310 (26.7%) deaths were reported including 143 (33.6%) in the COVID-19 positive population, and 167 (22.7%) in the COVID-19 negative patients. Male gender, age, metastatic disease, immunosuppressive treatments, lymphopenia, COVID-19 diagnosis and diabetes were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: Patients with solid and haematological cancers presenting COVID-19 symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed or not are both at high-risk of early mortality. COVID-19 is reported as the cause of death in 50% of COVID-19 positive patients with cancer. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04363632.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Orthop Traumatol ; 22(1): 22, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic fractures (PPFs) are a growing matter for orthopaedic surgeons, and patients with PPFs may represent a frail target in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether hospital reorganisations during the most severe phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected standards of care and early outcomes of patients treated for PPFs in Northern Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrieved from a multicentre retrospective orthopaedics and traumatology database, including 14 hospitals. The following parameters were studied: demographics, results of nasopharyngeal swabs, prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), comorbidities, general health status (EQ-5D-5L Score), frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale, CFS), pain (visual analogue scale, VAS), anaesthesiologic risk (American Society of Anaesthesiology Score, ASA Score), classification (unified classification system, UCS), type of operation and anaesthesia, in-hospital and early complications (Clavien-Dindo Classification, CDC), and length of stay (LOS). Data were analysed by means of descriptive statistics. Out of 1390 patients treated for any reason, 38 PPFs were included. RESULTS: Median age was 81 years (range 70-96 years). Twenty-three patients (60.5%) were swabbed on admission, and two of them (5.3%) tested positive; in three patients (7.9%), the diagnosis of COVID-19 was established on a clinical and radiological basis. Two more patients tested positive post-operatively, and one of them died due to COVID-19. Thirty-three patients (86.8%) presented a proximal femoral PPF. Median ASA Score was 3 (range, 1-4), median VAS score on admission was 3 (range, 0-6), median CFS was 4 (range, 1-8), median EQ-5D-5L Score was 3 in each one of the categories (range, 1-5). Twenty-three patients (60.5%) developed post-operative complications, and median CDC grade was 3 (range, 1-5). The median LOS was 12.8 days (range 2-36 days), and 21 patients (55.3%) were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PPFs did not seem to change during the lockdown. Patients were mainly elderly with comorbidities, and complications were frequently recorded post-operatively. Despite the difficult period for the healthcare system, hospitals were able to provide effective conventional surgical treatments for PPFs, which were not negatively influenced by the reorganisation. Continued efforts are required to optimise the treatment of these frail patients in the period of the pandemic, minimising the risk of contamination, and to limit the incidence of PPFs in the future. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Restructuring , Infection Control , Pandemics , Periprosthetic Fractures , Standard of Care , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospital Restructuring/organization & administration , Hospital Restructuring/standards , Hospital Restructuring/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Orthopedic Procedures/standards , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Periprosthetic Fractures/complications , Periprosthetic Fractures/epidemiology , Periprosthetic Fractures/surgery , Periprosthetic Fractures/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care/standards , Standard of Care/statistics & numerical data
7.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(5): 439-446, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents are typically excluded from clinical trials due to multimorbidity, dementia, and frailty, so there are no clear evidence-based rules for treating arterial hypertension in this population. Moreover, the role of hypertension as mortality risk factor in LTCFs has not yet been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate whether treated hypertension is associated with lower mortality among older LTCF residents with multimorbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in a group of 168 residents aged ≥ 65 years in three LTCFs. Initial assessment included blood pressure (BP) measurements and selected geriatric scales: MNA-SF, AMTS and ADL. Hypertension, comorbidities, pharmacotherapy, antihypertensive drugs and mortality during one-year follow-up were extracted from the medical records. The data was compared in groups: Survivors and Deceased. RESULTS: Survivors and Deceased revealed similar age, DBP, number of diseases, medications, and antihypertensive drugs. However, Deceased had significantly lower SBP (P <0.05) and presented significantly worse functional, nutritional and cognitive status than Survivors (P <0.001). Hypertension (P <0.001) and antihypertensive therapy (P <0.05) were significantly more frequent among Survivors. Significantly more of the hypertensive-treated than other multimorbid residents survived the follow-up (P <0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that treated hypertension had a protective effect on mortality [OR = 0.11 (95% CI, 0.03-0.39); P <0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: One-year survival of LTCF residents with treated hypertension was significantly higher than the others. Appropriate antihypertensive therapy may be a protective factor against death in frail nursing home residents, even in short period of time.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Long-Term Care , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors
8.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(6): 1147-1157, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Older people are the most frequently hospital admitted patients with COVID-19. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of COVID-19 among frail and nonfrail older hospitalised patients and to evaluate the potential association between frailty and clinical course, decision of treatment level with outcomes change in functional capacity and survival. METHODS: We performed a multi-center, retrospective cross-sectional cohort study examining data on clinical presentation and frailty-related domains for hospitalised people aged 75 + years with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test. Frailty was assessed at admission using record-based MPI (rMPI) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Decision on treatment level about invasive ventilation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), change in CFS-score from admission to discharge, changed need of home care, and in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality were registered. RESULTS: 100 patients (median age 82 years (IQR 78-86), 56% female) with COVID-19 were included. 54 patients were assessed moderately or severely frail (rMPI-score = 2 or 3) and compared to non-frail (rMPI-score = 1). At admission, frail patients presented more frequently with confusion. At discharge, functional decline measured by change in CFS and increased home care was more prevalent among frail than the non-frail. Decisions about no invasive ventilation or CPR were more prevalent among frail older patients with COVID-19 than non-frail. Ninety-day mortality was 70% among frail patients versus 15% in non-frail. CONCLUSION: Frailty seems to be associated with confusion, more frequent decisions about treatment level, larger functional decline at discharge and a higher mortality rate among older patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1065-1073, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We explored potential predictive variables associated with outcomes using baseline clinical parameters of 500 hospitalised patients with COVID -19 in a single centre, UK. METHODS: Retrospective study collecting demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted at Southend University Hospital from 20th February to 7th May 2020. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort admitted to hospital with Covid-19 was 69.4 and 58% were over 70. Comorbidities were more frequently observed in non-survivors, whose mean Clinical Frailty Scale was significantly higher (5 vs 3) than survivors, p < 0.001. In addition, mean C-reactive protein was significantly higher. CONCLUSION: Older and frailer patients with high inflammatory markers were at risk of poor outcomes. Integrated frailty and age-based risk stratification is essential, in addition to monitoring saturation /FiO2 ratio (SFR) and inflammatory markers throughout the disease course to allow for early intervention to improve patient outcomes. A frailty-based risk-stratification approach, rather than age may prove more valuable when considering interventions in patients with multiple comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Comorbidity , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 670370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247878

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergency use authorization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines brought both hopes and concerns to the Americans and others. We aimed to estimate the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination and presented characteristics of deaths following COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: Data on deaths following COVID-19 vaccination were obtained from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 11, 2020 through January 8, 2021. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID Data Tracker was used to identify the total number of people receiving COVID-19 vaccines during the same period to estimate the mortality rate. Stratified analysis was conducted by the location of vaccination. Results: As of January 8, 2021, 55 deaths were reported, and the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination was 8.2 per million population. A total of 37 deaths were reported among long-term care facility residents, and the mortality rate was 53.4 per million population. Top reported comorbidities associated with deaths included hypertension, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, and heart failure. In addition, dementia was more likely to be associated with deaths vaccinated at long-term care facilities than at other locations. Conclusion: The benefits of COVID-19 vaccines outweigh the potential risks in older frail populations, and our findings do not support actions to exclude older adults from being vaccinated. However, continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination is still warranted.

11.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(7): 2053-2059, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245796

ABSTRACT

Persons suffering with systemic neuromuscular disorders or chronic organ failures, spend less time for daily physical activity, aggravating their mobility impairments. From 2020, patients at risk are also older adults, who, though negative for the SARS-Cov-2 infection, suffer with a fatigue syndrome due to home restriction/quarantine. Besides eventual psycological managements, it could be useful to offer to these patients a rehabilitation workouts easy to learn and to independently repeat at home (Full-Body In-Bed Gym). Inspired by the proven capability to recover skeletal muscle contractility and strength by home-based volitional exercises and functional electrical stimulation (FES), we suggest for this fatigue syndrome a 10-20 min long daily routine of easy and safe physical exercises that may recover from muscle weakness the main 400 skeletal muscles used for every-day activities. Leg muscles could be trained also by an adjunctive neuro-muscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in frail old persons. Many of the exercises could be performed in bed (Full-Body in-Bed Gym), thus hospitalized patients can learn this light training before leaving the hospital. Full-Body in-Bed Gym is, indeed, an extension of well-established cardiovascular-ventilation rehabilitation training performed by patients after heavy surgery. Blood pressure readings, monitored before and after daily routine of Full-Body in-Bed Gym, demonstrate a transient decrease in peripheral resistance due to increased blood flow to major body muscles. Continued regularly, Full-Body in-Bed Gym may help maintaining independence of frail people, including those suffering with the fatigue syndrome related to the restrictions/quarantine imposed to the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Aged , Electric Stimulation , Exercise , Humans , Muscle Strength , Muscle Weakness , Muscle, Skeletal , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Heart Lung ; 50(5): 654-659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation is the treatment of choice in COVID-19 patients when hypoxemia persists, despite maximum conventional oxygen administration. Some frail patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure are deemed not eligible for invasive mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in the wards could serve as a rescue therapy in these frail patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included frail COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital between March 9th and May 1st 2020. HFNC therapy was started in the wards. The primary endpoint was the survival rate at hospital discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a median age of 79.0 years (74.5-83.0) and a Clinical Frailty Score of 4 out of 9 (3-6) were included. Only 6% reported HFNC tolerability issues. The overall survival rate was 25% at hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, when preferred, HFNC in the wards could be a potential rescue therapy for respiratory failure in vulnerable COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Cannula , Hospitals , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101373, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242880

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is relevant in older people. Attention was given to the nursing homes in which frailer people are usually admitted. In this review, we discuss the approaches for daily problems found in nursing home as geriatricians and potentially new research directions. We start with the problem of the older people affected by dementia and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for which also the execution of a simple diagnostic test (such as nasopharyngeal swab) could be problematic. Another important problem is the management of wandering patients for which the re-organization of the spaces and vaccination could be the solutions. The relationship with families is another important problem, also from a medico-legal point of view, that can be faced using video conferencing tools. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stratifying prognosis in older nursing home residents for the best management and therapeutically approach, including palliative care, also using telemedicine and the inclusion of prognostic tools in daily clinical practice. Finally, we approached the therapeutical issues in older people that suggests the necessity of future research for finding older-friendly medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/therapy , Geriatricians , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 36: 100896, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in the largest pandemic experienced since 1918, accounting for over 2 million deaths globally. Frail and older people are at the highest risk of mortality. The main objective of the present research was to quantify the impact of clinical frailty scale (CFS) by increasing severity of frailty and to identify other personal prognostic factors associated with increased mortality from COVID-19. METHODS: This study offers a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis to analyse the stratified mortality risk by increasing CFS sub-categories (1-3, 4-5 and 6-9). Databases searched included EMBASE, MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, PsychInfo, and Web of Science with end-search restriction the 18th December 2020. Publications identified via MedRevix were followed up on the 23rd March 2021 in peer-reviewed database search, and citations were updated as published. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies which reported the association between CFS and COVID-19 mortality were included. Thirty-four studies were eligible for systematic review and seventeen for meta-analysis, with 81-87% (I2) heterogeneity. FINDINGS: All studies [N: 34] included patients from a hospital setting, comprising a total of 18,042 patients with mean age 72.8 (Min: 56; Max: 86). The CFS 4-5 patient group had significantly increased mortality when compared to patients with CFS 1-3 [(RE) OR 1.95 (1.32 (95% CI), 2.87 (95% CI)); I2 81%; p = 0.0008]. Furthermore, CFS 6-9 patient group displayed an even more noticeable mortality increase when compared to patients with CFS 1-3 [(RE) OR 3.09 (2.03, 4.71); I2 87%; p<0.0001]. Generic inverse variance analysis of adjusted hazard ratio among included studies highlighted that CFS (p = 0.0001), male gender (p = 0.0009), National Early Warning Score (p = 0.0001), Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) (p = 0.07), Hypertension (HT) (p<0.0001), and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (p = 0.0009) were associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest a differential stratification of CFS scores in the context of COVID-19 infection, in which CFS 1-3 patients may be considered at lower risk, CFS 4-5 at moderate risk, and CFS 6-9 at high risk of mortality regardless of age. Overall, our study not only aims to alert clinicians of the value of CFS scores, but also highlight the multiple dimensions to consider such as age, gender and co-morbidities, even among moderately frail patients in relation to COVID-19 mortality. FUNDING: None.

15.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 1412021 05 20.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the period 27 December 2020 to 15 February 2021, about 29 400 of Norway's roughly 35 000 nursing home patients were vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. During the same period, the Norwegian Medicines Agency received 100 reports of suspected fatal adverse reactions to the vaccine. An expert group has examined the reports and assessed the extent of a causal link between vaccination and death. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The expert group worked in two pairs, each of which examined 50 anonymised reports. Each member first examined the reports alone and classified the causality as unlikely, possible, probable, certain or unclassifiable. Each pair then discussed their results until they reached a consensus. All four experts assessed a random sample of 20 reports. The degree of agreement was assessed using weighted kappa and McNemar's test of symmetry. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 87.7 years (range 61-103 years). Among 100 reported deaths, a causal link to the vaccine was considered probable in 10 cases, possible in 26 and unlikely in 59. Five were unclassifiable. Weighted kappa was 0.40 and 0.38 in the two expert pairs, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Most nursing home patients have a short remaining life expectancy, but vaccination may, in a few cases, have accelerated a process of dying that had already begun. Nursing home patients should still be given priority for vaccination, but the benefits versus risk must be carefully weighed up for the frailest patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238447

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine what was known about disaster preparedness in residential care and to consider this in the light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: Care homes provide long-term care to vulnerable, frail older people, as well as to young people with profound disabilities. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that the residential care sector has been seriously affected in many parts of the world and has exposed major flaws and vulnerabilities in infection control and other processes that have resulted in considerable loss of life of residents of these facilities. DESIGN: Discursive paper informed by a systematic literature. Review was carried out in line with PRISMA reporting guidelines. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO on 2020 [CRD42020211847]. RESULTS: The review identified six papers meeting inclusion criteria across care residential facilities in different countries. Several prevention and mitigation strategies were identified to manage and reduce the spread and severity of viral respiratory infection pandemics. These strategies include isolation, restriction of movement, personal protective and hygienic measures, health education and information sharing, monitoring and coordination, and screening and treatment. Preparedness strategies identified were contingency planning such as reporting/communication, leadership, human resource, insurance, occupational health and resource availability. The prevention/mitigation and preparedness strategies helped to achieve decline in disease severity, reduced prevalence, reduced spread of the disease, improved readiness criteria, resource usefulness and increased intervention acceptability. This paper presents a conceptual framework exploring the interconnectedness of preparedness and prevention/ mitigation strategies and associated outcomes. We discuss areas of concern in the context of workforce employment patterns in the sector. Concerns related to the unintended consequences of strategies placed on aged care facilities, which may worsen mental health outcomes for residents, are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Persons in residential care settings are at greater risk of infection during a pandemic, and therefore, strict measures to protect their safety are warranted. However, they are also a group who already experience social isolation and so any measures involving restrictions to visiting and social interaction, particularly over the longer term, must be accompanied by strategies to mitigate potential loneliness and mental health sequelae arising from long-term pandemic restrictions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Though there was evidence of activity in preparedness for disasters within the residential care sector, various contextual factors affecting the sector were clearly not adequately considered or addressed in pre-pandemic disaster planning, particularly in the areas of staff movements between care homes and the length of time that social isolation and restriction measures would need to be in place. Future pandemic planning should consider the nature of the workforce model in the care home sector, and factor in strategies to better support the mobile and highly casualised workforce.

17.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 7(1): e12166, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235681

ABSTRACT

We focus attention on problems that are affecting the informal caregivers of patients with neurodegenerative disorders in the time of COVID-19. The pandemic is increasing difficulties in the management of the frailest people and their isolation is actually even more tangible than it was in the past. The social restrictions and the lockdown of many activities are putting the system of care provided by informal caregivers on the edge of collapse. We incite the scientific community to face these concerns and provide clinicians clear indications for assisting and supporting caregivers in the care of their relatives during this period. We suggest that e-health programs could become the ideal "environment" to favor the continuity of care for patients with neurodegenerative conditions and guarantee the required support to their caregivers, both directly in terms of psychological management and indirectly for helping them in disease management.

18.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(3): e272-e274, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232688

ABSTRACT

Good nutrition is an integral component of patient care. Not only does eating correctly provide substantial physical benefits, it also ensures psychological comfort throughout admission. Nevertheless, our formative years as medical students, and now as junior doctors, have shown us that patient nutrition is frequently neglected both in the clinical setting and in the subject matter of our education.Amid the coronavirus pandemic, this is especially problematic; older, frailer patients, with multiple comorbidities and higher rates of malnutrition, are faring much worse with the virus. Combined with the fact that 40% of patients admitted to hospital are malnourished to some degree, we are looking at a huge population of potential COVID-19 patients facing a further decline in nutritional status and higher mortality as a result of this, making attention to nutrition more important than ever.As junior doctors, we have a role in the nutritional assessment of and support for our patients by ensuring that all patients are suitably assessed using a scoring tool with the appropriate ensuing actions taken. We must also ensure that our knowledge regarding nutritional assessment and support is adequate and aim to supplement this via additional learning to meet the minimum requirements for our curriculum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Medical Staff, Hospital , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 378-386, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232491

ABSTRACT

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are an oxygen therapy device developed in the last years for the treatment of patients with acute or acute on chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure with different etiology and severity (including covid-19 pneumonia). HFNC combine the possibility of delivering high flows of gases, actively humidified and heated, with the use of a comfortable nasal interface, resulting generally well tolerated by most patients. In light of these characteristics, together with the simplicity of use and versatility, they have spread not only in intensive and semi-intensive care units but also in general medical ward in which they can play an important role in the treatment of elderly, frail patients with comorbidity where other more aggressive and invasive methods of ventilations are not indicated or not practicable.


Subject(s)
Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acidosis, Respiratory/complications , Acidosis, Respiratory/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Equipment Design , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Internal Medicine , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Palliative Care , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications
20.
Bone Jt Open ; 2(5): 314-322, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232454

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Hip fracture is a common condition of the older, frailer person. This population is also at risk from SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is important to understand the impact of coexistent hip fracture and SARS-CoV-2 for informed decision-making at patient and service levels. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of older (> 60 years) people with fragility hip fractures and outcomes with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was early (30-day or in-hospital) mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay and key clinical characteristics known to be associated with outcomes after hip fracture. RESULTS: A total of 14 cohort and five case series studies were included (692 SARS-CoV-2 positive, 2,585 SARS-CoV-2 negative). SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an overall risk ratio (RR) for early mortality of 4.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.42 to 5.82). Early mortality was 34% (95% CI 30% to 38%) and 9% (95% CI 8% to 10%) in the infected and noninfected groups respectively. Length of stay was increased in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (mean difference (MD) 5.2 days (3.2 to 7.2)). Age (MD 1.6 years (0.3 to 2.9)); female sex (RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.05)); admission from home (RR 0.51 (95% CI 0.26 to 1.00)); presence of dementia (RR 1.13 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.43)); and intracapsular fracture (RR 0.89 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.11)) were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were statistically, but not clinically, significantly greater Nottingham Hip Fracture Scores in infected compared with non-infected patients (MD 0.7 (0.4 to 0.9)). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with worse outcomes after hip fracture. This is not explained by differences in patient characteristics. These data can be used to support informed decision-making and may help track the impact of widespread adoption of system-level and therapeutic changes in management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2(5):314-322.

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