Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 126
Filter
1.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(1): e24662, 2021 Jan 26.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is an extremely prevalent condition, and yet, it has received notably less attention than depression and other mental health conditions from a research, clinical, and public health perspective. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated growing concerns about the burden of anxiety due to the confluence of physical health risks, economic stressors, social isolation, and general disruption of daily activities. OBJECTIVE: This study examines differences in anxiety outcomes by care modality (coaching, teletherapy and telepsychiatry, and combined care) within an on-demand mental health system. We also explore the association between levels of engagement within each care modality and odds of improvement in symptoms of anxiety. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of individuals who accessed Ginger, an on-demand mental health system. Data were collected from 1611 Ginger members between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019. We used logistic regression to assess the association between care modality and improvement in anxiety symptoms. Within each modality, we assessed the association between level of engagement and improvement. RESULTS: Of 1611 Ginger members, 761 (47.0%) experienced a decrease in anxiety symptoms, as measured by a change from a positive to a negative 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) screen. Among members who still screened positive at follow-up (865/1611, 53%), a total of 192 members (11.9%) experienced a clinically significant score reduction in the full GAD-7 (ie, a score reduction of >5 points), even though their GAD-2 scores were still positive. All modalities showed increased odds of improvement compared to those who were not engaged with coaching or clinical services ("app-only"). Higher GAD-7 intake scores were also associated with decreased odds of improvement. CONCLUSIONS: This study found increased odds of anxiety improvement for all care modalities compared to those who did not engage in care, with larger effect sizes for higher utilization within all care modalities. Additionally, there is a promising observation that those engaged in combined care (teletherapy and text-based coaching) had the greatest odds of anxiety improvement. Future directions include more detailed classifications of utilization patterns and an exploration of explanations and solutions for lower-utilization members.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur Respir J ; 58(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function and clinical symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors within 3 months after hospital discharge, and to identify risk factors associated with impaired lung function. METHODS AND MATERIAL: COVID-19 patients were prospectively followed-up with pulmonary function tests and clinical characteristics for 3 months following discharge from a hospital in Wuhan, China between January and February 2020. RESULTS: 647 patients were included. 87 (13%) patients presented with weakness, 63 (10%) with palpitations and 56 (9%) with dyspnoea. The prevalence of each of the three symptoms were markedly higher in severe patients than nonsevere patients (19% versus 10% for weakness, p=0.003; 14% versus 7% for palpitations, p=0.007; 12% versus 7% for dyspnoea, p=0.014). Results of multivariable regression showed increased odds of ongoing symptoms among severe patients (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p=0.026) or patients with longer hospital stays (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.041). Pulmonary function test results were available for 81 patients, including 41 nonsevere and 40 severe patients. In this subgroup, 44 (54%) patients manifested abnormal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D LCO) (68% severe versus 42% nonsevere patients, p=0.019). Chest computed tomography (CT) total severity score >10.5 (OR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-44.1; p=0.001) on admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-15.5; p=0.014) were significantly associated with impaired D LCO. Pulmonary interstitial damage may be associated with abnormal D LCO. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function, particularly D LCO, declined in COVID-19 survivors. This decrease was associated with total severity score of chest CT >10.5 and ARDS occurrence. Pulmonary interstitial damage might contribute to the imparied D LCO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet ; 396(10259): 1335-1344, 2020 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients receiving dialysis in the USA share the socioeconomic characteristics of underserved communities, and undergo routine monthly laboratory testing, facilitating a practical, unbiased, and repeatable assessment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, in partnership with a central laboratory that receives samples from approximately 1300 dialysis facilities across the USA, we tested the remainder plasma of 28 503 randomly selected adult patients receiving dialysis in July, 2020, using a spike protein receptor binding domain total antibody chemiluminescence assay (100% sensitivity, 99·8% specificity). We extracted data on age, sex, race and ethnicity, and residence and facility ZIP codes from the anonymised electronic health records, linking patient-level residence data with cumulative and daily cases and deaths per 100 000 population and with nasal swab test positivity rates. We standardised prevalence estimates according to the overall US dialysis and adult population, and present estimates for four prespecified strata (age, sex, region, and race and ethnicity). FINDINGS: The sampled population had similar age, sex, and race and ethnicity distribution to the US dialysis population, with a higher proportion of older people, men, and people living in majority Black and Hispanic neighbourhoods than in the US adult population. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8·0% (95% CI 7·7-8·4) in the sample, 8·3% (8·0-8·6) when standardised to the US dialysis population, and 9·3% (8·8-9·9) when standardised to the US adult population. When standardised to the US dialysis population, seroprevalence ranged from 3·5% (3·1-3·9) in the west to 27·2% (25·9-28·5) in the northeast. Comparing seroprevalent and case counts per 100 000 population, we found that 9·2% (8·7-9·8) of seropositive patients were diagnosed. When compared with other measures of SARS-CoV-2 spread, seroprevalence correlated best with deaths per 100 000 population (Spearman's ρ=0·77). Residents of non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic neighbourhoods experienced higher odds of seropositivity (odds ratio 3·9 [95% CI 3·4-4·6] and 2·3 [1·9-2·6], respectively) compared with residents of predominantly non-Hispanic white neighbourhoods. Residents of neighbourhoods in the highest population density quintile experienced increased odds of seropositivity (10·3 [8·7-12·2]) compared with residents of the lowest density quintile. County mobility restrictions that reduced workplace visits by at least 5% in early March, 2020, were associated with lower odds of seropositivity in July, 2020 (0·4 [0·3-0·5]) when compared with a reduction of less than 5%. INTERPRETATION: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer than 10% of the US adult population formed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and fewer than 10% of those with antibodies were diagnosed. Public health efforts to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread need to especially target racial and ethnic minority and densely populated communities. FUNDING: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 22(7): 603-615, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children admitted to the PICU for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The secondary objective was to identify explanatory factors associated with outcome of critical illness defined by a composite index of in-hospital mortality and organ system support requirement. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-eight PICUs within the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from March 2020 to January 2021. PATIENTS: Children less than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 394 patients, 171 (43.4%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were more likely younger (2-12 yr vs adolescents; p < 0.01), Black (35.6% vs 21.9%; p < 0.01), present with fever/abdominal pain than cough/dyspnea (p < 0.01), and less likely to have comorbidities (33.3% vs 61.9%; p < 0.01) compared with those without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Inflammatory marker levels, use of inotropes/vasopressors, corticosteroids, and anticoagulants were higher in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients (p < 0.01). Overall mortality was 3.8% (15/394), with no difference in the two groups. Diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children was associated with longer duration of hospitalization as compared to nonmultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (7.5 d[interquartile range, 5-11] vs 5.3 d [interquartile range, 3-11 d]; p < 0.01). Critical illness occurred in 164 patients (41.6%) and was more common in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children compared with those without (55.6% vs 30.9%; p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis failed to show an association between critical illness and age, race, sex, greater than or equal to three signs and symptoms, or greater than or equal to two comorbidities among the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children cohort. Among nonmultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients, the presence of greater than or equal to two comorbidities was associated with greater odds of critical illness (odds ratio 2.95 [95% CI, 1.61-5.40]; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study delineates significant clinically relevant differences in presentation, explanatory factors, and outcomes among children admitted to PICU with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness stratified by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Dermatitis ; 32(1S): S45-S52, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to characterize a large cohort of COVID-19-positive adult patients with AD and to identify predictors of COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: A population-based nested case-control study was performed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of predictors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Of 78,073 adult patients with AD, 3618 (4.6%) tested positive for COVID-19. Subclinical COVID-19 infection occurred in 3368 (93.1%) of COVID-19-positive patients, whereas 123 (3.4%), 46 (1.3%), 55 (1.5%), and 26 (0.7%) patients developed a mild, moderate, severe, and critical disease, respectively. Altogether, 250 patients (6.0%) were hospitalized, and 40 patients (1.1%) died because of COVID-19 complications. Coronavirus disease 2019-associated hospitalization was independently associated with the intake of extended courses of systemic corticosteroids (adjusted odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.14; P = 0.005). None of AD-related variables independently predicted COVID-19-associated mortality. The presence of comorbid metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, and depression projected both COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged systemic corticosteroids during the pandemic are associated with increased odds of COVID-19-associated hospitalization and should be avoided in patients with AD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cost of Illness , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Survival Rate , Young Adult
7.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(3): 499-504, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic report high levels of psychological distress. We examined whether concerns regarding transmission of COVID-19 to loved ones and social distancing from loved ones were associated with HCWs' distress. We tested whether living with others modified these associations. METHOD: HCWs at a New York City academic medical center (N = 767; 80.7% female, 58.5% White) enrolled in the COVID-19 Health Care Provider Study and completed a web-based survey between April 9, 2020 and May 11, 2020. RESULTS: Controlling for demographics, distress regarding potential transmission to loved ones and social distancing from loved ones were each significantly associated with higher odds of a positive screen for acute stress, depression, and anxiety (ORs = 1.29-1.59, all ps < .01). Living with others was associated with lower odds of a positive screen for depression and anxiety, though the protective effect for anxiety was evident only for HCWs with no distress regarding transmission concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Transmission concerns and social distancing from loved ones were associated with greater odds of psychological distress, whereas living with others was associated with lower odds of distress. Interventions should consider ways to facilitate the ability of HCWs to receive social support from loved ones, while simultaneously protecting their family's health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(6): e0456, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270759

ABSTRACT

To determine if early CNS symptoms are associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational case series study design. SETTING: Electronic health records were reviewed for patients from five healthcare systems across the state of Florida, United States. PATIENTS: A clinical sample (n = 36,615) of patients with confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 were included. Twelve percent (n = 4,417) of the sample developed severe coronavirus disease 2019, defined as requiring critical care, mechanical ventilation, or diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, or severe inflammatory response syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: We reviewed the electronic health record for diagnosis of early CNS symptoms (encephalopathy, headache, ageusia, anosmia, dizziness, acute cerebrovascular disease) between 14 days before the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 and 8 days after the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019, or before the date of severe coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis, whichever came first. Hierarchal logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 based on diagnosis of early CNS symptoms. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients were significantly more likely to have early CNS symptoms (32.8%) compared with nonsevere patients (6.11%; χ2[1] = 3,266.08, p < 0.0001, φ = 0.29). After adjusting for demographic variables and pertinent comorbidities, early CNS symptoms were significantly associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (odds ratio = 3.21). Diagnosis of encephalopathy (odds ratio = 14.38) was associated with greater odds of severe coronavirus disease 2019; whereas diagnosis of anosmia (odds ratio = 0.45), ageusia (odds ratio = 0.46), and headache (odds ratio = 0.63) were associated with reduced odds of severe coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Early CNS symptoms, and specifically encephalopathy, are differentially associated with risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 and may serve as an early marker for differences in clinical disease course. Therapies for early coronavirus disease 2019 are scarce, and further identification of subgroups at risk may help to advance understanding of the severity trajectories and enable focused treatment.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 678200, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266669

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The quantitative effect of underlying non-communicable diseases on acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence and the factors affecting the odds of death among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) AKI patients were unclear at population level. This study aimed to assess the association between AKI, mortality, underlying non-communicable diseases, and clinical risk factors. Methods: A systematic search of six databases was performed from January 1, 2020, until October 5, 2020. Peer-reviewed observational studies containing quantitative data on risk factors and incidence of renal manifestations of COVID-19 were included. Location, institution, and time period were matched to avoid duplicated data source. Incidence, prevalence, and odds ratio of outcomes were extracted and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. History of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and age group were stratified for analysis. Univariable meta-regression models were built using AKI incidence as dependent variable, with underlying comorbidities and clinical presentations at admission as independent variables. Results: Global incidence rates of AKI and RRT in COVID-19 patients were 20.40% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.07-28.74] and 2.97% (95% CI = 1.91-4.04), respectively, among patients without RRT history. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were associated with 8 times (pooled OR = 9.03, 95% CI = 5.45-14.94) and 16.6 times (pooled OR = 17.58, 95% CI = 10.51-29.38) increased odds of death or being critical. At population level, each percentage increase in the underlying prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and tumor history was associated with 0.82% (95% CI = 0.40-1.24), 0.48% (95% CI = 0.18-0.78), 0.99% (95% CI = 0.18-1.79), and 2.85% (95% CI = 0.93-4.76) increased incidence of AKI across different settings, respectively. Although patients who had a kidney transplant presented with a higher incidence of AKI and RRT, their odds of mortality was lower. A positive trend of increased odds of death among AKI patients against the interval between symptom onset and hospital admission was observed. Conclusion: Underlying prevalence of non-communicable diseases partly explained the heterogeneity in the AKI incidence at population level. Delay in admission after symptom onset could be associated with higher mortality among patients who developed AKI and warrants further research.

10.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4597-4602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263097

ABSTRACT

Biological sex could affect the natural history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We enrolled all COVID-19 patients admitted to two COVID-19 hospitals in Milan in a prospective observational study. The primary outcome was death during the study period and the secondary outcome was critical disease at hospital admission. The association(s) between clinically relevant, noncollinear variables, and the primary outcome was assessed with uni- and multivariable Logistic regression models. A total of 520 patients were hospitalized of whom 349 (67%) were males with a median age 61 (interquartile range: 50-72). A higher proportion of males presented critically ill when compared to females (30.1% vs. 18.7%, p < .046). Death occurred in 86 (24.6%) males and 27 (15.8%) females (p = .024). In multivariable analysis age (per 10 years more) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.42-2.35], p < .0001), obesity (AOR: 2.17 [95% CI: 1.10-4.31], p = .026), critical disease at hospital admission (AOR 6.34 [95% CI: 3.50-11.48], p < .0001) were independently associated to higher odds of death whereas gender was not. In conclusion, a higher proportion of males presented critically ill at hospital admission. Age, critical disease at hospital admission, obesity, anemia, D-dimer, estimated glomerular filtration rate, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase predicted death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e24947, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth is an increasingly important component of health care delivery in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, well-documented disparities persist in the use of digital technologies. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe smartphone and internet use within a diverse sample, to assess the association of smartphone and internet use with markers of health literacy and health access, and to identify the mediating factors in these relationships. METHODS: Surveys were distributed to a targeted sample designed to oversample historically underserved communities from April 2017 to December 2017. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association of internet and smartphone use with outcomes describing health care access and markers of health literacy for the total cohort and after stratifying by personal history of cancer. Health care access was captured using multiple variables, including the ability to obtain medical care when needed. Markers of health literacy included self-reported confidence in obtaining health information. RESULTS: Of the 2149 participants, 1319 (61.38%) were women, 655 (30.48%) were non-Hispanic White, and 666 (30.99%) were non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 51 years (IQR 38-65). Most respondents reported using the internet (1921/2149, 89.39%) and owning a smartphone (1800/2149, 83.76%). Compared with the respondents with smartphone or internet access, those without smartphone or internet access were more likely to report that a doctor was their most recent source of health information (344/1800, 19.11% vs 116/349, 33.2% for smartphone and 380/1921, 19.78% vs 80/228, 35.1% for internet, respectively; both P<.001). Internet use was associated with having looked for information on health topics from any source (odds ratio [OR] 3.81, 95% CI 2.53-5.75) and confidence in obtaining health information when needed (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.00-3.34) compared with noninternet users. Smartphone owners had lower odds of being unable to obtain needed medical care (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.95) than nonsmartphone owners. Among participants with a prior history of cancer, smartphone ownership was significantly associated with higher odds of confidence in ability to obtain needed health information (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.05-30.23) and lower odds of inability to obtain needed medical care (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.47), although these associations were not significant among participants without a prior history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We describe widespread use of digital technologies in a community-based cohort, although disparities persist. In this cohort, smartphone ownership was significantly associated with ability to obtain needed medical care, suggesting that the use of smartphone technology may play a role in increasing health care access. Similarly, major illnesses such as cancer have the potential to amplify health engagement. Finally, special emphasis must be placed on reaching patient populations with limited digital access, so these patients are not further disadvantaged in the new age of telehealth.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Ownership , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report , Smartphone/supply & distribution , Vulnerable Populations
12.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(4): 330-339, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262139

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To consolidate evidence to determine (i) the association between cardiovascular risk factors and health outcomes with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19); and (ii) the impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular health. METHODS AND RESULTS: An umbrella review of systematic reviews was conducted. Fourteen medical databases and pre-print servers were searched from 1 January 2020 to 5 November 2020. The review focused on reviews rated as moderate or high-quality using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Eighty-four reviews were identified; 31 reviews were assessed as moderate quality and one was high-quality. The following risk factors were associated with higher mortality and severe COVID-19: renal disease [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for mortality 3.07 (2.43-3.88)], diabetes mellitus [OR 2.09 (1.80-2.42)], hypertension [OR 2.50 (2.02-3.11)], smoking history [risk ratio (RR) 1.26 (1.20-1.32)], cerebrovascular disease [RR 2.75 (1.54-4.89)], and cardiovascular disease [OR 2.65 (1.86-3.78)]. Liver disease was associated with higher odds of mortality [OR 2.81 (1.31-6.01)], but not severe COVID-19. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 [RR 1.80 (1.14-2.85)], but not mortality. Obesity associated with higher odds of mortality [OR 2.18 (1.10-4.34)], but there was an absence of evidence for severe COVID-19. In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, the following incident cardiovascular complications were identified: acute heart failure (2%), myocardial infarction (4%), deep vein thrombosis (7%), myocardial injury (10%), angina (10%), arrhythmias (18%), pulmonary embolism (19%), and venous thromboembolism (25%). CONCLUSION: Many of the risk factors identified as associated with adverse outcomes with COVID-19 are potentially modifiable. Primary and secondary prevention strategies that target cardiovascular risk factors may improve outcomes for people following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/classification , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Preventive Health Services/methods , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261187

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Risk factors and mediators of associations of diabetes with COVID-19 outcomes are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified all veterans receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare with ≥1 positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 (28 February-31 July 2020; n=35 879). We assessed associations of diabetes (with and without insulin use) with hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death at 30 days, and with hazard of death until the censoring date. Among participants with diabetes (n=13 863), we examined associations of hemoglobin A1c and antihyperglycemic medication use with COVID-19 outcomes. We estimated mediation between diabetes and outcomes by comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease), statin or ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, and cardiac biomarkers (brain natriuretic peptide and troponin). RESULTS: Diabetes with and without insulin use was associated with greater odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death at 30 days, and with greater hazard of death compared with no diabetes (OR 1.73, 1.76 and 1.63, and HR 1.61; and OR 1.39, 1.49 and 1.33, and HR 1.37, respectively, all p<0.0001). Prior sulfonylurea use was associated with greater odds of hospitalization and prior insulin use with hospitalization and death among patients with diabetes; among all participants, statin use was associated with lower mortality and ARB use with lower odds of hospitalization. Cardiovascular disease-related factors mediated <20% of associations between diabetes and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is independently associated with adverse outcomes from COVID-19. Associations are only partially mediated by common comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Veterans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2017-2032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the incidence and outcome of COVID-19 patients who required positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and subsequently developed pulmonary barotrauma (PBT). Also, to investigate the risk factors and predictors of these complications to better understand the disease pathogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled all adult COVID-19 patients admitted through the period from October 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. All patients who received any form of PPV were included. Patients were then divided into two groups based on PBT development, including subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. Medical records of all patients were reviewed. Patients' demographics, laboratory data on admission, respiratory support modes, surgical interventions, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In the specified period, 1095 patients were hospitalized due to COVID-19 illness. A total of 239 (21.8%) of all admitted patients received PPV. PBT accounted for 21.3% (51/239) of the study cohort. While both groups were equally exposed to the same modes of PPV, receiving invasive ventilation significantly correlated with decreased PBT odds (OR = 0.891; 95% CI, 0.803-0.988; p=0.029). PBT patients were significantly younger (p<0.001). Diabetes mellitus was found to have a protective effect on developing PBT (OR = 0.867; 95% CI, 0.782-0.962), while PO2/FIO2 ratio was inversely associated with higher odds of developing PBT in both univariate and multivariate analyses (p=0.03 and p=0.019, respectively). CONCLUSION: COVID-19-infected patients are at a higher risk of developing PBT. Invasive positive pressure ventilation was associated with less PBT compared to noninvasive ventilation and delaying intubation does not seem to reduce the risk of pulmonary barotrauma.

15.
Mycoses ; 64(9): 1015-1027, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247256

ABSTRACT

Reports of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are rising, but the associated mortality and factors affecting it are not well-characterised. We performed a systematic review including 20 peer-reviewed English language studies reporting mortality in CAPA published till 18 February 2021from PubMed, Ovid SP, Web of Science, Embase and CINHAL. The pooled mortality in CAPA was 51.2% (95% CI: 43.1-61.1, I2  = 38%). The leave one out sensitivity analysis and influential case diagnostics revealed one outlier and its exclusion resulted in a mortality estimate of 54% (95% CI: 45-62). Higher odds of mortality: 2.83 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5) were seen in CAPA compared to controls. No significant difference in various subgroups according to the country of study, the continent of study, income category of country and quality of the included study was seen. None of the host risk factors, mycological test results, therapy for COVID-19 and antifungal therapy affected mortality. Thus, patients with CAPA have a high probability of mortality and early diagnosis with prompt therapy must be ensured to optimally manage these patients. However, more prospective studies with global and multi-centre coordination may help to address CAPA in a better way.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Cause of Death , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2419-2429, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Frailty leaves older adults vulnerable to adverse health outcomes. Frailty assessment is recommended by multiple COVID-19 guidelines to inform care and resource allocation. We aimed to identify, describe, and synthesize studies reporting the association of frailty with outcomes (informed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim [health, resource use, and experience]) in individuals with COVID-19. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Studies reporting associations between frailty and outcomes in the setting of COVID-19 diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS: Following review of titles, abstracts and full text, we included 52 studies that contained 118,373 participants with COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic studies tool. Our primary outcome was mortality, secondary outcomes included delirium, intensive care unit admission, need for ventilation and discharge location. Where appropriate, random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted and unadjusted effect measures by frailty instrument. RESULTS: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) was the most used frailty instrument. Mortality was reported in 37 studies. After confounder adjustment, frailty identified using the CFS was significantly associated with mortality in COVID-19 positive patients (odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.14; hazard ratio 1.87, 95% CI 1.33-2.61). On an unadjusted basis, frailty identified using the CFS was significantly associated with increased odds of delirium and reduced odds of intensive care unit admission. Results were generally consistent using other frailty instruments. Patient-reported, cost and experience outcomes were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Frailty is associated with a substantial increase in mortality risk in COVID-19 patients, even after adjustment. Delirium risk is also increased. Frailty assessment may help to guide prognosis and individualized care planning, but data relating frailty status to patient-reported outcomes are urgently needed to provide a more comprehensive overview of outcomes relevant to older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Frailty/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Odds Ratio , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 998, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first detected in Lebanon on February 21, 2020; it reached its peak in January 2021, with a total number of 418,448 confirmed cases and 5380 deaths (until March 15, 2021). Gaining insight into factors regarding willingness or refusal for vaccination might guide our goals in raising the awareness and target efforts to increase acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and maximize the uptake. Therefore, this study aims to assess the intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among Lebanese adults and the factors associated with vaccine refusal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study during November-December 2020 among Lebanese adults from all Lebanese regions using a survey tool with closed-ended questions that included sociodemographic data and questions about vaccine hesitancy, knowledge, attitude, practice, and fear of COVID-19. We used the snowball technique to collect the data because of the COVID-19 imposed lockdown. RESULTS: Of the 579 participants, 21.4% were willing to receive the vaccine, 40.9% refused, and the remainder were unsure of their response. More vaccine hesitancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09) was significantly associated with more odds of disagreeing/ strongly disagreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. More vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99), female gender compared to males (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.87), and being married compared to single (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.98) were significantly associated with lower odds of agreeing/strongly agreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings revealed a high percentage of people (40%) who strongly disagreed with receiving the vaccine, mainly females, married participants, and those who have a general vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, no significant association was found with knowledge, attitude, or prevention practice regarding COVID-19. Targeted efforts are necessary to increase acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine among the Lebanese population to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to validate our results and provide better insights into the underlying reasons for refusing vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Attitude , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lebanon , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 may experience complications following hospitalization and require readmission. This analysis estimates the rate and risk factors associated with COVID-19-related readmission and inpatient mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing deidentified chargemaster data from 297 hospitals across 40 US states on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 February 15-June 09, 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, acute conditions, and clinical characteristics of first hospitalization are summarized. Mulitvariable logistic regression was used to measure risk factor associations with 30-day readmission and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 29,659 patients, 1,070 (3.6%) were readmitted. Readmitted patients were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) vs those not readmitted (p<0.0001) and to present on first admission with acute kidney injury (15.6% vs. 9.2%), congestive heart failure (6.4% vs. 2.4%), and cardiomyopathy (2.1% vs. 0.8%) (p<0.0001). Higher odds of readmission were observed in patients age >60 vs. 1840 (odds ratio [OR]=1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48, 2.50), and admitted in the Northeast vs. West (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.14, 1.79) or South (OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.11, 1.49). Comorbidities including diabetes (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.12, 1.60), CVD (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.23, 1.72), CKD stage 1-5 (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.25,1.81) and stage 5 (OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.81, 2.86) were associated with higher odds of readmission. 12.3% of readmitted patients died during second hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Among this large US population of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, readmission was associated with certain comorbidities and acute conditions during first hospitalization. These findings may inform strategies to mitigate risks of readmission due to COVID-19 complications.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e558-e565, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disseminates throughout the United States, a better understanding of the patient characteristics associated with hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in diverse geographic regions is essential. METHODS: Hospital chargemaster data on adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to 245 hospitals across 38 states between 15 February and 20 April 2020 were assessed. The clinical course from admission, through hospitalization, and to discharge or death was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 11 721 patients were included (majority were >60 years of age [59.9%] and male [53.4%]). Comorbidities included hypertension (46.7%), diabetes (27.8%), cardiovascular disease (18.6%), obesity (16.1%), and chronic kidney disease (12.2%). Mechanical ventilation was required by 1967 patients (16.8%). Mortality among hospitalized patients was 21.4% and increased to 70.5% among those on mechanical ventilation. Male sex, older age, obesity, geographic region, and the presence of chronic kidney disease or a preexisting cardiovascular disease were associated with increased odds of mechanical ventilation. All aforementioned risk factors, with the exception of obesity, were associated with increased odds of death (all P values < .001). Many patients received investigational medications for treatment of COVID-19, including 48 patients on remdesivir and 4232 on hydroxychloroquine. CONCLUSIONS: This large observational cohort describes the clinical course and identifies factors associated with the outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across the United States. These data can inform strategies to prioritize prevention and treatment for this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Diabetol Int ; 13(1): 108-116, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230302

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic and its associated circumstances had adversely affected patients with chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (QoL), and identify its psychological and clinical correlates in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) during pandemic in Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study, using a convenience sampling technique, was conducted among patients with DM who were recruited from Zagazig University endocrinology outpatient clinics, Sharkia Province, Egypt from June 30 to September 29, 2020. A total of 200 consecutive patients were interviewed using a semistructured demographic and clinical checklist, the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the short form 36 (SF-36) health survey. RESULTS: Poor physical and mental QoL was reported in 64% and 62% of patients with DM, respectively. Female gender, increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), associated physical comorbidities, and depressive symptoms were associated with lesser odds of physical QoL (OR 0.46, 0.96, 0.29, and 0.88, respectively). Besides, female gender, associated physical comorbidities, fear of COVID-19 virus infection (FCV), and depressive symptoms were associated with lesser odds of mental QoL (OR 0.41, 0.36, 0.91, and 0.84, respectively). The FCV was inversely correlated with all items of SF-36 among patients. CONCLUSION: QoL, either physical or mental, was adversely affected among patients with DM during pandemic. FCV was negatively correlated with all QOL domains. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore the long-term effect of pandemic on the physical and mental well-being of patients with DM.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL