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1.
PeerJ ; 9: e11407, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has led to unprecedented psychological stress on the general public. However, the associations between media exposure to COVID-19 and acute stress responses have not been explored during the early COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: An online survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between media exposure to COVID-19 and acute stress responses, and to recognize associated predictors of acute stress responses on a sample of 1,450 Chinese citizens from February 3 to February 10, 2020. Media exposure questionnaire related to COVID-19 was developed to assess media exposure time, media exposure forms and media exposure content. The Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ) was used to measure acute stress responses, including continuous acute stress symptom scores and the risk of probable acute stress disorder (ASD). A series of regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Longer media exposure time and social media use were associated with higher acute stress and probable ASD. Viewing the situation of infected patients was associated with higher acute stress, whereas viewing the latest news about pandemic data was associated with lower odds of probable ASD. Being females, living in Hubei Province, someone close to them diagnosed with COVID-19, history of mental illness, recent adverse life events and previous collective trauma exposure were risk factors for acute stress responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirmed the associations between indirect media exposure to pandemic events and acute stress responses. The governments should be aware of the negative impacts of disaster-related media exposure and implement appropriate interventions to promote psychological well-being following pandemic events.

2.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(6): 857-862, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 has affected more than 73.8 million individuals. While SARS-CoV2 is considered a predominantly respiratory virus, we report a trend of bradycardia among hospitalized patients, particularly in association with mortality. METHODOLOGY: The multi-center retrospective analysis consisted of 1053 COVID-19 positive patients from March to August 2020. A trend of bradycardia was noted in the study population. Absolute bradycardia and profound bradycardia was defined as a sustained heart rate < 60 BPM and < 50 BPM, respectively, on two separate occasions, a minimum of 4 h apart during hospitalization. Each bradycardic event was confirmed by two physicians and exclusion criteria included: less than 18 years old, end of life bradycardia, left AMA, or taking AV Nodal blockers. Data was fetched using a SQL program through the EMR and data was analyzed using SPSS 27.0. A logistic regression was done to study the effect of bradycardia, age, gender, and BMI on mortality in the study group. RESULTS: 24.9% patients had absolute bradycardia while 13.0% had profound bradycardia. Patients with absolute bradycardia had an odds ratio of 6.59 (95% CI [2.83-15.36]) for mortality compared with individuals with a normal HR response. The logistic regression model explained 19.6% (Nagelkerke R2 ) of variance in the mortality, correctly classified 88.6% of cases, and was statistically significant X2 (5)=47.10, p < .001. For each year of age > 18, the odds of dying increased 1.048 times (95% CI [1.25-5.27]). CONCLUSION: The incidence of absolute bradycardia was found in 24.9% of the study cohort and these individuals were found to have a significant increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105857, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213403

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize differences in disposition arrangement among rehab-eligible stroke patients at a Comprehensive Stroke Center before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a prospective registry for demographics, hospital course, and discharge dispositions of rehab-eligible acute stroke survivors admitted 6 months prior to (10/2019-03/2020) and during (04/2020-09/2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was discharge to an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) as opposed to other facilities using descriptive statistics, and IRF versus home using unadjusted and adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 507 rehab-eligible stroke survivors, there was no difference in age, premorbid disability, or stroke severity between study periods (p>0.05). There was a 9% absolute decrease in discharges to an IRF during the pandemic (32.1% vs. 41.1%, p=0.04), which translated to 38% lower odds of being discharged to IRF versus home in unadjusted regression (OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.42-0.92, p=0.016). The lower odds of discharge to IRF persisted in the multivariable model (aOR 0.16, 95%CI 0.09-0.31, p<0.001) despite a significant increase in discharge disability (median discharge mRS 4 [IQR 2-4] vs. 2 [IQR 1-3], p<0.001) during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significantly lower probability of being discharged to an IRF. This effect persisted despite adjustment for predictors of IRF disposition, including functional disability at discharge. Potential reasons for this disparity are explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge/trends , Patient Transfer/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke Rehabilitation/trends , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Jersey , Recovery of Function , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Time Factors
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 278: 113956, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201965

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: It has been recognized that exposure to mass trauma tends to increase the time spent watching television (TV) news. Yet, research on the effects of this tendency on individuals' well-being yielded inconclusive findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of prior trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on changes in the amount of TV news watching and its effect on subsequent PTSD. More specifically, we examined the interrelations of prior exposure to war captivity, long-term PTSD trajectories, and amount of change TV news watching with PTSD severity during the COVID-19 pandemic, among aging Israeli combat veterans. METHODS: One-hundred-and-twenty Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) from 1973 Yom Kippur War and 65 matched controls (combat veterans from the same war) were followed up at five points of time: 1991 (T1), 2003 (T2), 2008 (T3), 2015 (T4), and in April-May 2020 (T5), during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Ex-POWs had higher odds of COVID-19 related increase in TV news watching, which, in turn, contributed to PTSD severity at T5. In addition, delayed PTSD trajectory was associated with COVID-19 related increase in TV news watching, which, in turn, contributed to more severe PTSD at T5. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the negative implications of TV news watching during a mass trauma for traumatized individuals. More specifically, they demonstrate its potential pathogenic role in exacerbating prior PTSD among trauma survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners of War , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Veterans , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
5.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14051, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156213

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic that has placed an unprecedented burden on intensive care services worldwide. Identification of a reliable risk-stratification tool for COVID-19 patients is necessary for appropriate resource allocation, selection of clinical management pathways, and guidance of goals of care conversations with families and caregivers in the critical care setting. The Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system is one of several predictive models used to classify illness severity and estimate mortality risk on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Our retrospective study sought to evaluate the prognostic ability of the APACHE II score in COVID-19 patients according to endpoints of mortality and length of stay (LOS) as well as unfavorable clinical outcomes, including development of acute renal failure (ARF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) and acute venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated a randomized sample of 3,102 patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted to the ICU from January 2020 to May 2020. A total of 395 patients with complete data points for appropriate APACHE II score calculation, absence of the preexisting comorbidities end-stage renal disease, and history of VTE were included. Linear and logistic regression models were employed to evaluate primary outcomes of mortality and LOS as well as secondary outcomes of VTE and ARF requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or hemodialysis (HD). Key results Among the 395 patients enrolled, total percent mortality and mean LOS were 37.0% and 12.92 days, respectively. Primary outcome analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in odds of mortality as well as in mean LOS with every additional point increase in APACHE II score from a baseline of zero. Specifically, for every point increase in the APACHE II score, odds of mortality increased by 12% (p value < 0.001), and average LOS increased by 0.2 days (p value < 0.001). In our secondary outcome analysis, 14.43% and 62.2% of the total sample population developed ARF requiring RRT and VTE, respectively. For every additional point increase in APACHE II score from a baseline of zero, odds of requiring CRRT or HD increased by 10% on average (95% CI (1.06, 1.15); p value < 0.001). Similarly, for every additional point increase in the APACHE II score from a baseline of zero, there was a corresponding increase in odds of VTE by 19% (95% CI (1.14, 1.24); p value < 0.001). Conclusions The APACHE II score is an effective predictive model of in-hospital mortality and unfavorable clinical outcomes, including prolonged LOS, ARF requiring CRRT or HD, and development of VTE. As therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 evolve, application of this risk-stratification tool may guide clinical management decisions in the critical care setting.

6.
J Occup Rehabil ; 31(3): 455-462, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114310

ABSTRACT

Purpose To determine if losing work during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with mental and physical health status. To determine if social interactions and financial resources moderate the relationship between work loss and health. Methods Participants were Australians aged 18 + years that were employed in paid work prior to the COVID-19 pandemic who responded to an online or telephone survey from 27th March to 12th June 2020 as part of a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Outcome measures include Kessler-6 score > 18 indicating high psychological distress, and Short Form 12 (SF-12) mental health or physical health component score < = 45 indicating poor mental or physical health. Results The cohort consisted of 2,603 respondents, including groups who had lost their job (N = 541), were not working but remained employed (N = 613), were working less (N = 660), and whose work was unaffected (N = 789). Three groups experiencing work loss had greater odds of high psychological distress (AOR = 2.22-3.66), poor mental (AOR = 1.78-2.27) and physical health (AOR = 2.10-2.12) than the unaffected work group. Poor mental health was more common than poor physical health. The odds of high psychological distress (AOR = 5.43-8.36), poor mental (AOR = 1.92-4.53) and physical health (AOR = 1.93-3.90) were increased in those reporting fewer social interactions or less financial resources. Conclusion Losing work during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with mental and physical health problems, and this relationship is moderated by social interactions and financial resources. Responses that increase financial security and enhance social connections may alleviate the health impacts of work loss. Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12620000857909.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Mental Health , Pandemics , Unemployment/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067777

ABSTRACT

Around two percent of asymptomatic women in labor test positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Spain. Families and care providers face childbirth with uncertainty. We determined if SARS-CoV-2 infection at delivery among asymptomatic mothers had different obstetric outcomes compared to negative patients. This was a multicenter prospective study based on universal antenatal screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 42 hospitals tested women admitted for delivery using polymerase chain reaction, from March to May 2020. We included positive mothers and a sample of negative mothers asymptomatic throughout the antenatal period, with 6-week postpartum follow-up. Association between SARS-CoV-2 and obstetric outcomes was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. In total, 174 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies were compared with 430 asymptomatic negative pregnancies. No differences were observed between both groups in key maternal and neonatal outcomes at delivery and follow-up, with the exception of prelabor rupture of membranes at term (adjusted odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.11; p = 0.015). Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers have higher odds of prelabor rupture of membranes at term, without an increase in perinatal complications, compared to negative mothers. Pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 at admission for delivery should be reassured by their healthcare workers in the absence of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0237202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic spread rapidly worldwide increasing exponentially in Italy. To date, there is lack of studies describing clinical characteristics of the people at high risk of infection. Hence, we aimed (i) to identify clinical predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, (ii) to develop and validate a score predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and (iii) to compare it with unspecific scores. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study using administrative health-related database was carried out in Southern Italy (Campania region) among beneficiaries of Regional Health Service aged over than 30 years. For each person with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection (case), up to five controls were randomly matched for gender, age and municipality of residence. Odds ratios and 90% confidence intervals for associations between candidate predictors and risk of infection were estimated by means of conditional logistic regression. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Score (SIS) was developed by generating a total aggregate score obtained from assignment of a weight at each selected covariate using coefficients estimated from the model. Finally, the score was categorized by assigning increasing values from 1 to 4. Discriminant power was used to compare SIS performance with that of other comorbidity scores. RESULTS: Subjects suffering from diabetes, anaemias, Parkinson's disease, mental disorders, cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel and kidney diseases showed increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar estimates were recorded for men and women and younger and older than 65 years. Fifteen conditions significantly contributed to the SIS. As SIS value increases, risk progressively increases, being odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with the highest SIS value (SIS = 4) 1.74 times higher than those unaffected by any SIS contributing conditions (SIS = 1). CONCLUSION: Conditions and diseases making people more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified by the current study. Our results support decision-makers in identifying high-risk people and adopting of preventive measures to minimize the spread of further epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
9.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031171

ABSTRACT

Around two percent of asymptomatic women in labor test positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Spain. Families and care providers face childbirth with uncertainty. We determined if SARS-CoV-2 infection at delivery among asymptomatic mothers had different obstetric outcomes compared to negative patients. This was a multicenter prospective study based on universal antenatal screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 42 hospitals tested women admitted for delivery using polymerase chain reaction, from March to May 2020. We included positive mothers and a sample of negative mothers asymptomatic throughout the antenatal period, with 6-week postpartum follow-up. Association between SARS-CoV-2 and obstetric outcomes was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. In total, 174 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies were compared with 430 asymptomatic negative pregnancies. No differences were observed between both groups in key maternal and neonatal outcomes at delivery and follow-up, with the exception of prelabor rupture of membranes at term (adjusted odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.11; p = 0.015). Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers have higher odds of prelabor rupture of membranes at term, without an increase in perinatal complications, compared to negative mothers. Pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 at admission for delivery should be reassured by their healthcare workers in the absence of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
J Psychosom Res ; 139: 110262, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023669

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: No studies have reported mental health symptom comparisons prior to and during COVID-19 in vulnerable medical populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare anxiety and depression symptoms among people with a pre-existing medical condition and factors associated with changes. METHODS: Pre-COVID-19 Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort data were linked to COVID-19 data from April 2020. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used to assess factors associated with continuous change and ≥ 1 minimal clinically important difference (MCID) change for anxiety (PROMIS Anxiety 4a v1.0; MCID = 4.0) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-8; MCID = 3.0) symptoms, controlling for pre-COVID-19 levels. RESULTS: Mean anxiety symptoms increased 4.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0 to 5.7). Depression symptom change was negligible (0.3 points; 95% CI -0.7 to 0.2). Compared to France (N = 159), adjusted anxiety symptom change scores were significantly higher in the United Kingdom (N = 50; 3.3 points, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.6), United States (N = 128; 2.5 points, 95% CI 0.7 to 4.2), and Canada (N = 98; 1.9 points, 95% CI 0.1 to 3.8). Odds of ≥1 MCID increase were 2.6 for the United Kingdom (95% CI 1.2 to 5.7) but not significant for the United States (1.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.9) or Canada (1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.5). Older age and adequate financial resources were associated with less continuous anxiety increase. Employment and shorter time since diagnosis were associated with lower odds of a ≥ 1 MCID increase. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety symptoms, but not depression symptoms, increased dramatically during COVID-19 among people with a pre-existing medical condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Patient-Centered Care/trends , Scleroderma, Systemic/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Middle Aged , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Scleroderma, Systemic/epidemiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041471, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the characteristics and clinical significance of plasma inflammatory cytokines altered in COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-centre cohort study. SETTING: Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: Among a cohort of 308 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19, 138 patients died while 170 patients recovered and were discharged from the hospital. The data were collected until 27 February 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records using data collection forms. RESULTS: The percentage of patients with elevated interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) increased with severity of disease (p<0.0001 for all). IL-2R (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p<0.0001), IL-8 (p=0.0001), IL-10 (p<0.0001) and TNF (p<0.0001) were also twofold to 20-fold higher in patients who died compared with those who recovered. Also, IL-6 and IL-10 increased in both the progressive patient groups: moderate (p=0.0026) and severe (p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, higher levels of IL-2R (OR 1.001, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.002, p=0.031) and IL-6 (OR 1.013, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.024, p=0.015) on admission were associated with increasing odds of in-hospital death, independent of other covariates, including severity of disease and lymphocyte count. CONCLUSION: Increased proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, TNF and IL-10, showed an obvious association with both COVID-19 severity and in-hospital mortality. Thus, our study indicates that cytokines are valuable in predicting the severity of COVID-19 and helps in distinguishing critically ill patients from the less affected ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Hospital Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1443-1449, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842498

ABSTRACT

Washing hands often, especially during times when one is likely to acquire and spread pathogens,* is one important measure to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as other pathogens spread by respiratory or fecal-oral transmission (1,2). Studies have reported moderate to high levels of self-reported handwashing among adults worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic (3-5)†; however, little is known about how handwashing behavior among U.S. adults has changed since the start of the pandemic. For this study, survey data from October 2019 (prepandemic) and June 2020 (during pandemic) were compared to assess changes in adults' remembering to wash their hands in six situations.§ Statistically significant increases in reported handwashing were seen in June 2020 compared with October 2019 in four of the six situations; the odds of remembering to wash hands was 2.3 times higher among respondents after coughing, sneezing, or blowing their nose, 2.0 times higher before eating at a restaurant, and 1.7 times higher before eating at home. Men, young adults aged 18-24 years, and non-Hispanic White (White) adults were less likely to remember to wash hands in multiple situations. Strategies to help persons remember to wash their hands frequently and at important times should be identified and implemented, especially among groups reporting low prevalence of remembering to wash their hands.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1184-1190, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665553

ABSTRACT

Brazil is, at the time of writing, the global epicenter of COVID-19, but information on risk factors for hospitalization and mortality in the country is still limited. Demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients until June 11th, 2020 were retrieved from the State Health Secretariat of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Potential risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and death were analyzed by univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 10,713 COVID-19 patients were included in this study; 81.0% were younger than 60 years, 55.2% were female, 89.2% were not hospitalized, 32.9% had at least one comorbidity, and 7.7% died. The most common symptoms on admission were cough (67.7%) and fever (62.6%); 7.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. Cardiovascular diseases (23.7%) and diabetes (10.3%) were the two most common chronic diseases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified an association of all explanatory variables, except for cough and diarrhea, with hospitalization. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 3.95, P < 0.001) and shortness of breath (OR = 3.55, P < 0.001) were associated with increase of odds to COVID-19 death in hospitalized patients. Our study provided evidence that older age, male gender, Asian, indigenous or unknown race, comorbidities (smoking, kidney disease, obesity, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), as well as fever and shortness of breath increased the risk of hospitalization. For death outcome in hospitalized patients, only older age and shortness of breath increased the risk.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
14.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 4(6): 687-695, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and investigate the association between AKI and mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective case series includes the first 370 patients consecutively hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 illness between March 10, 2020, and May 13, 2020, at a 242-bed teaching hospital. To determine independent associations between demographic factors, comorbid conditions, and AKI incidence, multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for clinical covariates. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 71 (interquartile range, 59-82) years and 44.3% (145 of 327) were women. Patients with AKI were significantly older with a higher comorbid condition burden and mortality rate (58.1% [104 0f 179] vs 19.6% [29 of 148]; P<.001) when compared with those without AKI. Increasing age, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, and being of African American descent showed higher odds of AKI. Patients with AKI had significantly higher odds of mortality when compared with patients without AKI, and this effect was proportional to the stage of AKI. Increasing age and acute respiratory distress syndrome also revealed higher adjusted odds of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kidney injury is a common complication among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. We found significantly higher odds of AKI with increasing age and among patients with hyperlipidemia, those with chronic kidney disease, and among African Americans. We demonstrate an independent association between AKI and mortality with increasingly higher odds of mortality from progressively worsening renal failure in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.

15.
J Intensive Care ; 8: 49, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 5,488,000 cases of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been reported since December 2019. We aim to explore risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients and assess the use of D-dimer as a biomarker for disease severity and clinical outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of 248 consecutive cases of COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China from January 28 to March 08, 2020. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Correlations of D-dimer upon admission with disease severity and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff level for D-dimer that discriminated those survivors versus non-survivors during hospitalization. RESULTS: Multivariable regression that showed D-dimer > 2.0 mg/L at admission was the only variable associated with increased odds of mortality [OR 10.17 (95% CI 1.10-94.38), P = 0.041]. D-dimer elevation (≥ 0.50 mg/L) was seen in 74.6% (185/248) of the patients. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were ruled out in patients with high probability of thrombosis. D-dimer levels significantly increased with increasing severity of COVID-19 as determined by clinical staging (Kendall's tau-b = 0.374, P = 0.000) and chest CT staging (Kendall's tau-b = 0.378, P = 0.000). In-hospital mortality rate was 6.9%. Median D-dimer level in non-survivors (n = 17) was significantly higher than in survivors (n = 231) [6.21 (3.79-16.01) mg/L versus 1.02 (0.47-2.66) mg/L, P = 0.000]. D-dimer level of > 2.14 mg/L predicted in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 71.3% (AUC 0.85; 95% CI = 0.77-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer is commonly elevated in patients with COVID-19. D-dimer levels correlate with disease severity and are a reliable prognostic marker for in-hospital mortality in patients admitted for COVID-19.

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