Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
Regen Eng Transl Med ; 8(1): 32-42, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756993

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a nontoxic, hydrophilic polymer that is often covalently attached to proteins, drugs, tissues, or materials; a procedure commonly referred to as PEGylation. PEGylation improves solubility, circulation time, and reduces immunogenicity of therapeutic molecules. Currently, there are 21 PEGylated drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more in the developmental stage. In addition to the polymer's applications in the clinic, PEG is widely used as a solvent and emulsifying agent in the formulation of cosmetics, cleaning, and personal care products. Due to the ubiquitous presence of the polymer in everyday products, patients can develop antibodies against PEG (αPEG Abs) that can be problematic when a PEGylated drug is administered. These αPEG Abs can provoke hypersensitivity reactions, accelerated drug clearance, and decreased therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we review how the prevalence of PEG in everyday products has induced αPEG Abs within the general public as well as the effect of these Abs on the performance of PEGylated therapeutics. We will focus on clinical manifestations following the administration of PEGylated drugs. Lay Summary: Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a polymer found in products including cosmetics, personal care products, cleaning agents, medicine, and food. Due to the prevalence of PEG, people can develop antibodies (αPEG Abs) against the polymer, which recognize PEG as foreign. Of note, PEG is frequently incorporated into drug formulations to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complications can arise when a patient receiving a PEGylated drug has previously developed αPEG Abs from interactions with PEG in everyday products. The presence of high concentrations of αPEG Abs in blood can result in decreased treatment efficacy and allergic reactions to a wide range of therapeutics.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 871-881, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in blood donors in 6 US metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time. METHODS: During March-August 2020, approximately ≥1000 serum specimens were collected monthly from each region and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a well-validated algorithm. Regional seroprevalence estimates were weighted based on demographic differences compared with the general population. Seroprevalence was compared with reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates over time. RESULTS: For all regions, seroprevalence was <1.0% in March 2020. New York, New York, experienced the biggest increase (peak seroprevalence, 15.8% in May). All other regions experienced modest increases in seroprevalence (1%-2% in May-June to 2%-4% in July-August). Seroprevalence was higher in younger, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic donors. Temporal increases in donor seroprevalence correlated with reported case rates in each region. In August, 1.3-5.6 estimated cumulative infections (based on seroprevalence data) per COVID-19 case were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in seroprevalence were found in all regions, with the largest increase in New York. Seroprevalence was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing of blood donor samples can be used to estimate the seroprevalence in the general population by region and demographic group. The methods derived from the RESPONSE seroprevalence study served as the basis for expanding SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveillance to all 50 states and Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 145-155, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Earlier serosurveys in India revealed seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 0.73% in May-June 2020 and 7.1% in August-September 2020. A third serosurvey was conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the general population and healthcare workers (HCWs) in India. METHODS: The third serosurvey was conducted in the same 70 districts as the first and second serosurveys. For each district, at least 400 individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population and 100 HCWs from subdistrict-level health facilities were enrolled. Serum samples from the general population were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S1-RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, whereas serum samples from HCWs were tested for anti-S1-RBD. Weighted seroprevalence adjusted for assay characteristics was estimated. RESULTS: Of the 28,598 serum samples from the general population, 4585 (16%) had IgG antibodies against the N protein, 6647 (23.2%) had IgG antibodies against the S1-RBD protein, and 7436 (26%) had IgG antibodies against either the N protein or the S1-RBD protein. Weighted and assay-characteristic-adjusted seroprevalence against either of the antibodies was 24.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.0-25.3%]. Among 7385 HCWs, the seroprevalence of anti-S1-RBD IgG antibodies was 25.6% (95% CI 23.5-27.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in four individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population as well as HCWs in India had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 871-881, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in blood donors in 6 US metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time. METHODS: During March-August 2020, approximately ≥1000 serum specimens were collected monthly from each region and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a well-validated algorithm. Regional seroprevalence estimates were weighted based on demographic differences compared with the general population. Seroprevalence was compared with reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates over time. RESULTS: For all regions, seroprevalence was <1.0% in March 2020. New York, New York, experienced the biggest increase (peak seroprevalence, 15.8% in May). All other regions experienced modest increases in seroprevalence (1%-2% in May-June to 2%-4% in July-August). Seroprevalence was higher in younger, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic donors. Temporal increases in donor seroprevalence correlated with reported case rates in each region. In August, 1.3-5.6 estimated cumulative infections (based on seroprevalence data) per COVID-19 case were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in seroprevalence were found in all regions, with the largest increase in New York. Seroprevalence was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing of blood donor samples can be used to estimate the seroprevalence in the general population by region and demographic group. The methods derived from the RESPONSE seroprevalence study served as the basis for expanding SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveillance to all 50 states and Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 563-574, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has received broad public attention and has been subject to social media discussion since the beginning of 2020. Previous research has demonstrated that framing could influence perception and behaviors of audience members in the mass media. The question addressed in this paper concerns which information frame is best for reporting negative news (eg, deaths) and positive news (eg, recoveries or cures) related to the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: During the Spring Festival holidays of 2020 in China, we investigated a sample of 8170 participants' risk perceptions and emotional responses to the pandemic, and their willingness to forward updates when the information is presented in different frames by using a 2 (domain: living [good news] vs dying [bad news]) × 2 (count: absolute vs relative) × 2 (population base: excluding population base vs including population base) × 2 (content: text-only vs text-plus-graphic) mixed factorial design, with the first factor being a within-subjects factor and the last three being between-subjects factors. RESULTS: Results indicated that (1) participants were more willing to forward good news (eg, cures) than bad news (eg, deaths); (2) when reporting bad news, the inclusion of the "population base" was effective in minimizing negative emotions; (3) when reporting good news, excluding the "population base" was more effective than including it in order to maximize positive emotions; (4) a text-plus-graphic frame worked better than a text-only frame in lowering the level of risk perception and negative emotions. DISCUSSION: This study is relevant to how individuals and organizations communicate information about this viral pandemic and the probable impact of this news on the general public.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211814

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/virology , Vaccination/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe , Expert Testimony , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/virology , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/virology
7.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus outbreak has demonstrated the crucial effect of the public's compliance with the government's health instructions on the population's health. However, evidence shows that some communities are less likely to comply with such instructions than others. This study highlights the factors related to intentions to comply with newly issued health directives during an ongoing extreme crisis, such as the current pandemic. In addition, it compares the impact of these factors on different minority groups and the general population in Israel. METHODS: Using an online survey (N=1005), we examined the impact of compliance-related factors on compliance intentions with newly issued health directives in two minority groups in Israel: the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community (N=323) and the Arab community (N=361), as well as in the general population (N=321), during the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Participants were presented with a new made-up COVID-19-related instruction simulated to be issued by the Israeli Ministry of Health. Compliance intentions and compliance-related factors were measured. RESULTS: The Arab minority expressed greater intentions of complying with the instructions than the other groups. Perceptions on risk and the effectiveness of the instruction were the only two significantly associated factors with compliance intentions in all of the social groups. Additional factors affected different groups to different extents. Trust in government was related to compliance intentions only in the Arab minority. CONCLUSION: Intentions to comply with health instructions during a crisis differ in various minority groups and in comparison to the general population, both in their levels and in the factors related to them. Policy-makers and health authorities should consider providing information about the risks and negative outcomes of the crisis as well as the expected effectiveness of the recommended behaviors. Future research should examine other minority groups and other types of instructions in different stages of a crisis.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current research has pointed out an increased risk of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in women compared to men, however the reason for this difference remains unclear. The aim of this research is to study early psychological responses to the pandemic in the Spanish general population, focusing on gender differences. METHODS: Nine to 14 days after the declaration of a state of emergency an online survey was conducted assessing sociodemographic, health, behavioral and COVID-19-related variables. Mental health status was evaluated by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Self-Care Scale (SCS). RESULTS: The study included 3520 respondents: 2611 women and 909 men. Women scored significantly higher in DASS-21 and IES-R (p < 0.05) and were more likely to somatize, suffer from hypochondriasis, sleeping disturbances and claustrophobia (p < 0.05). Being a woman can be considered a risk factor for intrusive thoughts, avoidance mechanisms, stress and anxiety (Odd Ratio = 2.7/2.3/2.3/1.6). The risk of presenting posttraumatic symptoms and emotional distress was greater in women (Odd Ratio = 6.77/4.59). General linear models to predict IES-R and DASS-21 scores clarified which variables were gender specific, such as main concerns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that at early stages of the pandemic, women mental health was more impacted and that both genders show different concerns. Gender perspective in secondary and tertiary prevention strategies must be taken into account when facing the distress associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
9.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 82-92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly transmits in general population, mainly between health-care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the seropositivity of HCWs as a high-risk group compared to general population. METHODS: 72 samples were obtained from HCWs working in Masih Daneshvari hospital as one of the main COVID-19 admission centers in Tehran, during April 4 to 6, 2020. Also we collected 2021 blood samples from general population. The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG antibodies in the collected serum specimens were measured by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Based on the clinical manifestations, 25.0%, 47.2%, and 27.8% of HCWs were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms, symptomatic with atypical symptoms, and asymptomatic, respectively. Symptomatic individuals with typical and atypical symptoms were 63.2% and 36.8% positive in RT-PCR test, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 15.3% and 27.8% of HCWs samples, respectively. Antibody testing in the general population indicated that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG were found in (162/2021) 8%, and (290/2021) 14.4%, respectively. The frequency of positive cases of IgM and IgG were significantly increased in HCWs compared to general population (p= 0.028 for IgM and p= 0.002 for IgG). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in HCWs was higher than general population indicating a higher viral transmission via close exposure with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
Psychiatriki ; 32(1): 15-18, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English, Greek | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148408

ABSTRACT

As of the end of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 82 million verified infections and almost 1.8 million COVID-19-related deaths worldwide,1 resulting to an unprecedented public health response around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic, together with the applied multi-level restrictive measures, has generated a unique combination of an unpredictable and stressful biomedical and socioeconomic environment (i.e., syndemic),2 introducing real-life threat, involuntary and drastic every-day life-style changes with uncertain financial and future prospects, alongside with minimized coping and stress management possibilities.3 This combination of so many different and vital stressors may lead to acute as well as long-term, direct, indirect and even transgenerational unfavourable effects on physical and mental health and functioning, which might even represent the most precarious and still unpredictable public-health-related part of the pandemic.4 Thereby, specific population groups could be at particular risk of poor health outcomes in relation to applied public health measures.4, 5 However, not every individual will experience the same level of negative impact on health and well-being during the pandemic, as several additional national, socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, emotional and cognitive factors can moderate individual resilience and coping.6 Pandemic-related research should, thus, assess as many multidimensional risk and protective factors as possible in a longitudinal, large-scale and multi-national manner, enabling a profound and comprehensive understanding of the complex health and societal impact of the pandemic worldwide.7 Nevertheless, to date, most research findings are cross-sectional, report on small and non- representative samples from individual countries, or on specific population groups (e.g., health care workers, students, clinical populations) and usually assess only a very restricted set of outcomes and time-points. Thereby, only few studies assess coping strategies, medical history or detailed socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data. In addition, most studies leave behind linguistic differences, being available in one or at best two different languages. Such investigations of small outcome subsets within a narrow framework preclude a broader and clear understanding of the multifaceted pandemic impact on the general population and specific subgroups. Acknowledging these gaps in the existing literature, large- scale, collaborative research prospectively collecting and monitoring a broad range of real- time, multi-dimensional health-related, societal and behavioural outcome data from countries across the globe is currently explicitly needed. The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH- FIT) envisions to fill this gap. Based on an easy-to-access webpage (www.coh-fit.com), COH- FIT is the currently largest-scale known international collaborative study of over 200 researchers around the globe, prospectively collecting the biggest set of multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary data from 150 high, middle, and low-income countries in over 30 languages and in three different age groups (adults, adolescents, children) of the general population, focusing also on relevant at-risk subgroups. Albeit being a cross-sectional anonymous survey on an individual level, it is a longitudinal study on a population level, as data are collected continuously since April 2020 and until the WHO declares the end of the pandemic. In addition to snowball recruitment, this project also collects information from nationally representative samples. Furthermore, COH-FIT is the first study of this scale investigating pandemic effects on health and functioning measures between family members, while it also specifically assesses a large list of behavioral and coping factors (e.g., screen time, social media usage, physical activity, social interaction, religious practices, etc.) on outcomes of interest. COH-FIT also monitors changes in public health restrictive measures to enhance data harmonization across nations and time, and to better investigate their impact on physical and mental health, while it also collects information on changes in healthcare systems functioning. The COH-FIT project was worldwide first initiated in Greece after the ethics committee approval of the School of Medicine of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and is officially supported by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, European Psychiatric Association, World Association of Social Psychiatry, ECNP Network on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion, among many other national and international scientific associations. To date, COH-FIT has already collected >115,000 participations worldwide (>8,000 in Greece), but more participants are still needed, both during the second and third wave of the pandemic, as in the future, after the pandemic has ended. Currently, the COH-FIT survey actively collects the largest sample on multifactorial data on the impact of the COVD-19 pandemic on health and functioning not only in Greece, but around the globe. The elaborated design of COH-FIT and similar studies may allow a better identification of key parameters and population groups at increased risk during the pandemic, as well as potential targets for acute and long-term prevention or intervention strategies in the current as in possible future pandemics. A profound understanding of the health and societal impact of the pandemic could facilitate an optimized governmental, social and individual health preparedness during infection times8 and the bridging of individuals', societal and systemic needs and actions through multi-level guideline development with the aim to improve mental health outcomes globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Holistic Health , Pandemics , Social Conditions , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129683

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a specific scale to measure anxiety and fear levels in the general Spanish population. For this, a transcultural adaptation to Spanish of the fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) scale, in its original version of 10 items, was carried out. Then, the Anxiety and Fear of COVID-19 Assessment Scale (AMICO, for its acronym in Spanish) was designed by translating the tool and Delphi technique into three rounds. Ten experts participated voluntarily, and inter-observer match rates and the reliability study of the designed scale were calculated. A pilot study was carried out with the final version of the scale for the validity and reliability study. The instrument did not raise problems in semantic and cultural terms during the first and second rounds of the translation process, with an overall weighted Kappa value of 0.9. In the third round, eight new items were designed and consensual, obtaining a weighted overall value of 0.89. The pilot study sample was made up of 445 subjects, of which 60.3% were women with a mean age of 46.2 years. The final version consisted of 16 items, 2 factors, and a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.92. The AMICO scale was developed to assess the level of anxiety and fear of COVID-19 and proved to be valid and reliable for its use in the adult Spanish population.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090335

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, family physicians (FPs) are the backbone of the healthcare system with considerable impact on the general population, and their well-being is of great importance. The aim of this investigation was to assess FPs mental health, as well as knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding the pandemic, and opinions on non-communicable disease (NCD) health care provided to patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 613 FPs. Anxiety and depression levels were estimated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, subjective perceived stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, while trauma-related symptoms were assessed using the Impact on Event Scale-COVID19. KAPs toward the pandemic and opinions regarding NCD patients were evaluated with questionnaires accordingly. Results have shown that age (ß = -0.02, p = 0.013) and personal risk of COVID­19 (ß = 1.05, p < 0.001) were significant independent correlates of the knowledge score. A total of 87.7% FPs expressed moderate/high perceived stress, 45.2% moderate/severe trauma-related symptoms, 60.4% borderline/abnormal anxiety levels, and 52.4% borderline/abnormal depression levels. Knowledge score was an independent predictor of perceived stress (ß = -0.33, p = 0.023) and anxiety (ß = -0.31, p = 0.006) levels. Limited accessibility to healthcare services and decreased number of newly-diagnosed NCD cases were mostly agreed on. The pandemic puts a considerable strain on FPs mental health, as well as on public health measures, due to the decreased overall quality of NCD patient health care. Educational programs may bridge the gaps between FPs' knowledge. Thus lowering anxiety and improving patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Physicians, Family/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Can Commun Dis Rep ; 47(1): 66-76, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 14,000 adults are currently incarcerated in federal prisons in Canada. These facilities are vulnerable to disease outbreaks and an assessment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing and outcomes is needed. The objective of this study was to examine outcomes of COVID-19 testing, prevalence, case recovery and death within federal prisons and to contrast these data with those of the general population. METHODS: Public time-series outcome data for prisoners and the general population were obtained on-line from the Correctional Service of Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada, respectively, from March 30 to May 27, 2020. Prison, province and sex-specific frequency statistics for each outcome were calculated. A total of 50 facilities were included in this study. RESULTS: Of these 50 facilities, 64% reported fewer individuals tested per 1,000 population than observed in the general population and 12% reported zero tests in the study period. Testing tended to be reactive, increasing only once prisons had recorded positive tests. Six prisons reported viral outbreaks, with three recording over 20% cumulative COVID-19 prevalence among prisoners. Cumulatively, in prisons, 29% of individuals tested received a positive result, compared to 6% in the general population. Two of the 360 cases died (0.6% fatality). Four outbreaks appeared to be under control (more than 80% of cases recovered); however, sizeable susceptible populations remain at risk of infection. Female prisoners (5% of the total prisoner population) were over-represented among cases (17% of cases overall). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that prison environments are vulnerable to widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Gaps in testing merit public health attention. Symptom-based testing alone may not be optimal in prisons, given observations of widespread transmission. Increased sentinel or universal testing may be appropriate. Increased testing, along with rigorous infection prevention practices and the potential release of prisoners, will be needed to curb future outbreaks.

14.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 184-192, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of developing a serological test has emerged and a debate on test accuracy and reliability become an issue widely discussed in the media. The importance of communication during this pandemic has been strongly underlined by public health experts, epidemiologists, media expert, psychologists, sociologists. In the case of serological tests, there are several aspects that have to be considered: why we perform the test, what population is tested, which are the parameters conditioning the results and their interpretation. OBJECTIVES: to show how to quantify the uncertainty related to the validity of the serological test with respect to its predictive value and in particular the positive predictive value. METHODS: the evaluation of a qualitative diagnostic test includes four distinct assessments: accuracy, empirical evidence, practical importance, and prevalence of the pathology. Accuracy is measured by the sensitivity and specificity of the test; empirical evidence is quantified by the likelihood ratio, respectively for a positive and negative test result; the practical importance of the result of a diagnostic test is assessed by the positive or negative predictive value. Prevalence of COVID-19 is substantial uncertainty and it is possible to estimate the apparent prevalence starting from the results obtained with a diagnostic test. RESULTS: at the moment, the knowledge about the accuracy of serological tests is limited and little attention is paid to confidence interval on point estimates. In terms of practical importance of testing at individual level, while negative predictive values are high whatever the level of sensitivity of the test, the interpretation of a positive results is very cumbersome. Positive predictive values above 90% can be reached only by tests with specificity above 99% at the expected prevalence rate of 5%. There is a linear relationship between apparent - testing positive - prevalence and real prevalence. The apparent prevalence in the context of serological test for COVID-19 is always larger than real prevalence. The level of specificity is crucial. CONCLUSIONS: the main applications of the serological test in the epidemic contest are: to study the seroprevalence of the virus antibodies in the general population; to screen the healthcare workers for the early identification of contagious subjects' health care settings and to screen the general population in order to identify new incident cases. In the first two cases, seroprevalence study and screening of a high-risk population, the consequences of the uncertainty associated to the statistics are already accounted for in the first situation, or are overcome by repeating the screening on the healthcare workers, and using the molecular test to verify the presence of the virus in those tested positive. The case of screening of general population is more complex and of major interest for the implication it may have on individual behaviours and on the implementation of public health interventions by the political decision makers. A positive result has, per se, no practical value for individuals since the probability of being really infected by the virus is low. The uncertainty associated with the different estimates (sensitivity, specificity and disease prevalence) play a double role: it is a key factor in defining the informative content of the test result and it might guide the individual actions and the public policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Communication , Immunoassay , Luminescent Measurements , Medical Overuse , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Decision Making , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , False Positive Reactions , Health Policy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uncertainty
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 307-316, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Knowledge of Coronavirus 19 (COVID19) pathogenetic mechanisms is necessary to provide new treatment strategies. This study aims to assess how oncological disease impacts on the clinical course of COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1st March to 30th April 2020, 96 COVID-19 patients were classified according to clinical outcome as severe (n=67) and moderate (n=29). Demographic data, medical history, admission lymphocytes, procalcitonin (PCT), c-reactive-protein (CRP), D-dimer, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between hypertension (p=0.007) and three or more comorbidities with severe outcomes (p=0.034). No statistical differences were found between the severe and moderate groups with regards to the rate of patients with past oncological history. However, no patient allocated in the moderate group had received oncological treatment within 12 months. Higher values of CRP, IL-6, D-Dimer and lower values of lymphocytes were reported in the severe group (p=0.0007, p=0.00386, p=0.041, and p=0.007, respectively). Using binary logistic regression, higher values of CRP (OR=8.861; p=0.012) and PCT were associated with a higher risk of severe outcome (OR=21.075; p=0.008). Within the oncological population, D-Dimer and IL-6 did not confirm their prognostic significance as in the general population (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Specific prognostic factors for oncological patients should be designed for COVID-19 clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocytes , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis
16.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 1110-1117, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056579

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is public health concern across the world. Data on the epidemiology among patients on hemodialysis in Latin America and low- and middle-income countries are limited. METHODS: Using electronic medical records from the second largest dialysis network in Guatemala, we performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients on hemodialysis with the diagnosis of COVID-19 to estimate incidence of infection and to describe the demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes. We stratified incidence rate by region. We reviewed data from May 1 to July 31, 2020, with outcome data ascertained up to August 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of 3201 patients undergoing hemodialysis, 325 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 (incidence rate 102/1000 patients on hemodialysis, compared with 3/1000 in the general population). Incidence was higher in the Central region (207/1000) and lowest in the Southeast region (33/1000), and unlike in the general population, the incidence was lower in Guatemala City. The mean age of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 was 51.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 14.8 years), and 84 (25.8%) were female. The median length of hospital stay was 12 days (interquartile range [IQR] 10-16 days). Two hundred twenty-nine (69.8%) of the patients recovered, 90 patients died (27.7%), and 6 (1.8%) patients were still in the hospital at the time of last follow-up. CONCLUSION: The incidence of diagnosed COVID-19 in Guatemalan patients on hemodialysis was much higher than reported in the general population, with outcomes similar to those described in high-income countries. Rural regions had higher incidence rates than the major metropolitan area.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 561345, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016081

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since February 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 spread to several countries worldwide, including Italy. In this study, we aimed to assess the psychopathological impact of the pandemic across the general population of Lombardy, the most affected Italian region, and to compare the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms between the general public and healthcare workers. Methods: Four hundred and thirty-two participants completed an online survey including: the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 items (DASS-21), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PQSI). Healthcare workers were also asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Results: At the DASS-21, 33.3% of the responders presented pathological levels of stress, 25.5% of anxiety, and 35.9% of depression. At the IES-R, 13.9% appeared at risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At the PSQI, 57.6% presented sleep disturbances. Female gender and younger age predicted higher scores of distress. Healthcare workers presented higher levels of psychiatric symptoms than the general public. Moreover, working in contact with COVID-19 patients predicted higher scores at the IES-R subscale Intrusion. Conclusion: Our results showed that about a third of our sample presented symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression during the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Lombardy; more than half of the responders presented sleep disturbances, and 13% appeared at risk of PTSD. Italian authorities should develop specific strategies to guarantee psychological support to the population of Lombardy, with particular attention to women, young people, and healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 patients.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244348, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of individuals, with an unprecedented impact in health care systems worldwide. Healthcare workers are one of the risk groups that need to be well protected, due to their strategic role in patient management, presently and in prevention of healthcare needs for future outbreaks. Here, we present the results of the first SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed in serum samples from 7563 healthcare workers of the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Samples were collected after the first pandemic wave (from May 4th to May 22nd, 2020) and were analyzed by automated chemiluminescence assays. All samples were tested for IgG anti-S1/S2. Participant samples with negative or equivocal results but with analytical signals above the limit of detection and/or previously confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were also tested for IgG anti-Nucleocapsid. RESULTS: A total of 779 of 7563 (10.3%) healthcare workers were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (specific for either S1/S2 or N antigens). No significant differences were observed between those working at primary care or at the reference hospital. Interestingly, among 341 participants with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 36 (10.55%) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG (both S1/S2 and recombinant N antigen). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the healthcare workers of the North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona was higher than in the general population in the same geographical area. Safety measures have to be stressed in order to protect these essential workers from future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain , Young Adult
19.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104621, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A carboxypeptidase protein called ACE2 is found in many organs. ACE2 protein can play a pivotal role to regulate the pathological changes of several diseases including COVID-19. TMPRSS2 gene is expressed in many human tissues and plays a critical role in spreading the infection of the viruses including coronavirus and progression of prostate cancer, and hence could be used as a potential drug target. There are limited reports on occurrence of genetic polymorphism of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in general population, expressions in pathological conditions, and its impact on COVID-19 disease. Hence we comprehended the occurrence of ACE2, TMPRSS2 polymorphism in general population, expression in various diseases and its impact on COVID-19 disease. METHOD: We utilized multiple databases, PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Google Scholar for literature search. DESCRIPTION: ACE2 polymorphisms have significant linkages with various diseases, including severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Genetic variations of these genes contribute to individual's genetic susceptibility to viral infection and its subsequent clearance. The diversity and variations in the population distribution of these genes, might greatly influence and in turn reflect into the observed population and gender differences of the severity and clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: There are diversities in distribution of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 polymorphisms among different populations. Analyzing the genetic variants and expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, in a population may provide the genetic marker for susceptibility or resistance against the coronavirus infection, which might be useful for identifying the susceptible population groups for targeted interventions and for making relevant public health policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Gene Expression , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetics, Population , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840101
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL