Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 56
Filter
1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): e182-e187, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, facility capacity for HIV testing has been limited. Furthermore, people may have opted against HIV testing during this period to avoid COVID-19 exposure. We investigated the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV testing and the number of reported HIV cases in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed quarterly HIV/AIDS-related data from 2015 to the second quarter of 2020 using an anomaly detection approach. The data included the number of consultations, the number of HIV tests performed by public health centers or municipalities, and the number of newly reported HIV cases with and without an AIDS diagnosis. We further performed the same analysis for 2 subgroups: men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-Japanese persons. RESULTS: The number of HIV tests (9,584 vs. 35,908 in the year-before period) and consultations (11,689 vs. 32,565) performed by public health centers significantly declined in the second quarter of 2020, whereas the proportion of new HIV cases with an AIDS diagnosis (36.2% vs. 26.4%) significantly increased after removing the trend and seasonality effects. HIV cases without an AIDS diagnosis decreased (166 vs. 217), but the reduction was not significant. We confirmed similar trends for the men who have sex with men and non-Japanese subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current HIV testing system in Japan seems to have missed more cases of HIV before developing AIDS. Continuously monitoring the situation and securing sufficient test resources by use of self-testing is essential to understand the clear epidemiological picture of HIV incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Japan/epidemiology
2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211017742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintaining essential HIV services has being a Global challenge during the COVID-19 crises. Myanmar has 54 million inhabitants. Neighbor of China, Thailand, India and Bangladesh it was impacted by COVID-19, but came up with a comprehensive and effective response, following WHO recommendations. The HIV Prevalence is 0.58% and it is concentrated among key population. A HIV Contingency Plan was developed to face this challenge. METHODOLOGY: The programme-based cross-sectional descriptive study with analysis of routinely collected data from MoHS data system, between 2019 and 2020 was conducted, comparing first six months of 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: HIV outreach activities and HIV testing were slightly affected after detection of first COVID-19 case, till mid May 2020. After that, outreach activities resumed. Introduction of HIV self-testing was initiated. 72% of more than 21,000 PWID on MMT were receiving take home dose up to 14 days and 60% of ART patients were receiving 6 months ARV dispensing. CONCLUSION: Essential HIV services were maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/methods , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2086-e2094, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiological, virological, and serological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). METHODS: This population-based cohort study identified all COVID-19 cases among all PLWH in Wuhan, China, by 16 April 2020. The epidemiological, virological, and serological features were analyzed based on the demographic data, temporal profile of nucleic acid test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the disease, and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin (Ig) M and G after recovery. RESULTS: From 1 January to 16 April 2020, 35 of 6001 PLWH experienced COVID-19, with a cumulative incidence of COVID-19 of 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], .42-.81%). Among the COVID-19 cases, 15 (42.86) had severe illness, with 2 deaths. The incidence, case-severity, and case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in PLWH were comparable to those in the entire population in Wuhan. There were 197 PLWH who had discontinued combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 4 of whom experienced COVID-19. Risk factors for COVID-19 were age ≥50 years old and cART discontinuation. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding among confirmed COVID-19 cases in PLWH was 30 days (interquartile range, 20-46). Cases with high HIV viral loads (≥20 copies/mL) had lower IgM and IgG levels than those with low HIV viral loads (<20 copies/ml; median signal value divided by the cutoff value [S/CO] for IgM, 0.03 vs 0.11, respectively [P < .001]; median S/CO for IgG, 10.16 vs 17.04, respectively [P = .069]). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to maintain the persistent supply of antiretroviral treatment to elderly PLWH aged 50 years or above during the COVID-19 epidemic. The coinfection of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 might change the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Cohort Studies , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
AIDS ; 35(11): 1871-1872, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358525

ABSTRACT

Female sex workers' livelihoods in Zimbabwe have been severely impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic due to closure of entertainment venues. Competition over fewer clients has reduced ability to negotiate condom use. At the same time as partner numbers have decreased, frequency of reported condomless sex has not increased, suggesting potential reduction in overall HIV and sexually transmitted infection risk and an opportunity for programmes to reach sex workers with holistic social and economic support and prevention services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Condoms , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 946-962, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352109

ABSTRACT

Given the scale and rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, or 2019-nCoV), there is an urgent need to identify therapeutics that are effective against COVID-19 before vaccines are available. Since the current rate of SARS-CoV-2 knowledge acquisition via traditional research methods is not sufficient to match the rapid spread of the virus, novel strategies of drug discovery for SARS-CoV-2 infection are required. Structure-based virtual screening for example relies primarily on docking scores and does not take the importance of key residues into consideration, which may lead to a significantly higher incidence rate of false-positive results. Our novel in silico approach, which overcomes these limitations, can be utilized to quickly evaluate FDA-approved drugs for repurposing and combination, as well as designing new chemical agents with therapeutic potential for COVID-19. As a result, anti-HIV or antiviral drugs (lopinavir, tenofovir disoproxil, fosamprenavir and ganciclovir), antiflu drugs (peramivir and zanamivir) and an anti-HCV drug (sofosbuvir) are predicted to bind to 3CLPro in SARS-CoV-2 with therapeutic potential for COVID-19 infection by our new protocol. In addition, we also propose three antidiabetic drugs (acarbose, glyburide and tolazamide) for the potential treatment of COVID-19. Finally, we apply our new virus chemogenomics knowledgebase platform with the integrated machine-learning computing algorithms to identify the potential drug combinations (e.g. remdesivir+chloroquine), which are congruent with ongoing clinical trials. In addition, another 10 compounds from CAS COVID-19 antiviral candidate compounds dataset are also suggested by Molecular Complex Characterizing System with potential treatment for COVID-19. Our work provides a novel strategy for the repurposing and combinations of drugs in the market and for prediction of chemical candidates with anti-COVID-19 potential.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113787, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274644

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 lockdowns may affect economic and health outcomes, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries remains limited. Objective: To assess the economic security, food security, health, and sexual behavior of women at high risk of HIV infection in rural Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study of women enrolled in a randomized trial in a rural county in Kenya combined results from phone interviews, conducted while social distancing measures were in effect between May 13 and June 29, 2020, with longitudinal, in-person surveys administered between September 1, 2019, and March 25, 2020. Enrolled participants were HIV-negative and had 2 or more sexual partners within the past month. Surveys collected information on economic conditions, food security, health status, and sexual behavior. Subgroup analyses compared outcomes by reliance on transactional sex for income and by educational attainment. Data were analyzed between May 2020 and April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported income, employment hours, numbers of sexual partners and transactional sex partners, food security, and COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Results: A total of 1725 women participated, with a mean (SD) age of 29.3 (6.8) years and 1170 (68.0%) reporting sex work as an income source before the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, participants reported experiencing a 52% decline in mean (SD) weekly income, from $11.25 (13.46) to $5.38 (12.51) (difference, -$5.86; 95% CI, -$6.91 to -$4.82; P < .001). In all, 1385 participants (80.3%) reported difficulty obtaining food in the past month, and 1500 (87.0%) worried about having enough to eat at least once. Reported numbers of sexual partners declined from a mean (SD) total of 1.8 (1.2) partners before COVID-19 to 1.1 (1.0) during (difference, -0.75 partners; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.67 partners; P < .001), and transactional sex partners declined from 1.0 (1.1) to 0.5 (0.8) (difference, -0.57 partners; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.50 partners; P < .001). In subgroup analyses, women reliant on transactional sex for income were 18.3% (95% CI, 11.4% to 25.2%) more likely to report being sometimes or often worried that their household would have enough food than women not reliant on transactional sex (P < .001), and their reported decline in employment was 4.6 hours (95% CI, -7.9 to -1.2 hours) greater than women not reliant on transactional sex (P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, COVID-19 was associated with large reductions in economic security among women at high risk of HIV infection in Kenya. However, shifts in sexual behavior may have temporarily decreased their risk of HIV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections/etiology , Income/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Kenya , Longitudinal Studies , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk-Taking , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Work/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are immunodeficient, it is vague if they are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than HIV negative individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 857 PLWH and 1048 HIV negative individuals were enrolled from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. We compared the total rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the rate of COVID-19, asymptomatic carriers, and unapparent infectors in the two groups. The risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH were explored. RESULTS: Fourteen out of 857 (1.63%) PLWH were infected with SARS-CoV-2, while 68 of 1048 (6.49%) HIV negative individuals were infected. In PLWH, there were 6 confirmed COVID-19 (0.70%), 4 asymptomatic carriers (0.47%) and 4 unapparent infectors (0.47%). In the HIV negative group, the cases of COVID-19, asymptomatic carrier, and unapparent infector were 5 (0.48%), 0 (0.00%), and 63 (6.01%), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, and chronic comorbidities, the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH was lower than that in HIV negative group (1.96% vs 5.74%, P=0.001). The morbidity of COVID-19 was similar between the two groups (P=0.107), but the rate of unapparent infection in PLWH was lower than that in the HIV negative group (0.54% vs 5.46%, P=0.001). Older age (aOR=4.50, 95%CI: 1.34-15.13, P=0.015) and OIs (aOR=9.59, 95%CI: 1.54-59.92, P=0.016) were risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH has different infection forms of SARS-CoV-2 compared with the general population. Older age and OIs were considered to driving causes of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.

10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5808-5812, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264740

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly, which now has turned into a pandemic. The new emerging infectious disease has raised many challenges and uncertainties regarding disease management and prognosis in immunocompromised patient populations. The risk of COVID-19 among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has different opinions. Some scholars speculated that patients with HIV may be at decreased risk for complications of COVID-19 because HIV antiretroviral medications may have activity against coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2. But others have the opposite because of the immunosuppression for HIV patients. Here we reported a case of HIV-infected patient confirmed with COVID-19 and had a favourable prognosis. The patient was a 24-year-old male who was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years ago and then followed a regular antiretroviral therapy (ART). After infected with COVID-19, the patient had no other clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities throughout the course of the disease except presented with fever for a short-term (2 days), and no secondary infection or exacerbation occurred after admission in hospital. Follow-up chest CT showed that the lung lesions disappeared within a short period of time. After standard treatment by 9 days, the patient was cured and discharged. This report highlights the importance of ART for HIV-infected persons, and with regular ART for HIV patients may reduce adverse consequences after infection with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108770, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging literature shows increased drug use during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, limited research has examined the change in marijuana use among persons living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate how marijuana use changed in a cohort of PLWH during the first year of the pandemic and identify factors associated with the change. METHOD: 222 PLWH (mean age = 50.2 ± 11.2, 50.9 % female, 14.5 % Hispanic, 64.7 % Black, 15.8 % White, 5 % other, 80.2 % persons using marijuana [at least weekly use], 19.8 % persons not using marijuana) completed a baseline survey on demographics and behavioral/health characteristics between 2018 and 2020 and a brief phone survey between May and October 2020 that assessed changes in marijuana use and overall/mental health, and perceived risks/benefits of marijuana use during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: During the pandemic, 64/222(28.8 %) of the whole sample reported increased marijuana use, 36(16.2 %) reported decreased use, and 122(55 %) reported no change. Multinomial logistic regression results indicated that: Compared to those reporting no change, increased marijuana use during the pandemic was associated with more frequent marijuana use and PTSD symptoms at baseline, worsened mental health during the pandemic, and not perceiving marijuana use as a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. More frequent marijuana use at baseline was the only factor significantly associated with decreased marijuana use during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes in marijuana use among a considerable proportion (45 %) of PLWH. Future research is needed to understand the temporality of the increases in marijuana use with worsening mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(11): 3658-3668, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233265

ABSTRACT

We evaluated mental health and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic in 196 participants from the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort. A survey was administered between July-August of 2020, including validated measures of resilience and anxiety, a scale to measure COVID-19-related worry, and self-reported substance use. Compared to HIV-uninfected participants (n = 80), those living with HIV (n = 116) reported fewer anxiety symptoms, less COVID-19-related worry, and higher resilience. Those with more anxiety symptoms and lower resilience engaged in more frequent alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and cocaine use. Alcohol misuse was more common among HIV-uninfected participants. Cocaine use was reported by 21% fewer participants during the pandemic compared with 7.3 ± 1.5 months earlier. Possibly due to their experiences with HIV, PLWH responded with higher resilience and reduced worry and anxiety to the adversities brought by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
13.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 18(2): 98-104, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217472

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes HIV care delivered via telemedicine before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights areas of study to inform optimal usage of telemedicine in HIV clinical practice in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: To address barriers to care created by the COVID-19 pandemic, regulatory agencies and payors waived longstanding restrictions, which enabled rapid expansion of telemedicine across the country. Preliminary data show that providers and persons with HIV (PWH) view telemedicine favorably. Some data suggest telemedicine has facilitated retention in care, but other studies have found increasing numbers of PWH lost to follow-up and worsened virologic suppression rates despite offering video and/or telephone visits. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated gaps in the HIV care continuum. To help mitigate the impact, most clinics have adopted new virtual care options and are now evaluating usage, impact, and concerns. Further research into the effects of telemedicine on HIV care and continued work towards universal access are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/trends , Humans
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(20): 1899-1909, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants threatens progress toward control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In a phase 1-2 trial involving healthy adults, the NVX-CoV2373 nanoparticle vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and was associated with strong neutralizing-antibody and antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy was needed in a setting of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. METHODS: In this phase 2a-b trial in South Africa, we randomly assigned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative adults between the ages of 18 and 84 years or medically stable HIV-positive participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of either the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (5 µg of recombinant spike protein with 50 µg of Matrix-M1 adjuvant) or placebo. The primary end points were safety and vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic Covid-19 at 7 days or more after the second dose among participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Of 6324 participants who underwent screening, 4387 received at least one injection of vaccine or placebo. Approximately 30% of the participants were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline. Among 2684 baseline seronegative participants (94% HIV-negative and 6% HIV-positive), predominantly mild-to-moderate Covid-19 developed in 15 participants in the vaccine group and in 29 in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 49.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1 to 72.8). Vaccine efficacy among HIV-negative participants was 60.1% (95% CI, 19.9 to 80.1). Of 41 sequenced isolates, 38 (92.7%) were the B.1.351 variant. Post hoc vaccine efficacy against B.1.351 was 51.0% (95% CI, -0.6 to 76.2) among the HIV-negative participants. Preliminary local and systemic reactogenicity events were more common in the vaccine group; serious adverse events were rare in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The NVX-CoV2373 vaccine was efficacious in preventing Covid-19, with higher vaccine efficacy observed among HIV-negative participants. Most infections were caused by the B.1.351 variant. (Funded by Novavax and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04533399.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , HIV Seronegativity , HIV Seropositivity , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Africa , Young Adult
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1796-1804, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206820

ABSTRACT

Little evidence on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people living with HIV (PLWH) is currently available. We reported clinical and viroimmunological data of all HIV-positive patients admitted to our center with COVID-19 from March 1 to May 12, 2020. Overall, five patients were included: all were virologically-suppressed on antiretroviral therapy and CD4+ count was greater than 350 cell/mm3 in all but two patients. Although all patients had evidence of pneumonia on admission, only one developed respiratory failure. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was never detected from nasopharyngeal swabs in two patients, whereas in the others, viral clearance occurred within a maximum of 43 days. Immunoglobulin G production was elicited in all patients and neutralizing antibodies in all but one patient. Specific-T-cell response developed in all patients but was stronger in those with the more severe presentations. Similarly, the highest level of proinflammatory cytokines was found in the only patient experiencing respiratory failure. Despite a mild presentation, patients with more pronounced immunosuppression showed high degrees of both cytokines production and immune activation. Our study did not find an increased risk and severity of COVID-19 in PLWH. Adaptative cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 appeared to correlate to disease severity. The mild clinical picture showed in advanced HIV patients, despite a significant T-cell activation and inflammatory profile, suggests a potential role of HIV-driven immunological dysregulation in avoiding immune-pathogenetic processes. However, other possible explanations, as a protective role of certain antiretroviral drugs, should be considered. Further larger studies are needed to better clarify the impact of HIV infection on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Transgender Persons
17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(4): e25696, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160594

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Until COVID-19, tuberculosis (TB) was the leading infectious disease killer globally, disproportionally affecting people with HIV. The COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the gains made in the fight against both diseases. DISCUSSION: Although crucial guidance has been released on how to maintain TB and HIV services during the pandemic, it is acknowledged that what was considered normal service pre-pandemic needs to improve to ensure that we rebuild person-centred, inclusive and quality healthcare services. The threat that the pandemic may reverse gains in the response to TB and HIV may be turned into an opportunity by pivoting to using proven differentiated service delivery approaches and innovative technologies that can be used to maintain care during the pandemic and accelerate improved service delivery in the long term. Models of care should be convenient, supportive and sufficiently differentiated to avoid burdensome clinic visits for medication pick-ups or directly observed treatments. Additionally, the pandemic has highlighted the chronic and short-sighted lack of investment in health systems and the need to prioritize research and development to close the gaps in TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention, especially for children and people with HIV. Most importantly, TB-affected communities and civil society must be supported to lead the planning, implementation and monitoring of TB and HIV services, especially in the time of COVID-19 where services have been disrupted, and to report on legal, policy and gender-related barriers to access experienced by affected people. This will help to ensure that TB services are held accountable by affected communities for delivering equitable access to quality, affordable and non-discriminatory services during and beyond the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Successfully reaching the related targets of ending TB and AIDS as public health threats by 2030 requires rebuilding of stronger, more inclusive health systems by advancing equitable access to quality TB services, including for people with HIV, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, services must be rights-based, community-led and community-based, to ensure that no one is left behind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/therapy , Community Health Services , Humans
18.
AIDS Behav ; 25(5): 1366-1372, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141461

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our study describes changes in HIV care service delivery and continuity of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) during the 8 weeks before and after diagnosis of the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Haiti on March 19, 2020. METHODS: Using data from 96 out of 167 health facilities offering ART services, we compared four ART program indicators: (1) count of HIV visits; (2) proportion of ART dispenses in community-based settings (DAC); (3) proportion of multi-month dispensing of ART medications > 6 months (> 6 m MMD); and (4) proportion of timely ART refills. We used uncontrolled interrupted time series (ITS) models to estimate slope and level changes in each indicator with the arrival of COVID-19. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From week 1 to week 16, the average number of HIV visits fell from 121.5 to 92.5 visits, the proportion of DAC rose from 22.7% to 36.7%, the proportion of > 6 m MMD rose from 29.4% to 48.4%, and the proportion of timely ART refills fell from 51.9% to 43.8%. The ITS models estimated abrupt increases of 36% in > 6 m MMD (p < 0.001) and 37% in DAC (p < 0.001) at the time of COVID-19 arrival, and no change after arrival of COVID-19. The was an abrupt decline of 18% in timely ART refills with the arrival of COVID-19 and a decline of 1% per week thereafter, both non-statistically significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: The sudden changes in HIV service utilization represent dramatic adaptations needed to mitigate primary and secondary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on PLHIV. This study underscores the urgency of optimizing ART delivery models in Haiti and beyond, in order to maintain progress toward HIV epidemic control.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Haiti/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6283, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142455

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the risk of mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) is largely unknown. PLWHA are unique due to their altered immune system from their history of chronic HIV infection and their use of antiretroviral therapy, some of which have been used experimentally to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the epidemiology of SARS-COV-2/HIV coinfection and estimate associated mortality from COVID-19 (Prospero Registration ID: CRD42020187980). PubMed, SCOPUS, OVID and Cochrane Library databases, and medRxiv preprint repositories were searched from January 1, 2020, to December 12, 2020. Data were extracted from studies reporting COVID-19 attack and mortality rates in PLWHA compared to their HIV-negative counterparts. Pooled attack and mortality risks were quantified using random-effects models. We identified 22 studies that included 20,982,498 participants across North America, Africa, Europe, and Asia. The median age was 56 years, and 50% were male. HIV-positive persons had a significantly higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [risk ratio (RR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.46)] and mortality from COVID-19 (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.21-2.60) than HIV-negative individuals. The beneficial effects of tenofovir and protease-inhibitors in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death from COVID-19 in PLWHA remain inconclusive. HIV remains a significant risk factor for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and is associated with a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. In support of the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, persons with HIV need priority consideration for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(5): 835-838, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140580

ABSTRACT

Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program, in Boston, Massachusetts, implemented an intensive telehealth case management intervention combined with emergency financial assistance for 270 homeless-experienced people living with HIV (PLWH) to reduce COVID-19 transmission and promote HIV care retention during Boston's first pandemic peak (March 16-May 31, 2020). Our telehealth model successfully maintained prepandemic case management and primary care contact levels, highlighting the importance of such programs in supporting the care engagement of homeless-experienced PLWH and addressing the dual COVID-19 and HIV epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Case Management/trends , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homeless Persons , Primary Health Care/economics , Telemedicine/economics , Boston/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL