Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 130
Filter
2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1455-1461, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522212

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), interfering with critical health services for HIV prevention, treatment, and care. While there are multiple profiles of persons living with HIV and the impact of COVID-19 may differ for each, the severity of COVID-19 in persons with HIV is related strongly to the presence of comorbidities that increase the risk of severe disease in COVID-19 patients in the absence of HIV. An effective response to the juxtaposition of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics requires a novel coordinated and collaborative global effort of scientists, industry, and community partners to accelerate basic and clinical research, as well as implementation science to operationalize evidence-based interventions expeditiously in real-world settings. Accelerated development and clinical evaluation of prevention and treatment countermeasures are urgently needed to mitigate the juxtaposition of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(1): 285-296, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Advanced breast cancer (BC) at diagnosis is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including among women living with HIV (WLWH). In public hospitals across South Africa (SA), 10-15% of women present with stage IV BC, compared to < 5% in the United States (US); 20% of new BC diagnoses in SA are in WLWH. We evaluated the impact of HIV on overall survival (OS) among women with stage IV BC. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with stage IV BC between February 2, 2015 and September 18, 2019 at six public hospitals in SA. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between HIV status and OS. RESULTS: Among 550 eligible women, 147 (26.7%) were WLWH. Compared to HIV-negative BC patients, WLWH were younger (median age 45 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), predominantly black (95.9% vs. 77.9%, p < 0.001), and more likely to have hormone receptor-negative (hormone-negative) BC (32.7% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.016). Most women received systemic cancer-directed therapy (80.1%). HIV status was not associated with treatment or OS (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.13 [95%CI 0.89-1.44]). On exploratory subgroup analysis, WLWH and hormone-negative BC had shorter OS compared to HIV-uninfected women (1-year OS: 27.1% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.003; HR 1.94 [95%CI 1.27-2.94]; p = 0.002), which was not observed for hormone receptor-positive BC. CONCLUSION: HIV status was not associated with worse OS in women with stage IV BC in SA and cannot account for the poor survival in this cohort. Subgroup analysis revealed that WLWH with hormone-negative BC had worse OS, which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , HIV Infections , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , United States
5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(11): 2339-2349, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493666

ABSTRACT

We assessed the teratogenicity of tenofovir, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug similar to remdesivir that is currently being evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using US Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) claims data (2000-2014), we identified a population-based pregnancy cohort of women with HIV who filled at least 1 prescription for antiretroviral therapies (ART) during the first trimester. Women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) were compared with women receiving ART without TDF. Major malformations were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes using validated algorithms. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using propensity score stratification to control for potential confounders. We incorporated the results into prior knowledge by conducting a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis. Major congenital malformations were diagnosed in 37 out of 866 (4.27%) infants exposed to TDF and 38 out of 1,020 (3.73%) infants exposed to ART other than TDF; the adjusted relative risk was 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 1.90). Estimates for specific malformations were imprecise. The pooled relative risk from the meta-analysis with 6 prior studies was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.03). Based on evidence accumulated in patients with HIV, first-trimester TDF use does not increase the risk of major congenital malformations overall in the newborn compared with other ART.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2095-e2106, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modulates coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of adults with and without HIV who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 207 centers across the United Kingdom and whose data were prospectively captured by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Characterization Protocol (CCP) study. METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association between HIV status and day-28 mortality, after separate adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, 10 individual comorbidities, and disease severity at presentation (as defined by hypoxia or oxygen therapy). RESULTS: Among 47 592 patients, 122 (0.26%) had confirmed HIV infection, and 112/122 (91.8%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, HIV-positive people were younger (median 56 vs 74 years; P < .001) and had fewer comorbidities, more systemic symptoms and higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels. The cumulative day-28 mortality was similar in the HIV-positive versus HIV-negative groups (26.7% vs. 32.1%; P = .16), but in those under 60 years of age HIV-positive status was associated with increased mortality (21.3% vs. 9.6%; P < .001 [log-rank test]). Mortality was higher among people with HIV after adjusting for age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.14; P = .05), and the association persisted after adjusting for the other variables (aHR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.48; P = .008) and when restricting the analysis to people aged <60 years (aHR 2.87; 95% CI 1.70-4.84; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive status was associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , World Health Organization
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1964-e1972, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have numerous risk factors for acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and developing severe outcomes, but current data are conflicting. METHODS: Health-care providers enrolled consecutively, by nonrandom sampling, people living with HIV (PWH) with lab-confirmed COVID-19, diagnosed at their facilities between 1 April and 1 July 2020. Deidentified data were entered into an electronic Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) system. The primary endpoint was a severe outcome, defined as a composite endpoint of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, or death. The secondary outcome was the need for hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 286 patients included; the mean age was 51.4 years (standard deviation, 14.4), 25.9% were female, and 75.4% were African American or Hispanic. Most patients (94.3%) were on antiretroviral therapy, 88.7% had HIV virologic suppression, and 80.8% had comorbidities. Within 30 days of testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 164 (57.3%) patients were hospitalized, and 47 (16.5%) required ICU admission. Mortality rates were 9.4% (27/286) overall, 16.5% (27/164) among those hospitalized, and 51.5% (24/47) among those admitted to an ICU. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 17.5% (50/286) of all patients and 30.5% (50/164) of hospitalized patients. Older age, chronic lung disease, and hypertension were associated with severe outcomes. A lower CD4 count (<200 cells/mm3) was associated with the primary and secondary endpoints. There were no associations between the ART regimen or lack of viral suppression and the predefined outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Severe clinical outcomes occurred commonly in PWH with COVID-19. The risks for poor outcomes were higher in those with comorbidities and lower CD4 cell counts, despite HIV viral suppression. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04333953.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Female , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2086-e2094, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiological, virological, and serological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). METHODS: This population-based cohort study identified all COVID-19 cases among all PLWH in Wuhan, China, by 16 April 2020. The epidemiological, virological, and serological features were analyzed based on the demographic data, temporal profile of nucleic acid test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the disease, and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin (Ig) M and G after recovery. RESULTS: From 1 January to 16 April 2020, 35 of 6001 PLWH experienced COVID-19, with a cumulative incidence of COVID-19 of 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], .42-.81%). Among the COVID-19 cases, 15 (42.86) had severe illness, with 2 deaths. The incidence, case-severity, and case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in PLWH were comparable to those in the entire population in Wuhan. There were 197 PLWH who had discontinued combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 4 of whom experienced COVID-19. Risk factors for COVID-19 were age ≥50 years old and cART discontinuation. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding among confirmed COVID-19 cases in PLWH was 30 days (interquartile range, 20-46). Cases with high HIV viral loads (≥20 copies/mL) had lower IgM and IgG levels than those with low HIV viral loads (<20 copies/ml; median signal value divided by the cutoff value [S/CO] for IgM, 0.03 vs 0.11, respectively [P < .001]; median S/CO for IgG, 10.16 vs 17.04, respectively [P = .069]). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to maintain the persistent supply of antiretroviral treatment to elderly PLWH aged 50 years or above during the COVID-19 epidemic. The coinfection of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 might change the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Cohort Studies , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 121-124, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436206

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in patients with underlying chronic conditions, with increased risk of mortality. There is concern that people living with HIV (PLWH), especially those with severe immunosuppression, and COVID-19 may have severe disease and a negative clinical outcome. Most studies on COVID-19 in PLWH are from Asia, Europe and America where population dynamics, antiretroviral treatment coverage and coexisting opportunistic infections may differ from that in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on the clinical profile and outcome of three cases of PLWH co-infected with SARS-CoV-2. They all presented with fever, cough and breathlessness and also had advanced HIV infection as evidenced by opportunistic infections, high HIV viral loads and low CD4 counts. The patients responded favourably to the standard of care and were discharged home. Our findings suggest that PLWH with advanced immunosuppression may not necessarily have an unfavourable disease course and outcome. However, case-controlled studies with a larger population size are needed to better understand the impact of COVID-19 in this patient population. FUNDING: Not declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV , Opportunistic Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Viral Load
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 6-10, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggest that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Leveraging data collected from electronic medical records for all patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19 between March 2, 2020, and April 23, 2020, we matched 21 HIV-positive patients with 42 non-HIV patients using a greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm. Admission characteristics, laboratory test results, and hospital outcomes were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Although there was a trend toward increased rates of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in HIV-positive patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Rates for these outcomes in our cohort are similar to those previously published for all patients hospitalized with COVID-19. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher admission and peak C-reactive protein values. Other inflammatory markers did not differ significantly between groups, although HIV-positive patients tended to have higher peak values during their clinical course. Three HIV-positive patients had superimposed bacterial pneumonia with positive sputum cultures, and all 3 patients died during hospitalization. There was no difference in frequency of thrombotic events or myocardial infarction between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that HIV coinfection does not significantly impact presentation, hospital course, or outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, when compared with matched non-HIV patients. A larger study is required to determine whether the trends we observed apply to all HIV-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China around December 2019. Since then, the virus has caused severe morbidity and mortality worldwide and has put pressure on the global medical system. Still, there are limited data regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The primary aim of this study was, therefore, to systematically review up-to-date studies reporting the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients. METHODS: A thorough literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library Databases in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies were identified. Amongst 730 HIV/COVID-19-coinfected patients, 79.4% were males, the median age was 51.5 years, and the number of reported patients receiving antiretroviral drugs was 708 (97.2%). Most coinfected patients had mild to moderate symptoms, including cough (37.7%), fever (37.5%), and dyspnoea (24.7%). Among pre-existing comorbidities, hypertension (26.3%) was the most prevalent in HIV/COVID-19 coinfected patients, and 87% of coinfected patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the existing data in this systematic literature review, HIV patients with pre-existing comorbidities, obesity, and older age should be considered as a high-risk group for COVID-19. Furthermore, coinfected patients appear to have marginally comparable clinical outcomes with the general population. The study's findings highlight the need for further investigation to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 infection on HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , HIV Infections/drug therapy , China , Cough/etiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fever/etiology , Humans
16.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1789-1794, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes among US persons with HIV (PWH) requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a case series of all PWH sequentially admitted with COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 to 23 April 2020 at three hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia. Sociodemographic, clinical and HIV-associated characteristics were collected. RESULTS: Of 530 confirmed COVID-19 cases hospitalized during this period, 20 occurred among PWH (3.8%). The median age was 57 (Q1-Q3, 48-62) years, 65% were men, and 85% were non-Hispanic Black. Presenting median symptom duration was 5 (Q1-Q3, 3-7) days; cough (90%), fever (65%), malaise (60%) and dyspnea (60%) were most common. On admission, 40% of patients required oxygenation support and 65% had an abnormal chest radiograph. Median length of hospitalization was 5 (Q1-Q3, 4-12) days, 30% required intensive care, 15% required intubation, and 15% died. Median CD4 cell count prior to admission was 425 (Q1-Q3, 262-815) cells/µl and 90% of patients had HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies/ml. Half of the patients had at least five comorbidities; hypertension (70%), dyslipidemia (60%) and diabetes (45%) were most prevalent. All three patients who died had CD4 cell count more than 200, HIV suppression and each had a total of five comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The multisite series in the Southern United States provides characteristics and early outcomes of hospitalized PWH with COVID-19. Nearly all patients had controlled HIV and a high comorbidity burden. Additional study of COVID-19 among PWH is needed to determine the role of age, comorbidities and HIV control in mediating COVID-19 presentation and its sequelae.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Am J Pathol ; 191(7): 1193-1208, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283899

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can arise from unknown causes, as in idiopathic PF, or as a consequence of infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current treatments for PF slow, but do not stop, disease progression. We report that treatment with a runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) inhibitor (Ro24-7429), previously found to be safe, although ineffective, as a Tat inhibitor in patients with HIV, robustly ameliorates lung fibrosis and inflammation in the bleomycin-induced PF mouse model. RUNX1 inhibition blunted fundamental mechanisms downstream pathologic mediators of fibrosis and inflammation, including transforming growth factor-ß1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in cultured lung epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells, indicating pleiotropic effects. RUNX1 inhibition also reduced the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and FES Upstream Region (FURIN), host proteins critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, in mice and in vitro. A subset of human lungs with SARS-CoV-2 infection overexpress RUNX1. These data suggest that RUNX1 inhibition via repurposing of Ro24-7429 may be beneficial for PF and to battle SARS-CoV-2, by reducing expression of viral mediators and by preventing respiratory complications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/antagonists & inhibitors , Furin/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Animals , Bleomycin , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e977-e988, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Secondary distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits by patients attending clinic services to their partners could improve the rate of HIV diagnosis. We aimed to investigate whether secondary administration of HIVST kits, with or without an additional financial incentive, via women receiving antenatal care (ANC) or via people newly diagnosed with HIV (ie, index patients) could improve the proportion of male partners tested or the number of people newly diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: We did a three-arm, open-label, pragmatic, cluster-randomised trial of 27 health centres (clusters), eligible if they were a government primary health centre providing ANC, HIV testing, and ART services, across four districts of Malawi. We recruited women (aged ≥18 years) attending their first ANC visit and whose male partner was available, not already taking ART, and not already tested for HIV during this pregnancy (ANC cohort), and people (aged ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed HIV during routine clinic HIV testing who had at least one sexual contact not already known to be HIV-positive (index cohort). Centres were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using a public selection of computer-generated random allocations, to enhanced standard of care (including an invitation for partners to attend HIV testing services), HIVST only, or HIVST plus a US$10 financial incentive for retesting. The primary outcome for the ANC cohort was the proportion of male partners reportedly tested, as ascertained by interview with women in this cohort at day 28. The primary outcome for the index cohort was the geometric mean number of new HIV-positive people identified per facility within 28 days of enrolment, as measured by observed HIV test results. Cluster-level summaries compared intervention with standard of care by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03705611. FINDINGS: Between Sept 8, 2018, and May 2, 2019, nine clusters were assigned to each trial arm, resulting in 4544 eligible women in the ANC cohort (1447 [31·8%] in the standard care group, 1465 [32·2%] in the HIVST only group, and 1632 [35·9%] in HIVST plus financial incentive group) and 708 eligible patients in the index cohort (234 [33·1%] in the standard care group, 169 [23·9%] in the HIVST only group, and 305 [42·9%] in the HIVST plus financial incentive group). 4461 (98·2%) of 4544 eligible women in the ANC cohort and 645 (91·1%) of 708 eligible patients in the index cohort were recruited, of whom 3378 (75·7%) in the ANC cohort and 439 (68·1%) in the index cohort were interviewed after 28 days. In the ANC cohort, the mean proportion of reported partner testing per cluster was 35·0% (SD 10·0) in the standard care group, 73·0% in HIVST only group (13·1, adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1·71, 95% CI 1·48-1·98; p<0·0001), and 65·2% in the HIVST plus financial incentive group (11·6, adjusted RR 1·62, 1·45-1·81; p<0·0001). In the index cohort, the geometric mean number of new HIV-positive sexual partners per cluster was 1·35 (SD 1·62) for the standard care group, 1·91 (1·78) for the HIVST only group (incidence rate ratio adjusted for number eligible as an offset in the negative binomial model 1·65, 95% CI 0·49-5·55; p=0·3370), and 3·20 (3·81) for the HIVST plus financial incentive group (3·11, 0·99-9·77; p=0·0440). Four self-resolving, temporary marital separations occurred due to disagreement in couples regarding HIV self-test kits. INTERPRETATION: Although administration of HIVST kits in the ANC cohort, even when offered alongside a financial incentive, did not identify significantly more male patients with HIV than did standard care, out-of-clinic options for HIV testing appear more acceptable to many male partners of women with HIV, increasing test uptake. Viewed in the current context, this approach might allow continuation of services despite COVID-19-related lockdowns. FUNDING: Unitaid, through the Self-Testing Africa Initiative.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/methods , Prenatal Care , Self-Testing , Sexual Partners , Adult , Cluster Analysis , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing/economics , Humans , Malawi/epidemiology , Male , Motivation , Pregnancy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Young Adult
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(1): 61-68, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the diagnostic performance of eosinopenia, alone or combined with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and/or lymphocytes, as a marker of active COVID-19 in patients hospitalized for suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A prospective observational study including patients hospitalized for suspicion of COVID-19 in a COVID unit was performed from 20th March to 5th April 2020, in Perpignan, France. Patients for which there was a doubt upon diagnosis, who were recently under oral corticosteroids, had myeloid malignancy or human immunodeficient virus infection were excluded. SARS-CoV-2 detection was performed using an RT-PCR assay, from nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Complete blood count were performed for all patients. RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-one patient were included: 57 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, 64 patients were not. Eosinophil count was lower in the COVID-19 group (median: 0/µL versus 70/µL, p < 0.0001). To diagnose COVID-19, eosinopenia had a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 78.1% while lymphopenia's were 73.7% and 62.5% respectively. Using area under curve (AUC) of receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curves, eosinophil's optimal cut-off level was 10/µL, sensitivity and specificity were 86%, and 79.7% respectively. Regarding the eosinophil/PMN ratio, the optimal cut-off level was 3.344, sensitivity and specificity were 87.7% and 73.4% respectively. The AUC of lymphocyte/PMN ratio was significantly lower than eosinophil/PMN ratio's (0.621 versus 0.846, p = 0.0003). CONCLUSION: Eosinopenia - <10/µL - and eosinophil/PMN ratio are useful, low-cost, reproducible tools to help diagnose COVID-19, during an epidemic period, in a population of hospitalized patients admitted for suspicion of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eosinophils/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL