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1.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 268-274, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111599

ABSTRACT

The recent passing away of Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, who first described what is now known as Kawasaki Disease (KD), and recent reports of a multisystem inflammatory disease in children associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (MIS-C), makes a review on KD and MIS-C timely. Kawasaki Disease is a systemic vasculitis with predilection for coronary arteries occurring mostly in early childhood. The main features are high fever, extensive skin rash, cheilitis with red, cracking, bleeding lips and strawberry tongue, conjunctivitis, erythema and induration of hands and feet, subsiding with periungual peeling, cervical lymphadenopathy, and coronary artery dilation/aneurysms. Treatment consists of intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) plus acetylsalicylic acid. MIS-C is considered a cytokine storm with high fever, inflammation, multi-organ dysfunction, that shares features with KD, toxic shock, and macrophage activation syndrome. Many children require admission to paediatric intensive care units for circulatory support. Bacterial sepsis, staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, and enterovirus-causing myocarditis should be excluded. Treatment is not standardized and includes IVIg, IV methylprednisolone and IL-6 and IL-1 inhibitors.

2.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 727-733, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been raised about the risk to children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to collate global experience and provide provisional guidance for managing paediatric IBD (PIBD) in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: An electronic reporting system of children with IBD infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been circulated among 102 PIBD centres affiliated with the Porto and Interest-group of ESPGHAN. A survey has been completed by major PIBD centres in China and South-Korea to explore management during the pandemic. A third survey collected current practice of PIBD treatment. Finally, guidance points for practice have been formulated and voted upon by 37 PIBD authors and Porto group members. RESULTS: Eight PIBD children had COVID-19 globally, all with mild infection without needing hospitalization despite treatment with immunomodulators and/or biologics. No cases have been reported in China and South Korea but biologic treatment has been delayed in 79 children, of whom 17 (22%) had exacerbation of their IBD. Among the Porto group members, face-to-face appointments were often replaced by remote consultations but almost all did not change current IBD treatment. Ten guidance points for clinicians caring for PIBD patients in epidemic areas have been endorsed with consensus rate of 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data for PIBD patients during COVID-19 outbreak are reassuring. Standard IBD treatments including biologics should continue at present through the pandemic, especially in children who generally have more severe IBD course on one hand, and milder SARS-CoV-2 infection on the other.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Contemp Psychother ; 50(4): 275-283, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708704

ABSTRACT

Essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic face heightened levels of anxiety and depression due to increased work demands, lack of adequate personal protective equipment, fear of contracting the virus, and fear of spreading it to loved ones. This is a time of urgent need for mental health support for workers affected by the pandemic crisis. Clinicians may employ empirically supported interventions derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and related therapies. Psychological First Aid, an evidence-based crisis intervention, may be utilized to emphasize basic needs and support, but is intended as an acute disaster intervention. Given that a pandemic is an ongoing and prolonged stressor, additional CBT-informed interventions are likely needed to fully support essential workers during these times. It is recommended that clinicians help essential worker clients meet their basic needs by modifying health and sleep habits where possible and helping them advocate for their needs using interpersonal effectiveness skills. Empathic listening, validation of the crisis at hand, and values clarification can aid the therapeutic relationship, help them feel a renewed sense of purpose and meaning in their careers and with their families, and facilitate behavior change consistent with chosen values. Self-monitoring through a daily diary can help clients focus their thoughts and recognize maladaptive patterns in their thoughts and behaviors. In tandem with these techniques, behavioral activation and coping strategies including relaxation, distress tolerance, and acceptance promote engaging in positive and adaptive activities. Finally, therapists can help clients reduce anxiety related to the pandemic by helping them limit information intake.

4.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(2): 240-241, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575149

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Kumar N, Kumar A, Pradhan S, Kumar A, Singh K. Painful Blisters of Left Hand Following Extravasation of Remdesivir Infusion in COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(2):240-241.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 8 April 2021, a total of 2.9 million people have died with or from the coronavirus infection causing COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019). On 29 January 2021, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca (AZD1222, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca, Vaxzevria, Covishield). While the vaccine prevents severe course of and death from COVID-19, the observation of pulmonary, abdominal, and intracranial venous thromboembolic events has raised concerns. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations and the concerning management of patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis following first exposure to the "COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca". METHODS: Patient files, laboratory findings, and diagnostic imaging results, and endovascular interventions of three concerning patients were evaluated in retrospect. RESULTS: Three women with intracranial venous sinus thrombosis after their first vaccination with "COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca" were encountered. Patient #1 was 22 years old and developed headaches four days after the vaccination. On day 7, she experienced a generalized epileptic seizure. Patient #2 was 46 years old. She presented with severe headaches, hemianopia to the right, and mild aphasia 13 days after the vaccination. MRI showed a left occipital intracerebral hemorrhage. Patient #3 was 36 years old and presented 17 days after the vaccination with acute somnolence and right-hand hemiparesis. The three patients were diagnosed with extensive venous sinus thrombosis. They were managed by heparinization and endovascular recanalization of their venous sinuses. They shared similar findings: elevated levels of D-dimers, platelet factor 4 antiplatelet antibodies, corona spike protein antibodies, combined with thrombocytopenia. Under treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin, platelet counts normalized within several days. CONCLUSION: Early observations insinuate that the exposure to the "COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca" might trigger the expression of antiplatelet antibodies, resulting in a condition with thrombocytopenia and venous thrombotic events (e.g., intracranial venous sinus thrombosis). These patients' treatment should address the thrombo-embolic manifestations, the coagulation disorder, and the underlying immunological phenomena.

6.
Microsurgery ; 41(5): 488-497, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adults with traumatic digital amputation (TDA) of the hand may be managed with replantation or revision amputation. To date, there is no systematic review evaluating patient reported outcomes (PROs) comparing replantation versus revision amputation. METHODS: Three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed) were systematically searched in duplicate from inception until June 13, 2019 using Covidence software. Studies comparing replantation versus revision amputation outcomes were considered for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using Methodologic Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) criteria. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis model using Revman software. Certainty of evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE). RESULTS: Of 4350 studies identified, 12 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria and compared TDA outcomes for replantation (n = 717; 82.9% male; mean age 40.3) versus revision amputation (n = 1046; 79.8% male; mean age 41.7). The overall replantation survival rate was 85.3%. The average MINORS score was 57% (13.75/24). Replantation of the thumb had a superior Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ) score (+11.88, 95% CI [7.78-15.99], I2 = 21%) compared with revision amputation. Replantation of single non-thumb digits had a superior MHQ score (+5.31, 95% CI [3.10-7.51], I2 = 67%) and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score (-5.16, 95% CI [-8.27 to -2.06], I2 = 0%) compared with revision amputation. Most patients in the meta-analysis were from Asian populations (87.9%). CONCLUSION: There is low-quality evidence that thumb replantation achieves superior PROs compared with revision amputation, which may be clinically important. Replantation of single non-thumb digits also yielded superior PROs, which is likely not clinically important and based on very low-quality evidence. Future studies with populations outside Asia are required to determine if PROs vary based on cultural differences toward digital amputation.


Subject(s)
Amputation, Traumatic , Finger Injuries , Adult , Amputation , Amputation, Traumatic/surgery , Female , Finger Injuries/surgery , Humans , Male , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Replantation , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5676-5679, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432416

ABSTRACT

Over the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of highly infective avian influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This came as a shock to a country that was already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import bans and massive culls in the poultry business. Local experts have also called for a restriction on the movement of people and cars in and out of their chicken farms. Employees have also been encouraged to shower in the mornings when they arrive at the farms and wear fresh clothes, as the flu spreads very quickly. In a country that is already facing the economic implications of the COVID-19, this has the potential to cause a significant dent in the economy, as well as severely impact people's day-to-day life. Bird flu-also called avian influenza-is a viral infection that can infect not only birds but also humans and other animals. The threat of a new influenza pandemic has prompted countries to draft national strategic preparedness plans to prevent, contain and mitigate the next human influenza pandemic. This paper describes the South African burden, current efforts, and preparedness against the avian influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
8.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(4): 653-662, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are some retrospective studies to present musculoskeletal findings of the COVID-19, still the muscle strength and fatigue has not been studied in detail. AIM: To reveal the symptoms of musculoskeletal system in COVID-19 patients, to evaluate myalgia, arthralgia and physical/mental fatigue, to assess handgrip muscle strength, and to examine the relations of these parameters with the severity and laboratory values of the disease. DESIGN: This study was designed as a cross-sectional, single-center case series. SETTING: This study took place from May 15, 2020, to June 30, 2020 at the Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Pandemia Services. POPULATION: Hospitalized 150 adults with laboratory and radiological confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to WHO interim guidance were included in the study. METHODS: The disease severity 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines for community acquired pneumonia was used. Myalgia severity was assessed by numerical rating scale (NRS). Visual analog scale and Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were used for fatigue severity determination. Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured by Jamar hand dynamometer. RESULTS: One hundred three patients (68.7%) were non-severe, and 47 patients (31.3%) were severe. The most common musculoskeletal symptom was fatigue (133 [85.3%]), followed by myalgia (102 [68.0%]), arthralgia (65 [43.3%]) and back pain (33 [22.0%]). Arthralgia, which was mostly notable at wrist (25 [16.7%]), ankle (24 [16.0%]) and knee (23 [15.3%]) joints, was significantly higher among the severe group. Severe myalgia was prevalent among myalgia sufferers regardless of COVID-19 severity. The physical fatigue severity score was significantly higher in severe cases, whereas this difference was not significant in mental fatigue score. Female patients with severe infection had "lower" grip strength, whereas grip strength among males did not differ significantly between non-severe and severe COVID-19 cases. Nevertheless, the mean values in both genders and in age decades were below the specified normative values. CRP, ferritin, and LDH levels were significantly higher in women with "lower" grip strength compared to the "normal" group. CONCLUSIONS: Aside from other multisystemic symptoms, musculoskeletal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19. Patients have severe ischemic myalgia regardless of disease activity. Although there is a muscle weakness in all patients, the loss of muscle function is more of a problem among women in connection with disease severity. Muscular involvement in Coronavirus disease is a triangle of myalgia, physical fatigue, and muscle weakness. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Muscle involvement in COVID-19 patients does not mean only myalgia but also a combination of physical fatigue and muscle weakness, and this should be considered in planning the rehabilitation strategies of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Hand Strength/physiology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173681

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to panic-buying of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs). In response, governmental agencies (e.g., Health Canada) permitted the sale of ABHRs formulated with "technical-grade" ethanol to alleviate the growing demand. Technical-grade ethanol contains elevated concentrations of impurities (e.g., acetaldehyde, etc.), which may exhibit dose-dependent toxicity. In this study, a rapid solvent extraction was employed to analyze gelled ABHRs via gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. In total, 26 liquid and 16 gelled ABHRs were analyzed for nine common impurities to determine compliance with Health Canada interim guidelines. Of 42 samples analyzed, 11 ABHRs appear to be non-compliant with interim Health Canada guidelines. Non-compliant ABHRs exhibited elevated concentrations of acetaldehyde, with a maximal concentration observed of 251 ± 10 µL L-1; 3.3× higher than currently permitted. Nonetheless, frequent testing of ABHRs should be routinely conducted to reduce the risk of consumer exposure to non-compliant ABHRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethanol , Acetaldehyde , Canada , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 32(2): 333-339, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the operational trends in the orthopedic surgery department of a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 305 orthopedic surgical procedures in 245 patients (136 males, 109 females; mean age: 34±26.6 years; range, 0 to 91 years) between March 16th and June 27th, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The same period of the year before including 860 procedures in 783 patients (364 males, 419 females; mean age: 33.6±25.8 years; range, 0 to 95 years) was also reviewed as a pre-pandemic control group. Patient demographics, surgical indications, COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test status, method of anesthesia, surgical subspecialties (trauma, sports, etc.), trauma mechanisms, and surgical priorities were evaluated. The pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods were compared. RESULTS: The rate of elective surgeries decreased compared to the previous year, and priority C type surgeries had the highest frequency (42.5%). Orthopedic trauma was the leading subspecialty with 91 (29.8%) cases and had a higher share, compared to the pre-pandemic period (17.0%). Hip fractures (18.7%) were the most common cause of trauma surgery, and simple falls (42.3%) composed the largest group of trauma mechanisms, which was similar to the pre-pandemic period (hip fractures, 13.6%; simple falls, 42.5%). The distribution of surgical urgency levels and subspecialties differed significantly between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods (p<0.001). Post-hoc analysis of subspecialty distribution revealed a significant decrease in arthroplasty (p=0.002) and hand surgery (p<0.001), and a significant increase in trauma (p<0.001) and the "other" category (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our experience in a tertiary referral center illustrated a shift toward performing emergent and urgent surgeries, when the severity of the outbreak increased. Prioritizing surgical urgencies during the outbreak changed the orthopedic surgery practice with an emphasis on trauma and oncology surgeries. Hip fractures were the most common cause of trauma surgery, and simple falls composed the largest group of trauma mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/methods , COVID-19 , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hip Fractures , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Orthopedic Procedures , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/surgery , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Turkey/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
11.
mSphere ; : e0031321, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270879

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and enforced significant restrictions within our societies, including the attendance of public and professional athletes in gyms. Liquid chalk is a commonly used accessory in gyms and is comprised of magnesium carbonate and alcohol that quickly evaporates on the hands to leave a layer of dry chalk. We investigated whether liquid chalk is an antiseptic against highly pathogenic human viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, and noroviruses. Chalk was applied before or after virus, inoculum and recovery of infectious virus was determined to mimic the use in the gym. We observed that addition of chalk before or after virus contact led to a significant reduction in recovery of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus but had little impact on norovirus. These observations suggest that the use and application of liquid chalk can be an effective and suitable antiseptic for major sporting events, such as the Olympic Games. IMPORTANCE To restrict the potential transmission and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, the use of liquid chalk has been a requirement in an active gym setting. However, its effectiveness has not been scientifically proven. Here, we show that the application of liquid chalk before or after virus inoculum significantly impacts recovery of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses but not noroviruses. Thus, our study has shown that the implementation and application of liquid chalk in communal social gym settings is effective in reducing the infectivity of respiratory viruses, and this supports the use of liquid chalk in major sporting events to restrict the impact of COVID-19 on our communities.

12.
Gynakologe ; 54(6): 392-398, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The German Infection Protection Act calls for effective measures to be implemented in clinics to avoid nosocomial infections. The corona pandemic once again demonstrates the importance of adequate hygiene measures in avoiding infections. OBJECTIVES: Compilation of common basic hygiene measures for clinical obstetrics. METHODS: Discussion of relevant German guidelines relating to the work in the delivery room. Development of recommendations for hygienically correct childbirth care. RESULTS: Recommendations for surface disinfection refer to predefined risk-categories in the delivery unit. In cooperation with hospital hygiene, the frequency of cleaning and disinfection must be specified in the facility's internal hygiene plans. To avoid a selection of disinfectant-tolerant germs, it is essential to observe the spectrum of activity and exposure time of each disinfectant. Hand disinfection is the single most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections. The challenge here is the consistent implementation of the generally known indications for hand disinfection in everyday life. For the hygienically correct management of water birth and maintenance of the bathtub, standards should be developed in every delivery room, the effectiveness of which must be regularly monitored. In a pandemic, there are additional hygiene rules, tailored to the particular pathogen. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no lack of knowledge in the form of guidelines and recommendations, the implementation of basic hygiene measures in everyday life in the delivery room requires perseverance and commitment.

13.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(9): 462-465, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and severity of ocular exposure to alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) in children presenting to a tertiary medical center during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective single-center observational study conducted from February 21, 2020, to October 11, 2020. Subjects 10 years or younger who presented with ABHR-induced ocular injury were included. The same period from 2019 was studied and a comparison was performed between the 2 years. Outcome measures included the number of subjects with ocular injury due to ABHR, extent of ocular epithelial defects, length of hospitalization and time to resolution. RESULTS: A total of 9 patients presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department after sustaining ocular chemical injuries from ABHR during this period. Treatment included immediate irrigation followed by topical antibiotics, steroids, and lubrication. Six children were discharged and followed as outpatients with no reported adverse ocular sequelae. Three patients exhibited epithelial defects involving 85% to 100% of the cornea, 30% to 75% of the conjunctiva and required inpatient treatment ranging from 4 to 11 days. All patients experienced a complete resolution of the ocular epithelial defects after 12 to 19 days. No long-term irreversible damage was observed and visual acuity returned to normal in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: The utilization of ABHR during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic resulted in childhood ocular injury. Prompt treatment led to good visual outcomes. These products should be regarded as potentially toxic and stored out of the reach of young children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Injuries , Hand Sanitizers , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(41): 58170-58188, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261809

ABSTRACT

End-of-use and end-of-life medicines waste management has been a challenge for public and private managers in different countries. Reverse logistics is a waste management strategy whose application to public pharmaceutical care processes faces legal restrictions and incertitude. Nevertheless, reverse logistics of end-of-use and end-of-life medicines may be both a saving and an environmental strategy in developing countries that manage health under limited resources. How to overcome restrictions to reverse logistics mainly in the context of primary health level? This study aims to investigate the most relevant critical factors for implementing medicine waste management in pharmaceutical care process. The unit analysis is the primary health level process in a developing country capital. Considering the characteristics of the issue at hand, it was designed a qualitative study. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interviewees were key individuals who work directly with the process-from administering medicine to patients to managing waste at the end of the medicine's lifespan or after its use. Results indicated that despite reverse logistics arising from end users is legally forbidden, another type of reverse flow emerged from process analysis. The reverse flow, named reassignment flow, consists of still useful end-of-use medicines exchanged among the 10 government-ran pharmacies and over 140 health centers, where healthcare professionals administer and offer guidance on how to use them correctly. Another result was the identification of the most critical factors in implementing reverse logistics strategies in the public management context. The factors mentioned included aspects pertaining to management, information technology, infrastructure, and government, but they differ from the private context management, in which decision-makers has more freedom. Due to the barriers named by interviewees, the political barriers and complexity of primary health system, results of this investigation point to (i) reinforcing the reassignment flows inside pharmaceutical care logistics cycle, for saving purposes, and (ii) further development of a specific management unit to perform reverse logistics of end-of-use medicines arising from consumers, for environmental purposes. In times of shortage or resources caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, to know the critical factors is a step necessary in overcoming the current restrictions in direction of a well-succeeded medicines reverse logistics, either of reassignment or from final consumers. These results clarify the literature on end-of-use and end-of-life medicines reverse logistics. It also provides managers of 5000 municipalities in the country a perspective on the most relevant critical factors involved in their decision-making process, concerning the reuse of end-of-use medicines or the adequate disposal of end-of-life medicines in the environment.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Services , Terminal Care , Waste Management , Humans
15.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 40(2): 168-174, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skin lesions are either caused by COVID-19 disease or they can be due to other driving forces related to the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: Considering the fact that the reported data in different articles for the type and prevalence of skin manifestations related to the COVID-19 pandemic are inconsistent, we have described the mechanism and type of skin lesions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review article, we have searched the Medline database (PubMed) for the combination of the following key terms "Dermatological Manifestation", "cutaneous Manifestation", "Skin Manifestation", "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2". RESULTS: The prevalence of skin manifestations related to COVID-19 ranged from 0.2% to 20%. The majority of these skin lesions are maculopapular eruptions. The skin presentations related to the COVID-19 pandemic are described below. Traumatic skin conditions such as dermatitis in individuals, especially those with allergies, might initiate secondary to over-washing or rinsing with inappropriate detergents. Also, inappropriate use of personal protective equipment (mask-gloves-shield) can trigger skin lesions on the face and hands or aggravate the lesions of acne, seborrhoeic dermatitis, eczema, etc. Furthermore, cutaneous adverse drug reactions may occur during hospitalization or outpatient treatment of COVID-19 patients. Also, psychocutaneous disorders due to acute stress can trigger or deteriorate several skin manifestations. Moreover, COVID-19 prevalence and course may be changed in patients with autoimmune or chronic inflammatory underlying skin disorders such as psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, pemphigus, scleroderma who are on immunosuppressive or biological medications to control their disorders. CONCLUSION: Due to the various dimensions of skin organ involvement and the large population affected, long-term skin conditions following this pandemic can be a lot more problematic than it appears. Serious preventive measures and medical supports are necessary to avoid skin disorders from becoming permanent or even chronic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Skin/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis/etiology , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects
16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic dermatological condition characterized by lesions on extensor surfaces, hands, feet, and genital areas. Chronic renal failure is often associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis. CASE REPORT: In this paper, we report a patient with stage-three chronic renal failure that improved his renal condition after treatment with ixekizumab, an anti-IL17A drug used in the treatment of various cutaneous and rheumatological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: IL17A blockage may help to treat various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, that may lead to renal impairment. Further investigation is necessary in order to prove the effectiveness of this drug in renal conditions.

17.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 798-801, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243531

ABSTRACT

The glaring racial inequities in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the devastating loss of Black lives at the hands of police and racist vigilantes have catalyzed a global reckoning about deeply rooted systemic racism in society. Many medical training institutions in the United States have participated in this discourse by denouncing racism, expressing solidarity with people of color, and reexamining their diversity and inclusion efforts. Yet, the stagnant progress in recruiting, retaining, and supporting racial/ethnic minority trainees and faculty at medical training institutions is well documented and reflects unaddressed systemic racism along the academic pipeline. In this article, the authors draw upon their experiences as early-career physicians of color who have led and supported antiracism efforts within their institutions to highlight key barriers to achieving meaningful progress. They describe common pitfalls of diversity and inclusion initiatives and call for an antiracist approach to systems change. The authors then offer 9 recommendations that medical training institutions can implement to critically examine and address racist structures within their organizations to actualize racial equity and justice.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Preceptorship/methods , Racism/prevention & control , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cultural Diversity , Decision Making/ethics , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Preceptorship/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Inclusion , Social Justice , United States/ethnology
20.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 52(1): e7014577, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207972

ABSTRACT

CASE DESCRIPTION: 32-month-old boy, IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2, presented to the emergency department with dermatologic lesions. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Four days before admission, he presented skin eruptions with redness and pruritus on hands and feet. Generalized papular erythema was evidenced, upper extremities with diffuse erythematosquamous plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, so he was evaluated by a dermatologist who diagnosed pityriasis rubra pilaris. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: rehydrating cream, cetirizine 0.5 mg/kg/day every two days, and prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day in the morning. He was discharged after 14 days, the patient presented clinical improvement, but the erythematous lesion persisted on the trunk and extremities. In the evaluation, after three months, the patient did not show the described lesions, evidencing an improvement and clinical resolution of the dermatological problems. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We report a patient with pityriasis rubra piloris associated with a post-infection by SARS-CoV-2 that had not been described before.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris/etiology , Cetirizine/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris/diagnosis , Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris/drug therapy , Prednisolone/administration & dosage
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