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1.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(2): 240-241, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575149

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Kumar N, Kumar A, Pradhan S, Kumar A, Singh K. Painful Blisters of Left Hand Following Extravasation of Remdesivir Infusion in COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(2):240-241.

2.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5676-5679, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432416

ABSTRACT

Over the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of highly infective avian influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This came as a shock to a country that was already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import bans and massive culls in the poultry business. Local experts have also called for a restriction on the movement of people and cars in and out of their chicken farms. Employees have also been encouraged to shower in the mornings when they arrive at the farms and wear fresh clothes, as the flu spreads very quickly. In a country that is already facing the economic implications of the COVID-19, this has the potential to cause a significant dent in the economy, as well as severely impact people's day-to-day life. Bird flu-also called avian influenza-is a viral infection that can infect not only birds but also humans and other animals. The threat of a new influenza pandemic has prompted countries to draft national strategic preparedness plans to prevent, contain and mitigate the next human influenza pandemic. This paper describes the South African burden, current efforts, and preparedness against the avian influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
3.
mSphere ; : e0031321, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270879

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and enforced significant restrictions within our societies, including the attendance of public and professional athletes in gyms. Liquid chalk is a commonly used accessory in gyms and is comprised of magnesium carbonate and alcohol that quickly evaporates on the hands to leave a layer of dry chalk. We investigated whether liquid chalk is an antiseptic against highly pathogenic human viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, and noroviruses. Chalk was applied before or after virus, inoculum and recovery of infectious virus was determined to mimic the use in the gym. We observed that addition of chalk before or after virus contact led to a significant reduction in recovery of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus but had little impact on norovirus. These observations suggest that the use and application of liquid chalk can be an effective and suitable antiseptic for major sporting events, such as the Olympic Games. IMPORTANCE To restrict the potential transmission and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, the use of liquid chalk has been a requirement in an active gym setting. However, its effectiveness has not been scientifically proven. Here, we show that the application of liquid chalk before or after virus inoculum significantly impacts recovery of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses but not noroviruses. Thus, our study has shown that the implementation and application of liquid chalk in communal social gym settings is effective in reducing the infectivity of respiratory viruses, and this supports the use of liquid chalk in major sporting events to restrict the impact of COVID-19 on our communities.

4.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 40(2): 168-174, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skin lesions are either caused by COVID-19 disease or they can be due to other driving forces related to the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: Considering the fact that the reported data in different articles for the type and prevalence of skin manifestations related to the COVID-19 pandemic are inconsistent, we have described the mechanism and type of skin lesions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review article, we have searched the Medline database (PubMed) for the combination of the following key terms "Dermatological Manifestation", "cutaneous Manifestation", "Skin Manifestation", "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2". RESULTS: The prevalence of skin manifestations related to COVID-19 ranged from 0.2% to 20%. The majority of these skin lesions are maculopapular eruptions. The skin presentations related to the COVID-19 pandemic are described below. Traumatic skin conditions such as dermatitis in individuals, especially those with allergies, might initiate secondary to over-washing or rinsing with inappropriate detergents. Also, inappropriate use of personal protective equipment (mask-gloves-shield) can trigger skin lesions on the face and hands or aggravate the lesions of acne, seborrhoeic dermatitis, eczema, etc. Furthermore, cutaneous adverse drug reactions may occur during hospitalization or outpatient treatment of COVID-19 patients. Also, psychocutaneous disorders due to acute stress can trigger or deteriorate several skin manifestations. Moreover, COVID-19 prevalence and course may be changed in patients with autoimmune or chronic inflammatory underlying skin disorders such as psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, pemphigus, scleroderma who are on immunosuppressive or biological medications to control their disorders. CONCLUSION: Due to the various dimensions of skin organ involvement and the large population affected, long-term skin conditions following this pandemic can be a lot more problematic than it appears. Serious preventive measures and medical supports are necessary to avoid skin disorders from becoming permanent or even chronic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Skin/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis/etiology , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, the safety of patients and healthcare providers is at risk due to health care-associated infections (HCAIs). World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend using alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) for hand hygiene in healthcare settings to prevent HCAIs. Irrational use of ABHR will have undesirable consequences including wastage of products, exposure of healthcare providers to infections and emergence of microbial resistance to the alcohol in hand sanitizers. This study aimed to explore the perspective and experiences of compounding pharmacists on production and utilization of ABHR solution for coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) prevention in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interview of 13 key-informants serving as compounding pharmacists in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was conducted. The study participants were identified and selected by purposive sampling. All transcribed interviews were subjected to thematic analysis and transcripts were analyzed manually. FINDINGS: The compounding pharmacists in this study had a mean age of 30.6 (±3.1) years and nine of the thirteen participants were men. Ten participants believed that the compounding practice in their respective sites followed the principles of good compounding practice. More than half of the participants did not believe that ABHR products were used rationally in health facilities. They argued that users did not have enough awareness when and how to use sanitizers. Most of the interviewees reported that compounding personnel had no formal training on ABHR solution production. Study participants suggested incentive mechanisms and reimbursements for experts involved in the compounding of ABHR solutions. CONCLUSION: Three of the compounding pharmacists indicated that ABHR production in their setting lack compliance to good compounding practice due to inadequate compounding room, quality control tests, manpower and equipment. Despite this, most study participants preferred the in-house ABHR products than the commercially available ones. Thus, training, regular monitoring and follow-up of the hospital compounding services can further build staff confidence.


Subject(s)
Alcohols/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers/chemistry , Pharmacy , Adult , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethiopia , Female , Hand Hygiene/economics , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/economics , Health Facilities , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pharmacists , Pharmacy/methods
6.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3303, 2021 04 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204448

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic has made visible, childhood is the virus's proverbial south: a world where care is not a value chosen from a place of desire, and where children's voices are silenced at the hands of an ancestral epistemic injustice. Thus, the transformation that human societies are undergoing due to COVID-19 has significantly impacted the rights of children, both at the micro and the macro levels. In Spain - a country that has been particularly hard-hit by the pandemic - we find that both infancy (especially through obstetric violence) and childhood at all its stages fall victim to an adultcentric paradigm based on control and epistemic injustice. This essay analyzes and discusses some of the negative consequences observed in this country related to the care for and the confinement of minors and their families - which has occurred as a result of the pandemic - and considers that the crisis triggered by COVID-19 may be an opportunity to shed light on situations of ancestral injustice towards children.


La infancia es el sur del virus, como ha visibilizado la pandemia de COVID-19: un mundo donde el cuidado no es un valor escogido desde el deseo, y donde la voz infantil es silenciada en virtud de una injusticia epistémica ancestral. Así, la transformación que las sociedades humanas están experimentando debido a la COVID-19 ha impactado significativamente en los derechos de la infancia, a niveles micro y macro. En España, como país especialmente golpeado por la pandemia, encontramos que tanto la primera infancia (a través especialmente de la violencia obstétrica) como ella misma en todas sus fases, están siendo víctimas de un paradigma adultocéntrico de control e injusticia epistémica basales. En este ensayo se analiza y discute algunas de las consecuencias negativas observadas en este país con relación al cuidado y el confinamiento de menores y sus familias, acaecidas a raíz de la pandemia, considerando que la crisis desencadenada por la COVID-19 puede ser una oportunidad para visibilizar situaciones de injusticia ancestral para con la niñez.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Health , Child Welfare , Human Rights , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Rearing , Child, Preschool , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Power, Psychological , Spain/epidemiology , Violence
7.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(11): 1468-1474, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200401

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the social unrest pervading U.S. cities in response to the killings of George Floyd and other Black citizens at the hands of police are historically significant. These events exemplify dismaying truths about race and equality in the United States. Racial health disparities are an inexcusable lesion on the U.S. health care system. Many health disparities involve medications, including antidepressants, anticoagulants, diabetes medications, drugs for dementia, and statins, to name a few. Managed care pharmacy has a role in perpetuating racial disparities in medication use. For example, pharmacy benefit designs are increasingly shifting costs of expensive medications to patients, creating affordability crises for lower income workers, who are disproportionally persons of color. In addition, the quest to maximize rebates serves to inflate list prices paid by the uninsured, among which Black and Hispanic people are overrepresented. While medication cost is a foremost barrier for many patients, other factors also propagate racial disparities in medication use. Even when cost sharing is minimal or zero, medication adherence rates have been documented to be lower among Blacks as compared with Whites. Deeper understandings are needed about how racial disparities in medication use are influenced by factors such as culture, provider bias, and patient trust in medical advice. Managed care pharmacy can address racial disparities in medication use in several ways. First, it should be acknowledged that racial disparities in medication use are pervasive and must be resolved urgently. We must not believe that entrenched health system, societal, and political structures are impermeable to change. Second, the voices of community members and their advocates must be amplified. Coverage policies, program designs, and quality initiatives should be developed in consultation with those directly affected by racial disparities. Third, the industry should commit to dramatically reducing patient cost sharing for essential medication therapies. Federal and state efforts to limit annual out-of-pocket pharmacy spending should be supported, even though increased premiums may be an undesirable (yet more equitable) consequence. Finally, information about race should be incorporated into all internal and external reporting and quality improvement activities. DISCLOSURES: No funding was received for the development of this manuscript. Kogut is partially supported by Institutional Development Award Numbers U54GM115677 and P20GM125507 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, which funds Advance Clinical and Translational Research (Advance-CTR), and the RI Lifespan Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) on Opioids and Overdose, respectively. The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Managed Care Programs/organization & administration , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cost Sharing , Drug Industry , Fees, Pharmaceutical , Female , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Male , Managed Care Programs/economics , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Services/economics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
8.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; 36(4): 459-467, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191877

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19, with its climbing number of cases and deaths, has us searching for tools for rapid, reliable, and affordable methods of detection on one hand, and novel, improved therapeutic strategies on the other. The currently employed RT-PCR method, despite its all-encompassing utility, has its shortcomings. Newer diagnostic tools, based on the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas(CRISPR-Cas) system, with its better diagnostic accuracy measures, have come up to fill that void. These assay platforms are expected to slowly take up the place of COVID-19 diagnostics. Further, the current therapeutic options focus mainly on counteracting the viral proteins and components and their entry into host cells. The CRISPR-based system, especially through the RNA-guided Cas13 approach, can identify the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and provide a novel inhibition strategy for coronaviruses. In this mini-review, we have discussed the available and upcoming CRISPR-based diagnostic assays and the potential of the CRISPR/Cas system as a therapeutic or prevention strategy in COVID-19. CRISPR-Cas system shows promise in both diagnostics as well as therapeutics and may as well change the face of molecular diagnosis and precision medicine.

9.
Contact Dermatitis ; 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand eczema (HE) has increased among healthcare workers (HCWs) working in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) units, and was associated with increased hand hygiene practices. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and clinical characteristics of HE, and hand hygiene practices in HCWs working in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 units. METHODS: A total of 244 HCWs working in COVID-19 (n = 118) and non-COVID-19 patient care units (n = 126) were examined by dermatologists with regard to demographic parameters and hand hygiene practices. The COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio according to age, atopy, and generalized dry skin. RESULTS: HE was more frequent in the COVID-19 group (48.3% vs 12.7%, P < .001), whereas working years (P < .05) and additional housework at home (P < .001) were longer in the non-COVID-19 group. After the development of HE, moisturizing creams were reported to be more frequently used in the COVID group (P < .001). Topical corticosteroids were used in a minority (40% in the COVID group and 26.7% in the non-COVID group). CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in COVID-19 units developed HE more frequently. A majority increased the frequency of moisturizer use, instead of using topical corticosteroids, after the development of HE for the purpose of treating eczema. New approaches are needed for the prevention and management of HE in HCWs, especially by facilitating access to dermatologists.

10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): 765-768, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174607

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One method of monitoring public preparedness is through measuring public interest in preventive measures. The objective of this study was to analyze public interest in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures and to identify variables associated with timely stay-at-home (SAH) orders issued by governors. METHODS: State-level search volume was collected from Google Trends. Average preventive measure interest was calculated for the query terms "hand sanitizer," "hand washing," "social distancing," and "COVID testing." We then calculated the delay in statewide SAH orders from March 1, 2020, to the date of issuance and by-state presidential voting percentage. Bivariate correlations were computed to assess the relationship between interest in preventive measures and SAH order delay. RESULTS: The correlation between average preventive measure interest and length of time before the SAH order was placed was -0.47. Average preventive measure interest was also inversely related to voting for a Republican presidential nominee in the 2016 election (R = -0.75), the latter of which was positively associated with longer delays in SAH orders (R = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: States with greater public interest in COVID-19 preventive measures were inversely related to governor issuance of timely SAH orders. Increasing public interest in preventive measures may slow the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), by improving preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Public Opinion , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government
11.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(5): 895-906, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145304

ABSTRACT

Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, the presence of chemotactic factors, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and costimulatory molecules in their granules and membranes indicates that they may play an immunomodulatory role in the immune response, flanking their capacity to trigger blood coagulation and inflammation. Indeed, platelets play a role not only in the innate immune response, through the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also in the adaptive immune response, through expression of key costimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules capable to activate T cells. Moreover, platelets release huge amounts of extracellular vesicles capable to interact with multiple immune players. The function of platelets thus extends beyond aggregation and implies a multifaceted interplay between hemostasis, inflammation, and the immune response, leading to the amplification of the body's defense processes on one hand, but also potentially degenerating into life-threatening pathological processes on the other. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge and the most recent updates on platelet immune functions and interactions with infectious agents, with a particular focus on their involvement in COVID-19, whose pathogenesis involves a dysregulation of hemostatic and immune processes in which platelets may be determinant causative agents.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Hemostasis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 247-253, 2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125758

ABSTRACT

The personnel involved in the management of COVID-19 affected dead bodies, including law enforcement personnel at the scene of crime, personnel involved in transportation of the dead bodies, forensic practitioners, autopsy pathologists, mortuary personnel, as well as the family members of the dead, etc. are at risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-mortem examination is a high-risk procedure, considering that it involves aerosol generating procedures, and exposure to body fluids. The safety of the forensic practitioners and support staff in the management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 deaths hence, is of extreme importance, especially in the absence of pre-autopsy testing for COVID-19 and due to non-availability of adequate first-hand medical history of the deceased. This communication aims to highlight the current practices and advises certain guidelines in ensuring occupational health and safety in view of these risks in medico-legal death investigations.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Crime Victims , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Mortuary Practice/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Police , Workplace
14.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 14: 55-65, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080334

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, since at least December 2019, has caused a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes the disease COVID-19, which can affect several human organs. Abdominal pain is one of the known symptoms, but little is known about acute pancreatitis as a complication. As well, knowledge about viral transmission in families is limited. This case report describes MIS-C and acalculous acute pancreatitis in a child who was a member of a family in which four of five members had COVID-19. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy family was infected by SARS-CoV-2 from an unknown source. The 13-year-old daughter was infected by SARS-CoV-2 and symptomatic during two periods, with an asymptomatic interval in-between. During the first period, she had transient and mild upper respiratory symptoms which was followed four weeks later by a secondary severe illness. At that point, there was inflammation in multiple organs and signs of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and a Kawasaki-like disease with skin rash, scalded skin in hands and conjunctivitis. Myocarditis, bronchopneumonia, pancreatitis, and hepatopathy without encephalopathy were noted. She required assisted ventilation for 5 days. There were laboratory signs of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The multisystem inflammation was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) once a day for four days and immunotherapy (high dose methylprednisolone (IV) once a day, for 12 days, then tapered over 4 weeks, anakinra (IV) four times daily for 12 days), low molecular weight heparin for 22 days and salicylates for 6 weeks leading to full restoration of health. The two brothers and mother in the family had mild to moderate COVID-19 infections. The father was not affected despite close contact with his children. The household transmission and clinical course and outcome are described. No further known COVID-19 infection occurred in the neighborhood during or immediately after the family cluster was discovered. CONCLUSION: Penetrance and severity of COVID-19 can vary in family clusters. One adolescent showed a two-phase course with severe infection. This case report highlights MIS-C and acute pancreatitis as a complication associated with COVID-19 in children.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045418

ABSTRACT

This study was to observe smoking behaviours and infection control behaviours in smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. We conducted unobtrusive observations at nine hotspots during 1 July 2019-31 January 2020 (pre-outbreak, 39 observations), 1 February-30 April 2020 (outbreak, eight observations), and 1 May-11 June 2020 (since-outbreak, 20 observations). Sex, age group, type of tobacco products used, duration of stay, group smoking behaviours, face mask wearing and infection control behaviours of smokers, and mask wearing of non-smoking pedestrians were observed. Compared with pre-outbreak, lower volumes of smokers were observed during outbreak and since-outbreak. Smokers gathered more in a group (24.5% and 25.8% vs. 13.4%, respectively) and stayed longer (91.5% and 83.6% vs. 80.6% stayed ≥1 min) during outbreak and since-outbreak than pre-outbreak. Ninety-six percent smokers possessed a face mask. While smoking, 81.6% of smokers put the mask under the chin and 13.8% carried it in the hand, 32.4% did not wear a mask immediately after smoking, 98.0% did not sanitize hands, and 74.3% did not keep a distance of at least one metre. During the COVID-19 pandemic, smokers gathered closely and stayed longer at the hotspots, and few practised hand hygiene, all of which may increase the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Smoking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hand Hygiene , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 23, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test our hypothesis that traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, hochuekkito (Hochu-ekki-to: HET) has a preventive effect for the symptoms on COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multi-center, interventional, parallel-group, randomized (1:1 ratio), investigator sponsored, two-arm study. PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand participants will be recruited from healthy hospital workers in 7 Japanese University Hospitals. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Age from 20 to 75 years old at the time of registration 2. Asymptomatic and body temperature below 37°C at the time of registration 3. Capable of eating orally Exclusion criteria: 1. Previous upper respiratory inflammation due to viral infection (including suspected COVID-19) 2. Taking immunosuppressants 3. Allergic to the Kampo medicines used in this study 4. History of hypokalaemia, severe hypertension, severe liver dysfunction, and interstitial pneumonia 5. Regularly taking other Kampo medicines 6. Pregnant or possibly pregnant 7. Participating in other research 8. Judged to be unsuitable for this study by the doctor in charge INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Kampo group: participants receive HET in 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. CONTROL GROUP: participants receive placebo in the same dosage as the Intervention group - 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. Placebo tablets are identical in appearance and package to HET. Taste of placebo is different from that of HET. The Ohsugi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan manufactured the placebo and HET. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: Number of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive result with at least one symptom (fever, cough, sputum, malaise, shortness of breath) during the 12-week study period (including the 4-week observation period after oral administration). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: 1. Period from infection to onset 2. Period from the appearance of symptoms to the disappearance of PCR positive 3. Number of days until the appearance or improvement of symptoms 4. Severe stage: presence of hospitalization 5. Shock stage: ICU management required for mechanical ventilation, shock vitals or failure of organ(s) other than lungs Safety endpoints include numbness in the hands and/or feet, edema, skin rash or other allergic symptoms, and gastric discomfort. RANDOMISATION: Patients are randomized (1:1 ratio) to each group using minimization implemented with the Electric data capture system (DATATRAK Enterprise Cloud), with balancing of the arms with age range (under 50 years of age or not) and having a history of risk factors for COVID-19 (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, respiratory diseases). BLINDING (MASKING): Only participants will be randomized. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The main research hypothesis of this study is that Kampo medicines significantly prevent the onset of COVID-19. It is assumed that the infection rate before the administration of the drug under consideration will be 0% and that the incidence of COVID-19 thereafter will be 2- 3%, of which 70%-80% will show symptoms of COVID-19. Assuming that the pharmaceutical effect of the drug will be effective in 50% of patients and that the incidence rates in the placebo and drug groups will be 1.4%-2.4% and 0.7%-1.2%, respectively, the placebo is calculated at 2%, and the study drug at 1%. Since the frequency of verification is low and the number of cases will be large, we set a total of 10 analyses (9 interim analyses and a final analysis). Since the number of cases at the time of the final analysis will be 4,986 under the conditions of α = 0.05 and a power of 80% by the Peto method. We set at 600 cases in each interim analysis with an estimated dropout rate of 16.9%. Finally, the total number of cases is set to 6,000 with 3,000 in the placebo group and 3,000 in the HET group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3 of October 23rd , 2020. Recruitment start (expected): December 1st, 2020. Recruitment finish (expected): December 31st, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCTs031200150 ) on 14 October 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Medicine, Kampo/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Medicine, Kampo/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 16: 16-23, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002736

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed evaluate the 30-day mortality, number and site of fracture, mechanism of injury, and location where injury was sustained during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed and Embase on original articles, research letters, and short reports which have data about the number of fractures, site of fracture, mechanism of injury, location where injury was sustained, percentage of operative intervention, mortality during the pandemic compared to a specified period of time before the pandemic. The search was finalized in October 14, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 11,936 participants from 16 studies were included in our study. The pooled analysis indicated a higher 30-days mortality associated with fractures during the pandemic (9% vs 4%, OR 1.86 [1.05, 3.27], p = 0.03; I2: 36%, p = 0.15). The number of fractures presenting to hospitals has declined 43% (35-50%) compared to pre-pandemic. Hand fracture was fewer during the pandemic (18% vs 23%, OR 0.75 [0.58, 0.97], p = 0.03; I2: 69%, p = 0.002). Work-related traumas, high-energy falls, and domestic accidents were more common during the pandemic, while sports-related traumas were found to be less. Injuries that occurred in the sports area were lower than before the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of fractures has decreased, but there is a higher mortality rate associated with fractures.

18.
Dermatol Res Pract ; 2020: 6627472, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, prevention is the key to limiting the spread of this disease. The frequent handwashing and use of sanitizers resulted in notable skin changes among some individuals. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of the new onset of dermatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic in a university population from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered online questionnaire by sending an invitation link to students and employees of Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University in June 2020. A chi-squared test was used to note differences regarding hand and face dermatitis. RESULTS: Of the total 2356 participants, 34.8% reported skin changes or symptoms over hands, and 15.3% reported skin changes on their face during this pandemic. 88.7% of the participants reported a change in handwashing habits during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 62.2% of participants were not using any hand sanitizers before COVID-19 but began using them during the pandemic. There were significantly higher percentage of skin conditions in females (on hands (ScH): 42.6% and face (ScF):19.2%), individuals working in environments requiring frequent handwashing (ScH: 40.3% vs. ScF: 17.2%), those working in facilities where they have to interact with people during the pandemic (ScH: 41.1% vs. ScF: 18.7%), those encountering COVID-19 patients (ScH: 48.6% vs. ScF: 24.8%), those exposed to chemicals (ScH: 48.6% vs. ScF: 24.8%), and healthcare workers (ScH: 51.3% vs. ScF: 24.3%). CONCLUSION: It was found that during the pandemic, skin changes were common among the general population as well as among healthcare workers. The frequency of handwashing and the use of alcohol-based sanitizers were contributing factors for dermatitis. Although hygiene is an extremely important preventive measure in this pandemic, maintaining skin integrity is also vital. Appropriate knowledge and good practice can prevent dermatitis in this pandemic, with regular hydration of the skin being a key factor.

19.
Malar J ; 19(1): 457, 2020 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992487

ABSTRACT

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed. The variable distribution of the ACEI/D and the ACE2 (C1173T substitution) polymorphisms has been postulated to explain this variable prevalence. Up-to-date data regarding the role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) in COVID-19 have been summarized. The article also sheds lights on how the similarity of malaria and COVID-19 symptoms can lead to misdiagnosis of one disease for the other or overlooking the possibility of co-infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic threatens the delivery of malaria services, such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying, as well as malaria chemoprevention there is an urgent need for rapid and effective responses to avoid malaria outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferons/physiology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Prevalence
20.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(9): 674-676, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973006

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread globally at a staggering speed. At present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine for COVID-19. Hand disinfection is a cost-effective way to prevent its transmission. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, we should wash our hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not readily available, alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) with at least 60% alcohol are the alternative. With diligent hand disinfection reinforced during COVID-19, there is an increased prevalence of contact dermatitis. This commentary highlights the fact that contact dermatitis is a readily treatable condition and should not cause any deviation of proper hand hygiene. In irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), the management strategies are selection of less irritating hand hygiene products, frequent use of moisturisers to rebuild the skin barrier, and education on proper hand hygiene practices. In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), the identification and avoidance of the contact allergen is the key to treatment. However, ACD is less common and only accounts for 20% of the cases. The identified allergens in hand cleansers are predominantly preservative excipients and ACD attributable to ABHR are very uncommon. Alcohol-free hand rubs are widely available on the market but it is not a recommended alternative to ABHRs by the CDC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/therapy , Dermatitis, Irritant/therapy , Emollients/therapeutic use , Hand Dermatoses/therapy , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hygroscopic Agents/therapeutic use , 1-Propanol/adverse effects , 2-Propanol/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/therapy , Detergents/adverse effects , Ethanol/adverse effects , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Health Personnel , Humans
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