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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5560-5567, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363699

ABSTRACT

Quantitation of antibodies to the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2  (SARS-CoV-2) was performed for the detection of adaptive immune response in healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated with CorovaVac. We prospectively recruited HCWs from a university hospital in Turkey. Serum samples from 1072 HCWs were obtained following 28 days of the first, and 21 days of the second dose. Detection and quantitation of SARS-CoV-2 antispike antibodies were performed by the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant; Abbott). Results greater than or equal to the cutoff value 50.0 AU/ml were reported as positive. After the first dose, antispike antibodies were detected in 834 of 1072 (77.8%) HCWs. Seropositivity was higher among females (84.6%) than males (70.6%) (p < 0.001) and was found to be highest in both women and men between the ages of 18-34. After the second dose, antibodies were detected in 1008 of 1012 (99.6%) HCWs. Antibody titers were significantly higher in those who had coronavirus disease-2019 before vaccination than those who did not (p < 0.001). Antibody positivity and median antibody titers were significantly less in HCWs with chronic diseases compared to those without (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, our findings indicated that a relatively high frequency (99.6%) of humoral immunity was produced in HCWs aged 18-59 after two doses of CoronaVac. Quantitation of antibodies may help facilitate longitudinal monitoring of the antibody response, which will be especially useful in deciding the dose of the vaccine in vulnerable groups such as those over 60 years of age and those with chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Turkey , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178245

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a potentially severe clinical manifestation, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and currently poses a worldwide challenge. Health care workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of any health care system and thus especially at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their potentially frequent and close contact with patients suffering from COVID-19. Serum samples from 198 HCWs with direct patient contact of a regional medical center and several outpatient facilities were collected during the early phase of the pandemic (April 2020) and tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Commercially available IgA- and IgG-specific ELISAs were used as screening technique, followed by an in-house neutralization assay for confirmation. Neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected in seven of 198 (3.5%) tested HCWs. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the regional medical center (3.4%) and the outpatient institution (5%). The overall seroprevalence of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in HCWs in both a large regional medical center and a small outpatient institution was low (3.5%) at the beginning of April 2020. The findings may indicate that the timely implemented preventive measures (strict hygiene protocols, personal protective equipment) were effective to protect from transmission of an airborne virus when only limited information on the pathogen was available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Germany/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 616106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145566

ABSTRACT

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has reached 28 million cases worldwide in 1 year. The serological detection of antibodies against the virus will play a pivotal role in complementing molecular tests to improve diagnostic accuracy, contact tracing, vaccine efficacy testing, and seroprevalence surveillance. Here, we aimed first to evaluate a lateral flow assay's ability to identify specific IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and second, to report the seroprevalence estimates of these antibodies among health care workers and healthy volunteer blood donors in Panama. We recruited study participants between April 30th and July 7th, 2020. For the test validation and performance evaluation, we analyzed serum samples from participants with clinical symptoms and confirmed positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, and a set of pre-pandemic serum samples. We used two by two table analysis to determine the test positive and negative percentage agreement as well as the Kappa agreement value with a 95% confidence interval. Then, we used the lateral flow assay to determine seroprevalence among serum samples from COVID-19 patients, potentially exposed health care workers, and healthy volunteer donors. Our results show this assay reached a positive percent agreement of 97.2% (95% CI 84.2-100.0%) for detecting both IgM and IgG. The assay showed a Kappa of 0.898 (95%CI 0.811-0.985) and 0.918 (95% CI 0.839-0.997) for IgM and IgG, respectively. The evaluation of serum samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients indicates a correlation between test sensitivity and the number of days since symptom onset; the highest positive percent agreement [87% (95% CI 67.0-96.3%)] was observed at ≥15 days post-symptom onset (PSO). We found an overall antibody seroprevalence of 11.6% (95% CI 8.5-15.8%) among both health care workers and healthy blood donors. Our findings suggest this lateral flow assay could contribute significantly to implementing seroprevalence testing in locations with active community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is requesting unprecedented efforts by health-care workers (HCWs) in all countries, and especially in Italy during the first semester of 2020. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study conducted at the Spedali Civili General Hospital, in Brescia, Northern Italy during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic in the first semester of 2020. Serum samples from HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific antibodies. An online survey was used to collect demographic, clinical, and epidemiological data. RESULTS: Of the 1893 HCWs included, 433 (22.9%) were found seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (antibodies production or past positive RT-PCR on nasal/throat swab) was 25.1% (475/1893). Fifty-six out of 433 (13%) seropositive participants declared to have been asymptomatic during the study period. The development of COVID-19 signs or symptoms is the main determinant of seropositivity (OR: 11.3, p < 0.0001) along with their duration and severity. 40/290 (14.5%) HCWs with documented positive RT-PCR during the study period did not show any detectable antibody response. IgG levels positively correlate with age, COVID-19-compatible signs and symptoms experienced and their duration. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, carried out in one of the most affected areas in Europe, we demonstrate that most HCWs with COVID-19 related symptoms develop a spike protein-specific antibodies with potential neutralizing effect.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244348, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of individuals, with an unprecedented impact in health care systems worldwide. Healthcare workers are one of the risk groups that need to be well protected, due to their strategic role in patient management, presently and in prevention of healthcare needs for future outbreaks. Here, we present the results of the first SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed in serum samples from 7563 healthcare workers of the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Samples were collected after the first pandemic wave (from May 4th to May 22nd, 2020) and were analyzed by automated chemiluminescence assays. All samples were tested for IgG anti-S1/S2. Participant samples with negative or equivocal results but with analytical signals above the limit of detection and/or previously confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were also tested for IgG anti-Nucleocapsid. RESULTS: A total of 779 of 7563 (10.3%) healthcare workers were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (specific for either S1/S2 or N antigens). No significant differences were observed between those working at primary care or at the reference hospital. Interestingly, among 341 participants with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 36 (10.55%) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG (both S1/S2 and recombinant N antigen). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the healthcare workers of the North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona was higher than in the general population in the same geographical area. Safety measures have to be stressed in order to protect these essential workers from future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain , Young Adult
6.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104437, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a severe respiratory manifestation, COVID-19, and presents a challenge for healthcare systems worldwide. Healthcare workers are a vulnerable cohort for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to frequent and close contact to patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples from 316 healthcare workers of the University Hospital Essen, Germany were tested for SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic and clinical data. Healthcare workers were grouped depending on the frequency of contact to COVID-19 patients in high-risk-group (n = 244) with daily contact to known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, intermediated-risk-group (n = 37) with daily contact to patients without known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection at admission and low-risk-group (n = 35) without patient contact. RESULTS: In 5 of 316 (1.6 %) healthcare workers SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies could be detected. The seroprevalence was higher in the intermediate-risk-group vs. high-risk-group (2/37 (5.4 %) vs. 3/244 (1.2 %), p = 0.13). Four of the five subject were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 via PCR. One (20 %) subject was not tested via PCR since he was asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: The overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers of a tertiary hospital in Germany is low (1.6 %). The data indicate that the local hygiene standard might be effective.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
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