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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e360-e363, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are paramount in the effort to end the coronavirus disease 2019 global epidemic. BNT162b2 is approved for the vaccination of adolescents over 16 years of age. Systemic adverse events were scarce though the pretested cohort of this age group was relatively small. The aim of the current study is to raise awareness for potential adverse reactions. METHODS: This is a case series of patients diagnosed with perimyocarditis following vaccination. Patients were compiled from 3 pediatric medical centers in Israel through a network of pediatricians and data regarding those cases was collected. In addition, incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination period was compared with previous years. RESULTS: All patients were males 16-18 years old, of Jewish descent, who presented with chest pain that began 1-3 days following vaccination (mean, 2.1 days). In 6 of the 7 patients, symptoms began following the 2nd dose and in 1 patient following the 1st dose. All cases were mild and none required cardiovascular or respiratory support. The incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination period was elevated in comparison to previous years. CONCLUSIONS: This case series describes a time association between coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and perimyocarditis in adolescents. All cases were mild, although only long-term follow-up can reveal the true impact of this cardiac injury. While it seems that the incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination campaign period is increased, a more comprehensive data collection on a wider scale should be done. We hope this report will serve as a reminder to report events and allow for analysis of potential adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Israel , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
2.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12534, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389784

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection presents with predominant respiratory illness. Cardiac injury has been reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The spectrum of cardiac involvement ranges from pericarditis to myocarditis. Acute pericarditis attributed to SARS-CoV-2 is rare. A 68-year-old male with co-morbid condition of hypertension and arthritis presented with chest tightness, cough and exertional shortness of breath for five days. He was tachycardic at the time of presentation and cardiac auscultation was positive for pericardial rub. His room air oxygen saturation was 95%. Chest imaging studies revealed bilateral infiltrate. His electrocardiogram showed ST elevation with diffusely elevated J point in lead II, III, aVF and V4-V6. Echocardiogram was unrevealing for pericardial effusion and left ventricular ejection fraction was normal. Serial troponin level did not reveal a rising trend. The nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use in SARS-CoV-2 positive patient is debatable. The patient had acute pericarditis due to SARS-CoV-2 and it was treated with high dose aspirin with colchicine. Acute pericarditis is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection and can be managed with aspirin and colchicine.

3.
Europace ; 23(1): 123-129, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387869

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The main severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome. Recent studies, however, reported that cardiac injury, as assessed by troponin levels, is associated with a worse outcome in these patients. No study hitherto assessed whether the simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG) may be helpful for risk stratification in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 324 consecutive patients admitted to our Emergency Department with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standard 12-lead ECG recorded on admission was assessed for cardiac rhythm and rate, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction, abnormal Q/QS wave, ST segment and T wave changes, corrected QT interval, and tachyarrhythmias. At a mean follow-up of 31 ± 11 days, 44 deaths occurred (13.6%). Most ECG variables were significantly associated with mortality, including atrial fibrillation (P = 0.002), increasing heart rate (P = 0.002), presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB; P < 0.001), QRS duration (P <0 .001), a QRS duration of ≥110 ms (P < 0.001), ST segment depression (P < 0.001), abnormal Q/QS wave (P = 0.034), premature ventricular complexes (PVCs; P = 0.051), and presence of any ECG abnormality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-8.76; P < 0.001]. At multivariable analysis, QRS duration (P = 0.002), QRS duration ≥110 ms (P = 0.03), LBBB (P = 0.014) and presence of any ECG abnormality (P = 0.04) maintained a significant independent association with mortality. CONCLUSION: Our data show that standard ECG can be helpful for an initial risk stratification of patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
4.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270320

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications are common in COVID-19 and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. However, the mechanisms driving cardiac injury and failure in COVID-19 are largely unknown. We performed plasma proteomics on 80 COVID-19 patients and controls, grouped according to disease severity and cardiac involvement. Findings were validated in 305 independent COVID-19 patients and investigated in an animal model. Here we show that senescence-associated secretory proteins, markers of biological aging, strongly associate with disease severity and cardiac involvement even in age-matched cohorts. FSTL3, an indicator of Activin/TGFß signaling, was the most significantly upregulated protein associated with the heart failure biomarker, NTproBNP (ß = 0.4;p adj =4.6x10 - 7 ), while ADAMTS13, a vWF-cleaving protease whose loss-of-function causes microvascular thrombosis, was the most downregulated protein associated with myocardial injury (ß=-0.4;p adj =8x10 - 7 ). Mendelian randomization supported a causal role for ADAMTS13 in myocardial injury. These data provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19 cardiovascular complications with therapeutic implications.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 585851, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268255

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health crisis. Reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were observed in COVID-19 patients. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between LDL-C levels and the prognosis of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. A total of 211 severe and critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the LDL-C levels, including 53 patients in Group A (LDL-C ≥ 2.71 mmol/L), 53 patients in Group B (2.28 ≤ LDL-C < 2.71 mmol/L), 53 patients in Group C (1.83 ≤ LDL-C < 2.28 mmol/L) and 52 patients in Group D (LDL-C < 1.83 mmol/L). LDL-C levels were lower in critically ill patients than in severe patients. The main symptoms before admission, characteristics on admission and comorbidities of enrolled patients did not differ among the four groups. Compared with patients with high LDL-C levels, patients with low LDL-C levels were more likely to have immune and inflammation dysfunction, renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction on admission. The proportions of patients with shock and acute cardiac injury, of those admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and of those treated with mechanical ventilation were inversely related to LDL-C level. The mortality of COVID-19 patients increased with LDL-C reduction. Serum LDL-C levels of COVID-19 patients was negatively correlated with CRP level, but positively correlated with lymphocyte count, as shown by Pearson correlation analysis. Proportional hazard models showed that low LDL-C levels were associated with increased risk of hospitalization death, cardiac injury and admission to the ICU. Taken together, these results suggest that decreased LDL-C levels indicate poor prognosis of severe and critical COVID-19 patients.

6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 645587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268240

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing evidence points to cardiac injury (CI) as a common coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related complication. The characteristics of early CI (occurred within 72 h of admission) and late CI (occurred after 72 h of admission) and its association with mortality in COVID-19 patients is unknown. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) from Jan 29th to Mar 15th, 2020. Clinical outcomes (discharge, or death) were monitored to April 15, 2020, the latest date of follow-up. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, as well as treatment and prognosis were collected and analyzed in patients with early, late CI and without CI. Results: A total of 196 COVID-19 patients were included for analysis. The median age was 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 56-73 years], and 112 (57.1%) were male. Of the 196 COVID-19 patients, 49 (25.0%) patients had early and 20 (10.2%) patients had late CI, 56.6% developed Acute-Respiratory-Distress-Syndrome (ARDS) and 43 (21.9%) patients died. Patients with any CI were more likely to have developed ARDS (87.0 vs. 40.2%) and had a higher in-hospital mortality than those without (52.2 vs. 5.5%, P < 0.001). Among CI subtypes, a significantly higher risk of in-hospital death was found in patients with early CI with recurrence [19/49 patients, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 7.184, 95% CI 1.472-35.071] and patients with late CI (adjusted OR = 5.019, 95% CI 1.125-22.388) compared to patients with early CI but no recurrence. Conclusions: CI can occur early on or late after, the initial 72 h of admission and is associated with ARDS and an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Both late CI and recurrent CI after the initial episode were associated with worse outcomes than patients with early CI alone. This study highlights the importance of early examination and periodical monitoring of cardiac biomarkers, especially for patients with early CI or at risk of clinical deterioration.

7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(10): 2148-2160, 2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266112

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is a global threat, causing high mortality, especially in the elderly. The main symptoms and the primary cause of death are related to interstitial pneumonia. Viral entry also into myocardial cells mainly via the angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) receptor and excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, however, also make the heart susceptible to injury. In addition to the immediate damage caused by the acute inflammatory response, the heart may also suffer from long-term consequences of COVID-19, potentially causing a post-pandemic increase in cardiac complications. Although the main cause of cardiac damage in COVID-19 remains coagulopathy with micro- (and to a lesser extent macro-) vascular occlusion, open questions remain about other possible modalities of cardiac dysfunction, such as direct infection of myocardial cells, effects of cytokines storm, and mechanisms related to enhanced coagulopathy. In this opinion paper, we focus on these lesser appreciated possibilities and propose experimental approaches that could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients. We first discuss approaches to characterize cardiac damage caused by possible direct viral infection of cardiac cells, followed by formulating hypotheses on how to reproduce and investigate the hyperinflammatory and pro-thrombotic conditions observed in the heart of COVID-19 patients using experimental in vitro systems. Finally, we elaborate on strategies to discover novel pathology biomarkers using omics platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/virology , Heart/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Ventricular Remodeling
8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247849

ABSTRACT

Background: Accumulating evidence has revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be complicated with myocardial injury during hospitalization. However, data regarding persistent cardiac involvement in patients who recovered from COVID-19 are limited. Our goal is to further explore the sustained impact of COVID-19 during follow-up, focusing on the cardiac involvement in the recovered patients. Methods: In this prospective observational follow-up study, we enrolled a total of 40 COVID-19 patients (20 with and 20 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) who were discharged from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for more than 6 months, and 27 patients (13 with and 14 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) were finally included in the analysis. Clinical information including self-reported symptoms, medications, laboratory findings, Short Form 36-item scores, 6-min walk test, clinical events, electrocardiogram assessment, echocardiography measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was collected and analyzed. Results: Among 27 patients finally included, none of patients reported any obvious cardiopulmonary symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the quality of life and exercise capacity between the patients with and without cardiac injury. No significant abnormalities were detected in electrocardiogram manifestations in both groups, except for nonspecific ST-T changes, premature beats, sinus tachycardia/bradycardia, PR interval prolongation, and bundle-branch block. All patients showed normal cardiac structure and function, without any statistical differences between patients with and without cardiac injury by echocardiography. Compared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury exhibited a significantly higher positive proportion in late gadolinium enhancement sequences [7/13 (53.8%) vs. 1/14 (7.1%), p = 0.013], accompanied by the elevation of circulating ST2 level [median (interquartile range) = 16.6 (12.1, 22.5) vs. 12.5 (9.5, 16.7); p = 0.044]. Patients with cardiac injury presented higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without cardiac injury, although these indexes were within the normal range for all recovered patients at the 6-month follow-up. Among patients with cardiac injury, patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement presented higher cardiac biomarker (high-sensitivity troponin I) and inflammatory factor (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) on admission than the late gadolinium enhancement-negative subgroup. Conclusions: Our preliminary 6-month follow-up study with a limited number of patients revealed persistent cardiac involvement in 29.6% (8/27) of recovered patients from COVID-19 after discharge. Patients with cardiac injury during hospitalization were more prone to develop cardiac fibrosis during their recovery. Among patients with cardiac injury, those with relatively higher cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory factors on admission appeared more likely to have cardiac involvement in the convalescence phase.

9.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(7): 963-970, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic level. Cardiac injury is not uncommon among COVID-19 patients. We sought to describe the electrocardiographic characteristics and to identify the prognostic significance of electrocardiography (ECG) findings of patients with COVID-19. HYPOTHESIS: ECG abnormality was associated with higher risk of death. METHODS: Consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and definite in-hospital outcome were retrospectively included. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were extracted from medical record. Initial ECGs at admission or during hospitalization were reviewed. A point-based scoring system of abnormal ECG findings was formed, in which 1 point each was assigned for the presence of axis deviation, arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, conduction tissue disease, QTc interval prolongation, pathological Q wave, ST-segment change, and T-wave change. The association between abnormal ECG scores and in-hospital mortality was assessed in multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients (mean 62.84 ± 14.69 years old, 48.0% male) were included. T-wave change (31.7%), QTc interval prolongation (30.1%), and arrhythmias (16.3%) were three most common found ECG abnormalities. 30 (9.80%) patients died during hospitalization. Abnormal ECG scores were significantly higher among non-survivors (median 2 points vs 1 point, p < 0.001). The risk of in-hospital death increased by a factor of 1.478 (HR 1.478, 95% CI 1.131-1.933, p = 0.004) after adjusted by age, comorbidities, cardiac injury and treatments. CONCLUSIONS: ECG abnormality was common in patients admitted for COVID-19 and was associated with adverse in-hospital outcome. In-hospital mortality risk increased with increasing abnormal ECG scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 634291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221941

ABSTRACT

Anti-cancer treatment regimens can lead to both acute- and long-term myocardial injury due to off-target effects. Besides, cancer patients and survivors are severely immunocompromised due to the harsh effect of anti-cancer therapy targeting the bone marrow cells. Cancer patients and survivors can therefore be potentially extremely clinically vulnerable and at risk from infectious diseases. The recent global outbreak of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its infection called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a worldwide health emergency, and on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). A high fatality rate has been reported in COVID-19 patients suffering from underlying cardiovascular diseases. This highlights the critical and crucial aspect of monitoring cancer patients and survivors for potential cardiovascular complications during this unprecedented health crisis involving the progressive worldwide spread of COVID-19. COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, COVID-19 has shown cardiac injury symptoms similar to the cardiotoxicity associated with anti-cancer therapy, including arrhythmia, myocardial injury and infarction, and heart failure. Due to the significant prevalence of micro- and macro-emboli and damaged vessels, clinicians worldwide have begun to consider whether COVID-19 may in fact be as much a vascular disease as a respiratory disease. However, the underlying mechanisms and pathways facilitating the COVID-19-induced cardiac injury in cancer and non-cancer patients remain unclear. Investigations into whether COVID-19 cardiac injury and anti-cancer drug-induced cardiac injury in cancer patients and survivors might synergistically increase the cardiovascular complications and comorbidity risk through a "two-hit" model are needed. Identification of cardiac injury mechanisms and pathways associated with COVID-19 development overlapping with anti-cancer therapy could help clinicians to allow a more optimized prognosis and treatment of cancer survivors suffering from COVID-19. The following review will focus on summarizing the harmful cardiovascular risk of COVID-19 in cancer patients and survivors treated with an anti-cancer drug. This review will improve the knowledge of COVID-19 impact in the field of cardio-oncology and potentially improve the outcome of patients.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 412, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019, more than 8 million cases have occurred worldwide as of June 16, 2020. However, it is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza. Here, we comparatively described the clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 and paediatric patients with influenza. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-centre study, we reviewed the electronic medical records of 585 paediatric patients with COVID-19 or influenza in Wuhan Children's Hospital, China. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were comparatively analysed. RESULTS: The median ages were 6.96 years (IQR, 2-10.81) for children with confirmed COVID-19, 2.67 years (IQR, 1.03-15.25) for those with influenza A and 3.67 years (IQR, 1.62-5.54) for those with influenza B. Fever was a symptom in 84 (34.7%) COVID-19 cases, 132 (70.21%) influenza A cases and 111 (74.50%) influenza B cases. The median length of stay (LOS) was 11 (8-15) days for paediatric COVID-19 patients, 4 (3-6) days for influenza A patients and 5 (3-6) days for influenza B patients. Twenty-six (13.98%) influenza A patients and 18 (12.59%) influenza B patients presented with decreased white blood cell counts, while 13 (5.33%) COVID-19 patients presented with decreased white blood cell counts. Eight (3.28%) COVID-19 patients, 23 (12.71%) influenza A patients and 21 (14.79%) influenza B patients experienced lymphocytopenia. Acute cardiac injury occurred in 18 (7.29%) COVID-19 patients, while 37 (19.68%) influenza A and 27 (18.12%) influenza B patients had acute cardiac injury. CONCLUSION: In this study, the illnesses of children with COVID-19 were demonstrated to be less severe than those of paediatric patients with influenza, and COVID-19 patients had milder illness and fewer complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 492-501, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196965

ABSTRACT

Background: Smaller studies suggest lower morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in women. Our aim is to assess the impact of female sex on outcomes in a large cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational cohort study of 10,630 adult patients hospitalized with a confirmed COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020, with follow-up conducted through June 4, 2020. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between sex and the primary outcomes, including length of stay, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, pressor requirement, and all-cause mortality as well as major adverse events and in-hospital COVID-19 treatments. Results: In the multivariable analysis, women had 27% lower odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.81; p < 0.001), 24% lower odds of ICU admission (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.84; p < 0.001), 26% lower odds of mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.82; p < 0.001), and 25% lower odds of vasopressor requirement (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.67-0.84; p < 0.001). Women had 34% less odds of having acute cardiac injury (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.59-0.74; p < 0.001; n = 7,289), 16% less odds of acute kidney injury (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.92; p < 0.001; n = 9,840), and 27% less odds of venous thromboembolism (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.96; p < 0.02; c-statistic 0.85, n = 9,407). Conclusions: Female sex is associated with lower odds of in-hospital outcomes, major adverse events, and all-cause mortality. There may be protective mechanisms inherent to female sex, which explain differences in COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14061, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196121

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) has affected millions of people, wreaking havoc worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) labelled this disease as a serious threat to public health since its rapid spread from Wuhan, China. The respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 are common, but myocardium involvement causing myocardial injury and rise in cardiac markers is much less discussed. Materials and methods We conducted this retrospective cohort study from 1st April 2020 to 1st October 2020. Data was collected from the Hospital Management and Information System (HMIS) based on inclusion criteria. We used the Cox proportional hazard regression model for survival analysis, estimated the probability curves of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method, and contrasted it with the log-rank test. Results Among the 466 patients, 280 (69%) were male; the rest were female. The majority were both hypertensive and diabetic, and one-third had a myocardial injury on arrival. The most frequent symptoms in more than half of the patients (51.90%) included a combination of fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Out of 466 patients, 266 patients were discharged, and 200 did not survive. In our study, 168 (36.05%) patients had a cardiac injury; among them, 38 (22.61%) were in the discharge group, and the remaining 130 (77.39%) patients were in the nonsurvivor group. Our study results showed that the mortality rate was higher in patients with high cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (hazard ratio [HR] 3.61) on admission. Conclusion Our result concluded that measuring cTnI levels on presentation could help predict the severity and outcome in COVID-19 patients. It will allow physicians to triage patients and decrease mortality.

15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 128-139, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the continuance of the global COVID-19 pandemic, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiac injury have been suggested to be risk factors for severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to evaluate the mortality risks associated with CVD and cardiac injury among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially in subgroups of populations in different countries. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using 9 databases from November 1, 2019 to November 9, 2020. Meta-analyses were performed for CVD and cardiac injury between non-survivors and survivors of COVID-19. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of CVD in different populations was different, hospitalized COVID-19 patients with CVD were at a higher risk of fatal outcomes (OR = 2.72; 95% CI 2.35-3.16) than those without CVD. Separate meta-analyses of populations in four different countries also reached a similar conclusion that CVD was associated with an increase in mortality. Cardiac injury was common among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with cardiac injury had a significantly higher mortality risk than those without cardiac injury (OR = 13.25; 95% CI: 8.56-20.52). CONCLUSIONS: Patients' CVD history and biomarkers of cardiac injury should be taken into consideration during the hospital stay and incorporated into the routine laboratory panel for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Global Health , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1558-1566, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 binds and inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. The frequency of acute cardiac injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is unknown. The objective was to compare the rates of cardiac injury by angiotensin-converting enzyme-2-binding viruses from viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic review of coronavirus disease 2019 literature on PubMed and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies with ten or more hospitalized adults with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 or other viral pathogens that described the occurrence of acute cardiac injury. This was defined by the original publication authors or by: 1) myocardial ischemia, 2) new cardiac arrhythmia on echocardiogram, or 3) new or worsening heart failure on echocardiogram. DATA EXTRACTION: We compared the rates of cardiac injury among patients with respiratory infections with viruses that down-regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N9, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-1, to those with respiratory infections from other influenza viruses that do not bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, including Influenza H3N2 and influenza B. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 57 studies including 34,072 patients, acute cardiac injury occurred in 50% (95% CI, 44-57%) of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The overall risk of acute cardiac injury was 21% (95% CI, 18-26%) among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. In comparison, 37% (95% CI, 26-49%) of critically ill patients with other respiratory viruses that bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (p = 0.061) and 12% (95% CI, 7-22%) of critically ill patients with other respiratory viruses that do not bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (p < 0.001) experienced a cardiac injury. CONCLUSIONS: Acute cardiac injury may be associated with whether the virus binds angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. Acute cardiac injury occurs in half of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients, but only 12% of patients infected by viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Influenza, Human/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Disease , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza B virus/metabolism
17.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 65: 102309, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, more than 105,805,951 cases of COVID-19 have been diagnosed including 2,312,278 deaths. Many patients have cardiovascular risk-factors and/or co-morbidities and a lot of them developed de novo heart conditions during the active or the post-infectious phase of the infection. A number of studies tried to demonstrate an association between poor prognostic outcomes and cardiovascular comorbidities and related damages, but the quality of current evidence is still weak. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of this single-center report is to describe the prevalence of cardiac injuries among our COVID-19 patients, to explore their association with survival outcomes and to demonstrate the medical care provided in our real-world setting. Our study included 610 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our university hospital of whom13.77% (n = 84) presented cardiovascular injuries and which we included in this case series. RESULTS: The average age of our patients was 65 years (27-90). 60 were men (71.42%) while 24 were women (28.55%). Their average BMI was 29.7 kg/m2. Among them, 50 had a pulmonary embolism (59.52%), 12 patients had a myocardial infarction (14.28%), 10 presented pericarditis (11.9%) and 3 developed myocarditis (3.57%). There were 6 cases of ischemia (7.14%), 2 cases of stroke (2.38%), and 1 case of decompensated heart failure (1.19%). Among our patients, 46.42% had diabetes, 32.14% had a high blood pressure, 13.09% had a chronic renal failure and 14.28% had a history of ischemic heart disease. 14 patients (16.66%) had an elevated troponin with higher levels than 1000 ng/mL. The D-dimer value was high in almost all patients (80.95%). Lung damage from COVID-19 was extensive in 27.38%, severe in 32.14%, and critical in 40.47% of enrolled cases. CT chest angiography, ECG, and cardiac ultrasound were performed to the paraclinical confirmatory exploration of cardiac damages of these patients. Medical care was based on isolation, azithromycin, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin D, salicylic acid, dexamethasone followed with methylprednisolone, and anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients. Tocilizumab was indicated for 17 patients with hyperferritinemia (20.23% of patients). The initial respiratory care of our patients required oxygen therapy using nasal cannula (7.14%) high concentration masks (33.33%), high flow nasal cannula treatment (11.9%), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (5.95%), and mechanical ventilation (41.66%). Thrombolysis was performed in three subjects with myocardial infarction and 2 underwent angioplasty with placement of an active stent at the proximal interventricular anterior artery, which all were successful. Three massive pulmonary embolisms died despite adequate treatment. Colchicine and salicylic acid were administered for pericarditis cases. Thromboprophylaxis was indicated for all patients and was reinforced if a venous thrombotic episode was confirmed. Patients with limb ischemia underwent surgical treatment. Among the 84 patients included in our cohort, 34 (40.47%) died in intensive care unit and 50 (59.52%) had a favorable evolution. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular involvement during COVID-19 should not be neglected and are associated with severe outcomes.

19.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 35: 169-178, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184864

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic with a daily increasing number of affected individuals and a relatively high mortality rate. COVID-19 patients that develop cardiac injury are at increased risk of a worse clinical course with higher rates of mortality. Increasing amounts of evidence suggest that a system-wide inflammatory response and a cytokine storm mediated type syndrome plays a crucial role in disease progression. This systematic review investigates the possible role of hyperinflammation in inducing cardiac injury as one of the severe complications of COVID-19. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases to identify relevant clinical studies that investigated cardiovascular injury manifestations and reported inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers in COVID-19 patients. Only 29 studies met our inclusion criteria and the majority of these studies demonstrated significantly elevated inflammatory and cardiac blood markers. It was evident that underlying cardiovascular diseases may increase the risk of developing cardiac injury. However, many COVID-19 patients included in this review, developed different types of cardiac injury without having any underlying cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, many of these patients were either children or adolescents. Therefore, age and comorbidities may not always be the two main risk factors that dictate the severity and outcome of COVID-19. Further investigations are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of pathogenicity as an urgent requirement to develop the appropriate treatment and prevention strategies. These strategies may specifically target hyperinflammation as a suspected driving factor for some of the severe complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Med Ultrasound ; 29(1): 3-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175650

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was formally defined a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, and is still a global health issue. Since there is a high prevalence of acute cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19 infection, point-of-care cardiac ultrasound (PoCCUS) may be used for longitudinal monitoring of patients infected with COVID-19. However, there is still limited experience on the application of PoCCUS in the COVID-19 pandemic. Within the point of care setting in our system, focused cardiac US exams were performed with specific imaging protocols on the basis of suspicion of a specific disease, such as ruling out tamponade or thrombotic complications. Our preliminary experience shows that PoCCUS helps distinguish the causes of dyspnea in febrile patients. The COVID-19 infection may play a role in unmasking or exacerbating underlying chronic cardiovascular conditions, especially in patients with inadequate past history. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, CURB-65 score for pneumonia severity and raised D-dimer were significantly associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). COVID-19 patients with DVT had worse prognosis, and patients with lower leg edema deserve further evaluation by using point-of-care ultrasound for the lower legs and heart. In COVID-19 patients with arrhythmia, PoCCUS used by experienced hands may reveal abnormal right ventricle (RV) functional parameters and lead to a more comprehensive cardiac US study. When there is suspicion of cardiac disease, PoCCUS can be done first, and if information is inadequate, limited transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and critical care echocardiography (CCE) can be followed. Ultrasound practitioners should follow the standard precautions for COVID-19 as outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to prevent transmission of infection, regardless of suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

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