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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
3.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15058, 2021 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257014

ABSTRACT

Submassive pulmonary embolism (SPE) is characterized by the presence of right ventricular (RV) strain as visualized on echocardiogram or CT scan with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and/or troponin elevation. The condition accounts for 20-25% of all pulmonary embolism (PE) cases. In cases of SPE, catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is generally considered in the presence of severe hypoxemia, worsening RV dysfunction, patients with increasing tachycardia and elevated troponins, free-floating thrombus in the right atrium or RV, and presence of extensive clot burden. EkoSonic™ Endovascular System (EKOS; Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA) has been successfully used to treat cases of PE even where systemic thrombolytic therapy has failed. However, in this article, we describe a unique case of the failure of EKOS in treating a 71-year-old African American man who presented to the hospital with progressively worsening chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. He was suspected to have SPE; however, a CT pulmonary angiogram could not be performed to estimate the clot burden due to an acute kidney injury. He was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia during the hospitalization and had a delayed EKOS procedure with minimal improvement in oxygenation and clot burden. He subsequently underwent half-dose systemic thrombolytic therapy with complete resolution of his symptoms. Given our success with half-dose systemic therapy, we propose that it may be considered as a "rescue therapy" in cases where EKOS fails to deliver results.

4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241288

ABSTRACT

The prediction and prevention of sudden cardiac death is the philosopher's stone of clinical cardiac electrophysiology. Sports can act as triggers of fatal arrhythmias and therefore it is essential to promptly frame the athlete at risk and to carefully evaluate the suitability for both competitive and recreational sports activity. A history of syncope or palpitations, the presence of premature ventricular complexes or more complex arrhythmias, a reduced left ventricular systolic function, or the presence of known or familiar heart disease should prompt a thorough evaluation with second level examinations. In this regard, cardiac magnetic resonance and electrophysiological study play important roles in the diagnostic work-up. The role of genetics is increasing both in cardiomyopathies and in channelopathies, and a careful evaluation must be focused on genotype positive/phenotype negative subjects. In addition to being a trigger for fatal arrhythmias in certain cardiomyopathies, sports also play a role in the progression of the disease itself, especially in the case arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. In this paper, we review the latest European guidelines on sport cardiology in patients with cardiovascular diseases, focusing on arrhythmic risk stratification and the management of cardiomyopathies and channelopathies.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Channelopathies , Sports , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Channelopathies/complications , Channelopathies/genetics , Humans
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 1-5, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 spread worldwide, causing severe morbidity and mortality and this process still continues. The aim of this study to investigate the prognostic value of right ventricular (RV) strain in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients admitted to the emergency room for COVID-19 between 1 and 30 April were included in this study. ECG was performed on hospital admission and was evaluated as blind. RV strain was defined as in the presence of one or more of the following ECG findings: complete or incomplete right ventricular branch block (RBBB), negative T wave in V1-V4 and presence of S1Q3T3. The main outcome measure was death during hospitalization. The relationship of variables to the main outcome was evaluated by multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 324 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study; majority of patients were male (187, 58%) and mean age was 64.2 ± 14.1. Ninety-five patients (29%) had right ventricular strain according to ECG and 66 patients (20%) had died. After a multivariable survival analysis, presence of RV strain on ECG (OR: 4.385, 95%CI: 2.226-8.638, p < 0.001), high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI), d-dimer and age were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Presence of right ventricular strain pattern on ECG is associated with in hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Troponin I/analysis , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa506, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. We report a patient with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who presented late due to fears of contracting COVID-19. CASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old man with a history of hypertension presented late to the emergency department (ED) with AMI. He gave a 2-month history of exertional angina but avoided seeking medical consult due to fears of contracting COVID-19. On the day of admission, he had 4 h of severe chest pain before presenting to the ED. He was hypotensive and tachycardic on arrival. Electrocardiogram showed inferolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Chest radiograph revealed widened superior mediastinum and bedside echocardiogram revealed inferoseptal and inferolateral hypokinesia with features of cardiac tamponade. An urgent computed tomography aortogram showed possible left ventricular (LV) wall perforation with resulting haemopericardium and cardiac tamponade. Subsequent coronary angiogram showed 100% occlusion of mid left circumflex artery and a contained LV wall rupture was confirmed with LV ventriculogram. He was transferred to a tertiary centre and underwent successful emergency surgical repair. DISCUSSION: Our index case demonstrates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health seeking behaviour due to fears of contracting COVID-19 and the ensuing impact of delayed medical intervention. Cardiologists worldwide are seeing an alarming rate of rare complications of AMI in patients who present late. Physicians need to be aware of this phenomenon and have an active role to play in public education.

7.
CJC Open ; 3(9): 1125-1131, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic first wave, reductions in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) invasive care, ranging from 23% to 76%, have been reported from various countries. Whether this change had any impact on coronary angiography (CA) volume or on mechanical support device use for STEMI and post-STEMI mechanical complications in Canada is unknown. METHODS: We administered a Canada-wide survey to all cardiac catheterization laboratory directors, seeking the volume of CA use for STEMI performed during the period from March 1 2020 to May 31, 2020 (pandemic period), and during 2 control periods (March 1, 2019 to May 31, 2019 and March 1, 2018 to May 31, 2018). The number of left ventricular support devices used, as well as the number of ventricular septal defects and papillary muscle rupture cases diagnosed, was also recorded. We also assessed whether the number of COVID-19 cases recorded in each province was associated with STEMI-related CA volume. RESULTS: A total of 41 of 42 Canadian catheterization laboratories (98%) provided data. There was a modest but statistically significant 16% reduction (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.87) in CA for STEMI during the first wave of the pandemic, compared to control periods. IRR was not associated with provincial COVID-19 caseload. We observed a 26% reduction (IRR 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.89) in the use of intra-aortic balloon pump use for STEMI. Use of an Impella pump and mechanical complications from STEMI were exceedingly rare. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a modest 16% decrease in use of CA for STEMI during the pandemic first wave in Canada, lower than the level reported in other countries. Provincial COVID-19 caseload did not influence this reduction.


INTRODUCTION: Après la première vague de la pandémie de COVID-19, de nombreux pays ont déclaré une réduction de 23 % à 76 % des soins invasifs de l'infarctus du myocarde avec élévation du segment ST (STEMI). On ignore si ce changement a entraîné des répercussions sur le volume d'angiographies coronariennes (AC) ou sur l'utilisation des dispositifs d'assistance mécanique lors de STEMI et des complications mécaniques post-STEMI au Canada. MÉTHODES: Nous avons réalisé un sondage pancanadien auprès de tous les directeurs de laboratoire de cathétérisme cardiaque pour obtenir le volume d'utilisation des AC lors des STEMI réalisées durant la période du 1er mars 2020 au 31 mai 2020 (période de pandémie) et durant 2 périodes témoins (1er mars 2019 au 31 mai 2019 et 1er mars 2018 au 31 mai 2018). Le nombre de dispositifs d'assistance ventriculaire gauche utilisés et le nombre de cas de communications interventriculaires et de ruptures du muscle papillaire diagnostiqués ont également été enregistrés. Nous avons aussi évalué si le nombre de cas de COVID-19 enregistrés dans chaque province était associé au volume d'AC liées aux STEMI. RÉSULTATS: Au total, 41 des 42 laboratoires canadiens de cathétérisme (98 %) ont fourni des données. Lors de la comparaison de la première vague de la pandémie aux périodes témoins, nous avons noté une réduction modeste, mais significative, sur le plan statistique de 16 % (ratio du taux d'incidence [RTI] 0,84; intervalle de confiance à 95 % 0,80-0,87) des AC lors de STEMI. Le RTI n'était pas associé au nombre provincial de cas de COVID-19. Nous avons observé une réduction de 26 % (RTI 0,74; intervalle de confiance à 95 % 0,61-0,89) de l'utilisation de pompes à ballonnet intra-aortique lors de STEMI. L'utilisation d'une pompe Impella et les complications mécaniques après les STEMI étaient extrêmement rares. CONCLUSIONS: Nous avons observé une diminution modeste de 16 % de l'utilisation des AC lors de STEMI durant la première vague de la pandémie au Canada, soit une diminution plus faible que ce que les autres pays ont signalé. Le nombre provincial de cas de COVID-19 n'a pas influencé cette réduction.

8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206456

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is responsible for many complications, which can lead to a high risk of mortality in some patients. Among them are cardiovascular complications which are classified as the most severe. We report a case of a young woman, with no relevant pathological history, admitted for COVID-19 infection, complicated by myocarditis with severe ventricular dysfunction, cardiogenic shock and a large thrombosis into the left ventricle (LV) that was responsible for a left lower limb ischemia associated with a deep venous thrombosis of right lower limb.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/virology , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Female , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/virology , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Middle Aged , Venous Thrombosis/virology
9.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause a variety of cardiac complications and a range of electrocardiographic abnormalities. We analysed cardiological parameters including ECG and high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) level and their association with mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the demographics, comorbidities, laboratory findings and electrocardiographic parameters of 453 consecutive patients, whose outcome was clear, died or discharged. Findings were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Also, the same comparison was made between cardiac injury and no-cardiac injury subgroups. RESULTS: The cardiac injury group had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than the no-cardiac injury group. Also, frequencies of atrial fibrillation, axis change, ST-segment/T-wave change, fragmented QRS, premature atrial/ventricular contraction was found to be higher in the cardiac injury group. Moreover, non-survivors had longer QRS intervals, more frequent ST-segment/T-wave changes and isolated S1Q3T3 pattern than surviving patients. Laboratory results showed median values of hs-TnT at the admission of 4.95 ng/L (IQR, 3-12.35) with concentrations markedly higher in the non-surviving patients vs survivors. Hs-TnT value along with age and respiratory rate was found to be an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Comorbidities were more frequently reported in non-surviving and cardiac injury groups than those surviving and without cardiac injury. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients, both elevated hs-TnT and ECG abnormalities, suggesting cardiac involvement, on admission portends an ominous prognosis and indicates at higher risk of in-hospital mortality. Prioritised treatment and more aggressive therapeutic strategies could be planned to avoid the occurrence of death in these patients.

10.
JAMA ; 325(11): 1074-1087, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168763

ABSTRACT

Importance: Refinement of criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may inform efforts to improve health outcomes. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children and adolescents with MIS-C vs those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Setting, Design, and Participants: Case series of 1116 patients aged younger than 21 years hospitalized between March 15 and October 31, 2020, at 66 US hospitals in 31 states. Final date of follow-up was January 5, 2021. Patients with MIS-C had fever, inflammation, multisystem involvement, and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antibody test results or recent exposure with no alternate diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 had positive RT-PCR test results and severe organ system involvement. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presenting symptoms, organ system complications, laboratory biomarkers, interventions, and clinical outcomes. Multivariable regression was used to compute adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of factors associated with MIS-C vs COVID-19. Results: Of 1116 patients (median age, 9.7 years; 45% female), 539 (48%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and 577 (52%) with COVID-19. Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to be 6 to 12 years old (40.8% vs 19.4%; absolute risk difference [RD], 21.4% [95% CI, 16.1%-26.7%]; aRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.33-1.72] vs 0-5 years) and non-Hispanic Black (32.3% vs 21.5%; RD, 10.8% [95% CI, 5.6%-16.0%]; aRR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.17-1.76] vs White). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to have cardiorespiratory involvement (56.0% vs 8.8%; RD, 47.2% [95% CI, 42.4%-52.0%]; aRR, 2.99 [95% CI, 2.55-3.50] vs respiratory involvement), cardiovascular without respiratory involvement (10.6% vs 2.9%; RD, 7.7% [95% CI, 4.7%-10.6%]; aRR, 2.49 [95% CI, 2.05-3.02] vs respiratory involvement), and mucocutaneous without cardiorespiratory involvement (7.1% vs 2.3%; RD, 4.8% [95% CI, 2.3%-7.3%]; aRR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.84-2.85] vs respiratory involvement). Patients with MIS-C had higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (median, 6.4 vs 2.7, P < .001), higher C-reactive protein level (median, 152 mg/L vs 33 mg/L; P < .001), and lower platelet count (<150 ×103 cells/µL [212/523 {41%} vs 84/486 {17%}, P < .001]). A total of 398 patients (73.8%) with MIS-C and 253 (43.8%) with COVID-19 were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 10 (1.9%) with MIS-C and 8 (1.4%) with COVID-19 died during hospitalization. Among patients with MIS-C with reduced left ventricular systolic function (172/503, 34.2%) and coronary artery aneurysm (57/424, 13.4%), an estimated 91.0% (95% CI, 86.0%-94.7%) and 79.1% (95% CI, 67.1%-89.1%), respectively, normalized within 30 days. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series of patients with MIS-C and with COVID-19 identified patterns of clinical presentation and organ system involvement. These patterns may help differentiate between MIS-C and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Patient Acuity , Regression Analysis , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United States , Young Adult
11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 606318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119540

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is a global pandemic. It has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality around the world. The respiratory system is the main system invaded by the virus involved in COVID-19. In addition to typical respiratory manifestations, a certain proportion of severe COVID-19 cases present with evidence of myocardial injury, which is associated with excessive mortality. With availability of an increasing amount of imaging data, right ventricular (RV) damage is prevalent in patients with COVID-19 and myocardial injury, while left ventricular damage is relatively rare and lacks specificity. The mechanisms of RV damage may be due to increased RV afterload and decreased RV contractility caused by various factors, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary thrombosis, direct viral injury, hypoxia, inflammatory response and autoimmune injury. RV dysfunction usually indicates a poor clinical outcome in patients with COVID-19. Timely and effective treatment is of vital importance to save patients' lives as well as improve prognosis. By use of echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance, doctors can find RV dilatation and dysfunction early. By illustrating the phenomenon of RV damage and its potential pathophysiological mechanisms, we will guide doctors to give timely medical treatments (e.g., anticoagulants, diuretics, cardiotonic), and device-assisted therapy (e.g., mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) when necessary for these patients. In the paper, we examined the latest relevant studies to investigate the imaging features, potential mechanisms, and treatments of myocardial damage caused by COVID-19. RV damage may be an association between myocardial damage and lung injury in COVID-19. Early assessment of RV geometry and function will be helpful in aetiological determination and adjustment of treatment options.

12.
Echocardiography ; 38(3): 469-472, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088042

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemia has many other undesirable consequences apart of virus infection. Less people is hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome and the delay to seek medical attention has increased. Patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction arrive at the hospital too late to be timely treated and we have recently seen mechanical complications that were more frequent in the past decades before the use of reperfusion strategies. In this report we describe the presentation, evolution and detailed imaging evaluation of two patients with unusual presentations of cardiac rupture: left ventricular pseudoaneurysm and left ventricular intramyocardial dissecting hematoma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/etiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/diagnosis , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 202: 106003, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Simulation in cardiovascular medicine may help clinicians understand the important events occurring during mechanical ventilation and circulatory support. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant number of patients have required hospital admission to tertiary referral centres for concomitant mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Nevertheless, the management of ventilated patients on circulatory support can be quite challenging. Therefore, we sought to review the management of these patients based on the analysis of haemodynamic and energetic parameters using numerical simulations generated by a software package named CARDIOSIM©. METHODS: New modules of the systemic circulation and ECMO were implemented in CARDIOSIM© platform. This is a modular software simulator of the cardiovascular system used in research, clinical and e-learning environment. The new structure of the developed modules is based on the concept of lumped (0-D) numerical modelling. Different ECMO configurations have been connected to the cardiovascular network to reproduce Veno-Arterial (VA) and Veno-Venous (VV) ECMO assistance. The advantages and limitations of different ECMO cannulation strategies have been considered. We have used literature data to validate the effects of a combined ventilation and ECMO support strategy. RESULTS: The results have shown that our simulations reproduced the typical effects induced during mechanical ventilation and ECMO assistance. We focused our attention on ECMO with triple cannulation such as Veno-Ventricular-Arterial (VV-A) and Veno-Atrial-Arterial (VA-A) configurations to improve the hemodynamic and energetic conditions of a virtual patient. Simulations of VV-A and VA-A assistance with and without mechanical ventilation have generated specific effects on cardiac output, coupling of arterial and ventricular elastance for both ventricles, mean pulmonary pressure, external work and pressure volume area. CONCLUSION: The new modules of the systemic circulation and ECMO support allowed the study of the effects induced by concomitant mechanical ventilation and circulatory support. Based on our clinical experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, numerical simulations may help clinicians with data analysis and treatment optimisation of patients requiring both mechanical ventilation and circulatory support.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hemodynamics , Respiration, Artificial , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Patient Care Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Software
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(12): 2248-2257, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070736

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a widespread pandemic with an increased morbidity and mortality, especially for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as necessary cell entry point for SARS-CoV-2. Previous animal studies have demonstrated an increased ACE2 expression following treatment with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) that have led to a massive precariousness regarding the optimal cardiovascular therapy during this pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have measured ACE2 mRNA expression using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in atrial biopsies of 81 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and we compared 62 patients that received ACEi/ARB vs. 19 patients that were not ACEi/ARB-treated. We found atrial ACE2 mRNA expression to be significantly increased in patients treated with an ACEi or an ARB, independent of potential confounding comorbidities. Interestingly, the cardiac ACE2 mRNA expression correlated significantly with the expression in white blood cells of 22 patients encouraging further evaluation if the latter may be used as a surrogate for the former. Similarly, analysis of 18 ventricular biopsies revealed a significant and independent increase in ACE2 mRNA expression in patients with end-stage heart failure that were treated with ACEi/ARB. On the other hand, cardiac unloading with a left ventricular assist device significantly reduced ventricular ACE2 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Treatment with ACEi/ARB is independently associated with an increased myocardial ACE2 mRNA expression in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with end-stage heart failure. Further trials are needed to test whether this association is deleterious for patients with COVID-19, or possibly protective. Nevertheless, haemodynamic factors seem to be equally important for regulation of cardiac ACE2 mRNA expression.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Leukocytes/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Female , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infection ; 49(3): 491-500, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053123

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-COV-2 infection can develop into a multi-organ disease. Although pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated myocardial injury have been studied throughout the pandemic course in 2019, its morphological characterisation is still unclear. With this study, we aimed to characterise echocardiographic patterns of ventricular function in patients with COVID-19-associated myocardial injury. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 32 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and presence or absence of elevated high sensitive troponin T (hsTNT+ vs. hsTNT-) by comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) and strain echocardiography. RESULTS: A minority (34.3%) of patients had normal ventricular function, whereas 65.7% had left and/or right ventricular dysfunction defined by impaired left and/or right ventricular ejection fraction and strain measurements. Concomitant biventricular dysfunction was common in hsTNT+ patients. We observed impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with myocardial injury (-13.9% vs. -17.7% for hsTNT+ vs. hsTNT-, p = 0.005) but preserved LV ejection fraction (52% vs. 59%, p = 0.074). Further, in these patients, right ventricular (RV) systolic function was impaired with lower RV ejection fraction (40% vs. 49%, p = 0.001) and reduced RV free wall strain (-18.5% vs. -28.3%, p = 0.003). Myocardial dysfunction partially recovered in hsTNT + patients after 52 days of follow-up. In particular, LV-GLS and RV-FWS significantly improved from baseline to follow-up (LV-GLS: -13.9% to -16.5%, p = 0.013; RV-FWS: -18.5% to -22.3%, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19-associated myocardial injury, comprehensive 3D and strain echocardiography revealed LV dysfunction by GLS and RV dysfunction, which partially resolved at 2-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID-19 Registry of the LMU University Hospital Munich (CORKUM), WHO trial ID DRKS00021225.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction/pathology
17.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(2): 577-581, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002092

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to SARS-CoV-2, is primarily a respiratory disease, causing in most severe cases life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Cardiovascular involvement can also occur, such as thrombosis or myocarditis, generally associated with pulmonary lesions. Little is known about SARS-CoV-2-induced myocarditis. We report the case of a 69-year-old man suffering from a refractory cardiogenic shock, without significant lung involvement. Prior to death, several nasopharyngeal swabs and distal bronchoalveolar lavage were sampled in order to perform RT-PCR analyses for SARS-CoV-2-RNA, which all gave negative results. Autopsy showed coronary atherosclerosis, without acute complication. Microscopic examination of the heart revealed the existence of an intense multifocal inflammatory infiltration, in both ventricles and septum, composed in its majority of macrophages and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4/CD8 ratio: 0.11). Immunohistochemistry for anti-SARS nucleocapsid protein antibody was strongly positive in myocardial cells, but not in lung tissue. RT-PCR was realized on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung and heart tissue blocks: only heart tissue was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In conclusion, this exhaustive post-mortem pathological case study of fulminant myocarditis demonstrates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in heart tissue, without significant lung involvement. Immunohistochemistry showed that the virus was specifically localized in cardiomyocytes and induced a strong cytotoxic T cells inflammatory response. This case report thus gives new insight in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocarditis and emphasizes on the importance and reliability of post-mortem analyses in order to better understand the physiopathology of this worldwide spreading new viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart/virology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Coronary Stenosis/pathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/pathology
18.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 16-22, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994756

ABSTRACT

Aim      To evaluate changes in 12-lead ECG in patients with coronavirus infection.Materials and methods This article describes signs of electrocardiographic right ventricular "stress" in patients with COVID-19. 150 ECGs of 75 COVID-19 patients were analyzed in the Institute of Cardiology of the National Medical Research Centre for Therapy and Preventive Medicine. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture of community-acquired pneumonia, data of chest multispiral computed tomography, and a positive test for COVID-19. ECG was recorded both in 3-6 and in 12 leads. Signs of right ventricular (RV) stress, so-called systolic overload (high R and inverted TV1-3 and TII, III, aVF), and diastolic overload (RV wall hypertrophy and cavity dilatation; complete or incomplete right bundle branch block) were evaluated.Results The most common signs for impaired functioning of the right heart include emergence of the RV P wave phase (41.3 %), incomplete right bundle branch block (42.6 %), ECG of the SIQ IIITIII type (33.3 %) typical for thromboembolic complications, and signs of RV hypertrophy, primarily increased SV5-6 (14.7 %). These changes are either associated with signs of RV myocardial stress (16 %) or appear on the background of signs for diffuse hypoxia evident as tall, positive, sharp-ended T waves in most leads (28 %).Conclusion      A conclusive, comprehensive assessment of the reversal of hemodynamic disorders and electrocardiographic dynamics in patients with COVID-19 will be possible later, when more data become available.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Electrocardiography , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Bundle-Branch Block , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block. RESULTS: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, P=0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
20.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Permanent cardiac pacing is the therapy of choice for treating severe and/or symptomatic bradyarrhythmia. During the COVID-19 outbreak, it has been reported a decrease in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome, but few data are available about pacemaker implantation rates. This study aimed to analyse patients referred to our centre with permanent cardiac pacing indication during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We compared the number, the characteristics and the outcomes of patients who underwent urgent pacemaker implantation between March and April 2019 (Group I) with those performed in the corresponding 2020 period (Group II). RESULTS: A total of 27 patients (Group I) were implanted in March-April 2019 and 34 patients (Group II) in the corresponding 2020 period. In both groups, about half of the patients received a dual-chamber pacemaker. No significant differences in baseline patients' characteristics were observed. The most frequent indication was advanced atrio-ventricular block with a prevalence of 78% and 62% in Group I and II, respectively. The rate of procedural complications, the in-hospital and 1-month mortality were also similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In our regional referral center, we observed a routine activity in terms of urgent pacemaker implantations for the treatment of symptomatic bradyarrhythmia during the COVID-19 outbreak.

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