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1.
Clin Endosc ; 54(2): 157-160, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362722

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an accepted procedure for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. FMT is generally considered safe and well-tolerated - even in high-risk patients. Most short-term risks are mild and known to be associated with delivery methods. Long-term side effects have not been established, and no signs of harm have been found to date. However, causality for several microbiome-associated diseases has to be established. Even though FMT is generally considered safe with strict donor screening, serious adverse events have been recently associated with the FMT product from the stool bank, where screening for multi-drug resistant organisms is not included in protocols. Here, we discuss the adverse events associated with FMT and safety issues.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e020910, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263974

ABSTRACT

Background Emerging evidence links acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 with higher mortality and respiratory morbidity, but the relationship of AKI with cardiovascular disease outcomes has not been reported in this population. We sought to evaluate associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD), AKI, and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods and Results In a large multicenter registry including 8574 patients with COVID-19 from 88 US hospitals, data were collected on baseline characteristics and serial laboratory data during index hospitalization. Primary exposure variables were CKD (categorized as no CKD, CKD, and end-stage kidney disease) and AKI (classified into no AKI or stages 1, 2, or 3 using a modification of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline definition). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The key secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, new-onset nonfatal heart failure, and nonfatal cardiogenic shock. CKD and end-stage kidney disease were not associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, AKI was significantly associated with mortality (stage 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.46-2.03]; stage 2 HR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.52-2.20]; stage 3 HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.44-1.98]; versus no AKI) and major adverse cardiac events (stage 1 HR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.74-2.71]; stage 2 HR, 2.70 [95% CI, 2.07-3.51]; stage 3 HR, 3.06 [95% CI, 2.52-3.72]; versus no AKI). Conclusions This large study demonstrates a significant association between AKI and all-cause mortality and, for the first time, major adverse cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cause of Death , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Registries , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9959, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225515

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic impacting nearly 170 countries/regions and millions of patients worldwide. Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still need to be treated at percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers with relevant safety measures. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the therapeutic outcomes of PCI performed under the safety measures and normal conditions. AMI patients undergoing PCI between January 24 to April 30, 2020 were performed under safety measures for COVID-19. Patients received pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and underwent PCI in negative pressure ICU. Cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) staff and physicians worked with level III personal protection. Demographic and clinical data, such as door-to-balloon (DTB) time, operation time, complications for patients in this period (COVID-19 group) and the same period in 2019 (2019 group) were retrieved and analyzed. COVID-19 and 2019 groups had 37 and 96 patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender, BMI and comorbidity between the two groups. DTB time and operation time were similar between the two groups (60.0 ± 12.39 vs 58.83 ± 12.85 min, p = 0.636; 61.46 ± 9.91 vs 62.55 ± 10.72 min, p = 0.592). Hospital stay time in COVID-19 group was significantly shorter (6.78 ± 2.14 vs 8.85 ± 2.64 days, p < 0.001). The incidences of malignant arrhythmia and Takotsubo Syndrome in COVID-19 group were higher than 2019 group significantly (16.22% vs 5.21%, p = 0.039; 10.81% vs 1.04% p = 0.008). During hospitalization and 3-month follow-up, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in the two groups were statistically similar (35.13% vs 14.58%, p = 0.094; 16.22% vs 8.33%, p = 0.184). The risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was associated with cardiogenic shock (OR, 11.53; 95% CI, 2.888-46.036; p = 0.001), malignant arrhythmias (OR, 7.176; 95% CI, 1.893-27.203; p = 0.004) and advanced age (≥ 75 years) (OR, 6.718; 95% CI, 1.738-25.964; p = 0.006). Cardiogenic shock (OR, 17.663; 95% CI, 5.5-56.762; p < 0.001) and malignant arrhythmias (OR, 4.659; 95% CI, 1.481-14.653; p = 0.008) were also associated with death of 3 months. Our analysis showed that safety measures undertaken in this hospital, including screening of COVID-19 infection and use of personal protection equipment for conducting PCI did not compromise the surgical outcome as compared with PCI under normal condition, although there were slight increases in incidence of malignant arrhythmia and Takotsubo Syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Treatment Outcome , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
4.
World J Cardiol ; 13(4): 76-81, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may contribute to delayed presentations of acute myocardial infarction. Delayed presentation with late reperfusion is often associated with an increased risk of mechanical complications and adverse outcomes. Inherent delays are possible as every patient who is acutely sick is being considered a potential case or a career of COVID-19. Also, standardized personal protective equipment precautions are established for all members of the team, regardless of pending COVID-19 testing which might further add to delays. AIM: To compare performance measures and clinical outcomes of all patients who presented to our facility with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic to same time cohort from 2019. METHODS: All patients who presented to our facility with STEMI during the pandemic were compared to a matched cohort during the same time period in 2019. STEMI with unknown time of symptom onset and inpatient STEMI patients were excluded. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in-hospital and up to 14 d after STEMI, including death, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, or stroke. Significant differences among groups for continuous variables were tested through ANOVA, using SYSTAT, version 13. Chi-square tests of association were used to compare patient characteristics among groups using SYSTAT. Relative risk scores and associated tests for significance were calculated for discrete variables using MedCalc (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium). RESULTS: There was a significantly longer time interval from symptom onset to first medical contact (FMC) in the COVID-19 group (P < 0.02). Time to first electrocardiogram, door-to-balloon time, and FMC to balloon time were not significantly affected. The right coronary artery was the most common culprit for STEMI in both the cohorts. Over 60% of patients had one or more obstructive (> 50%) lesion(s) remote from the culprit site. In-hospital and 14 d MACE were more prevalent in the COVID-19 group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This single academic center study in the United States suggests that there is a delay in patients with STEMI seeking medical attention during the COVID-19 pandemic which could be translating into worse clinical outcomes.

5.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 1-9, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global spread of COVID-19 and the lack of definite treatment have caused an alarming crisis in the world. We aimed to evaluate the outcome and potential harmful cardiac effects of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin compared to hydroxychloroquine alone for COVID-19 treatment. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, and World Health Organization clinical trial registry were searched using appropriate keywords and identified six studies using PRISMA guidelines. The quantitative synthesis was performed using fixed or random effects for the pooling of studies based on heterogeneities. RESULTS: The risk of mortality (RR=1.16; CI: 0.92-1.46) and adverse cardiac events (OR=1.06; CI: 0.82-1.37) demonstrated a small increment though of no significance. There were no increased odds of mechanical ventilation (OR=0.84; CI: 0.33-2.15) and significant QTc prolongation (OR=0.84, CI: 0.59-1.21). Neither the critical QTc threshold (OR=1.92, CI: 0.81-4.56) nor absolute ?QTc ?60ms (OR=1.95, CI:0.55-6.96) increased to the level of statistical significance among hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin arm compared to hydroxychloroquine alone, but the slightly increased odds need to be considered in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin leads to small increased odds of mortality and cardiac events compared to hydroxychloroquine alone. The use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin led to increased odds of QT prolongation, although not statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Circulation ; 144(4): 256-266, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement among hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of COVID-19 cardiac involvement in young competitive athletes. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study with data from 42 colleges and universities, we assessed the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of COVID-19 cardiac involvement among collegiate athletes in the United States. Data were collected from September 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. The primary outcome was the prevalence of definite, probable, or possible COVID-19 cardiac involvement based on imaging definitions adapted from the Updated Lake Louise Imaging Criteria. Secondary outcomes included the diagnostic yield of cardiac testing, predictors for cardiac involvement, and adverse cardiovascular events or hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 19 378 athletes tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, 3018 (mean age, 20 years [SD, 1 year]; 32% female) tested positive and underwent cardiac evaluation. A total of 2820 athletes underwent at least 1 element of cardiac triad testing (12-lead ECG, troponin, transthoracic echocardiography) followed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) if clinically indicated. In contrast, primary screening CMR was performed in 198 athletes. Abnormal findings suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement were detected by ECG (21 of 2999 [0.7%]), cardiac troponin (24 of 2719 [0.9%]), and transthoracic echocardiography (24 of 2556 [0.9%]). Definite, probable, or possible SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement was identified in 21 of 3018 (0.7%) athletes, including 15 of 2820 (0.5%) who underwent clinically indicated CMR (n=119) and 6 of 198 (3.0%) who underwent primary screening CMR. Accordingly, the diagnostic yield of CMR for SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement was 4.2 times higher for a clinically indicated CMR (15 of 119 [12.6%]) versus a primary screening CMR (6 of 198 [3.0%]). After adjustment for race and sex, predictors of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement included cardiopulmonary symptoms (odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.2, 7.7]) or at least 1 abnormal triad test result (odds ratio, 37.4 [95% CI, 13.3, 105.3]). Five (0.2%) athletes required hospitalization for noncardiac complications of COVID-19. During clinical surveillance (median follow-up, 113 days [interquartile range=90 146]), there was 1 (0.03%) adverse cardiac event, likely unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection among young competitive athletes is associated with a low prevalence of cardiac involvement and a low risk of clinical events in short-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin T/analysis , Young Adult
7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 247-256, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168426

ABSTRACT

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a common cardiovascular emergency for which timely reperfusion therapies are needed to minimize myocardial necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and reorganization of chest pain centers (CPC) on the practice of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and prognosis of STEMI patients. This single-center retrospective survey included all patients with STEMI admitted to our CPC from January 22, 2020 to April 30, 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan), compared with those admitted during the analogous period in 2019, in respect of important time points of PPCI and clinical outcomes of STEMI patients. In the present article, we observed a descending trend in STEMI hospitalization and a longer time from symptom onset to first medical contact during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the control period (4.35 h versus 2.58 h). With a median delay of 17 minutes in the door to balloon time (D2B), the proportion of in-hospital cardiogenic shock was significantly higher in the COVID-19 era group (47.6% versus 19.5%), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) tend to increase in the 6-month follow-up period (14.3% versus 2.4%). Although the reorganization of CPC may prolong the D2B time, immediate revascularization of the infarct-related artery could be offered to most patients within 90 minutes upon arrival. PPCI remained the preferred treatment for patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic in the context of timely implementation and appropriate protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , China/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
8.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 33: 100745, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fibrinolysis is an important reperfusion strategy in the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when timely access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is unavailable. Rescue PCI is generally thought to have worse outcomes than PPCI in STEMI. We aimed to determine short- and long-term outcomes of patients with rescue PCI versus PPCI for treatment of STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients admitted with STEMI (excluding out-of-hospital cardiac arrest) within the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) registry between 2005 and 2018 treated with either rescue PCI or PPCI were included in this retrospective cohort analysis. Comparison of 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and long-term mortality between the two groups was performed. There were 558 patients (7.1%) with rescue PCI and 7271 with PPCI. 30-day all-cause mortality (rescue PCI 6% vs. PPCI 5%, p = 0.47) and MACE (rescue PCI 10.3% vs. PPCI 8.9%, p = 0.26) rates were similar between the two groups. Rates of in-hospital major bleeding (rescue PCI 6% vs. PPCI 3.4%, p = 0.002) and 30-day stroke (rescue PCI 2.2% vs. PPCI 0.8%, p < 0.001) were higher following rescue PCI. The odds ratio for haemorrhagic stroke in the rescue PCI group was 10.3. Long-term mortality was not significantly different between the groups (rescue PCI 20% vs. PPCI 19%, p = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: With contemporary interventional techniques and medical therapy, rescue PCI remains a valuable strategy for treating patients with failed fibrinolysis where PPCI is unavailable and it has been suggested in extenuating circumstances where alternative revascularisation strategies are considered.

9.
Front Physiol ; 12: 624185, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121287

ABSTRACT

The rapid dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 has made COVID-19 a tremendous social, economic, and health burden. Despite the efforts to understand the virus and treat the disease, many questions remain unanswered about COVID-19 mechanisms of infection and progression. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) infection can affect several organs in the body including the heart, which can result in thromboembolism, myocardial injury, acute coronary syndromes, and arrhythmias. Numerous cardiac adverse events, from cardiomyocyte death to secondary effects caused by exaggerated immunological response against the virus, have been clinically reported. In addition to the disease itself, repurposing of treatments by using "off label" drugs can also contribute to cardiotoxicity. Over the past several decades, animal models and more recently, stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been proposed for studying diseases and testing treatments in vitro. In addition, mechanistic in silico models have been widely used for disease and drug studies. In these models, several characteristics such as gender, electrolyte imbalance, and comorbidities can be implemented to study pathophysiology of cardiac diseases and to predict cardiotoxicity of drug treatments. In this Mini Review, we (1) present the state of the art of in vitro and in silico cardiomyocyte modeling currently in use to study COVID-19, (2) review in vitro and in silico models that can be adopted to mimic the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac function, and (3) provide a perspective on how to combine some of these models to mimic "COVID-19 cardiomyocytes environment.".

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(7): 745-752, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116911

ABSTRACT

Importance: The major North American professional sports leagues were among the first to return to full-scale sport activity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the unknown incidence of adverse cardiac sequelae after COVID-19 infection in athletes, these leagues implemented a conservative return-to-play (RTP) cardiac testing program aligned with American College of Cardiology recommendations for all athletes testing positive for COVID-19. Objective: To assess the prevalence of detectable inflammatory heart disease in professional athletes with prior COVID-19 infection, using current RTP screening recommendations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study reviewed RTP cardiac testing performed between May and October 2020 on professional athletes who had tested positive for COVID-19. The professional sports leagues (Major League Soccer, Major League Baseball, National Hockey League, National Football League, and the men's and women's National Basketball Association) implemented mandatory cardiac screening requirements for all players who had tested positive for COVID-19 prior to resumption of team-organized sports activities. Exposures: Troponin testing, electrocardiography (ECG), and resting echocardiography were performed after a positive COVID-19 test result. Interleague, deidentified cardiac data were pooled for collective analysis. Those with abnormal screening test results were referred for additional testing, including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and/or stress echocardiography. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of abnormal RTP test results potentially representing COVID-19-associated cardiac injury, and results and outcomes of additional testing generated by the initial screening process. Results: The study included 789 professional athletes (mean [SD] age, 25 [3] years; 777 men [98.5%]). A total of 460 athletes (58.3%) had prior symptomatic COVID-19 illness, and 329 (41.7%) were asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic (minimally symptomatic). Testing was performed a mean (SD) of 19 (17) days (range, 3-156 days) after a positive test result. Abnormal screening results were identified in 30 athletes (3.8%; troponin, 6 athletes [0.8%]; ECG, 10 athletes [1.3%]; echocardiography, 20 athletes [2.5%]), necessitating additional testing; 5 athletes (0.6%) ultimately had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting inflammatory heart disease (myocarditis, 3; pericarditis, 2) that resulted in restriction from play. No adverse cardiac events occurred in athletes who underwent cardiac screening and resumed professional sport participation. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides large-scale data assessing the prevalence of relevant COVID-19-associated cardiac pathology with implementation of current RTP screening recommendations. While long-term follow-up is ongoing, few cases of inflammatory heart disease have been detected, and a safe return to professional sports activity has thus far been achieved.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Adult , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(2): 131-140, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological agents, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, have been promoted for COVID-19 treatment or pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, no comprehensive evaluation of the safety of these possible agents is available, and is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risks of cardiac adverse events associated with the possible pharmacotherapies for COVID-19, including certain antimalarial, antiviral, and antibiotic drugs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conduced retrospective pharmacovigilance analyses of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database. The reporting odds ratio (ROR), a data mining algorithm commonly used in pharmacovigilance assessment, was generated to quantify the detection signal of adverse events. RESULTS: Among individuals without coronavirus infection from 2015 Q1 to 2020 Q1, increased risks for cardiac disorders were found for antiviral agents such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (ROR: 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-1.70), lopinavir/ritonavir (ROR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.39-1.66), and antibiotics such as azithromycin (ROR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.30-1.44) and ceftriaxone (ROR: 1.92; 95% CI 1.80-2.05). Increased serious cardiac adverse events, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and cardiac arrest, were also reported for these drugs. Further analyses of individuals with coronavirus infections revealed that 40% of individuals receiving chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine reported serious cardiac adverse events. Two cases resulted in QT prolongations and one case resulted in cardiac arrest. Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin contributed to all the QT prolongation and cardiac arrest cases. CONCLUSIONS: The current pharmacotherapies for COVID-19 are associated with increased risks of cardiac adverse events. Variations in the cardiac safety profiles of these pharmacotherapies were also observed. Clinicians should closely monitor patients with COVID-19, especially those at high risk, using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.

12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066893

ABSTRACT

Azithromycin has rapidly been adopted as a repurposed drug for the treatment of COVID-19, despite the lack of high-quality evidence. In this review, we critically appraise the current pharmacological, preclinical and clinical data of azithromycin for treating COVID-19. Interest in azithromycin has been fuelled by favourable treatment outcomes in other viral pneumonias, a documented antiviral effect on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and uncontrolled case series early in the pandemic. Its antiviral effects presumably result from interfering with receptor mediated binding, viral lysosomal escape, intracellular cell-signalling pathways and enhancing type I and III interferon expression. Its immunomodulatory effects may mitigate excessive inflammation and benefit tissue repair. Currently, in vivo reports on azithromycin in COVID-19 are conflicting and do not endorse its widespread use outside of clinical trials. They are, however, mostly retrospective and therefore inherently biased. The effect size of azithromycin may depend on when it is started. Also, extended follow-up is needed to assess benefits in the recovery phase. Safety data warrant monitoring of drug-drug interactions and subsequent cardiac adverse events, especially with hydroxychloroquine. More prospective data of large randomised controlled studies are expected and much-needed. Uniform reporting of results should be strongly encouraged to facilitate data pooling with the many ongoing initiatives.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(3): e12815, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of cardiac injury in COVID-19. Our purpose was to assess the prognostic value of serial electrocardiograms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We evaluated 269 consecutive patients admitted to our center with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. ECGs available at admission and after 1 week from hospitalization were assessed. We evaluated the correlation between ECGs findings and major adverse events (MAE) as the composite of intra-hospital all-cause mortality or need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Abnormal ECGs were defined if primary ST-T segment alterations, left ventricular hypertrophy, tachy or bradyarrhythmias and any new AV, bundle blocks or significant morphology alterations (e.g., new Q pathological waves) were present. RESULTS: Abnormal ECG at admission (106/216) and elevated baseline troponin values were more common in patients who developed MAE (p = .04 and p = .02, respectively). Concerning ECGs recorded after 7 days (159), abnormal findings were reported in 53.5% of patients and they were more frequent in those with MAE (p = .001). Among abnormal ECGs, ischemic alterations and left ventricular hypertrophy were significantly associated with a higher MAE rate. The multivariable analysis showed that the presence of abnormal ECG at 7 days of hospitalization was an independent predictor of MAE (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.7; p = .02). Furthermore, patients with abnormal ECG at 7 days more often required transfer to the intensive care unit (p = .01) or renal replacement therapy (p = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 should receive ECG at admission but also during their hospital stay. Indeed, electrocardiographic alterations during hospitalization are associated with MAE and infection severity.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Aged , Causality , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 585220, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052488

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocardial injury is a life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pre-existing health conditions and early morphological alterations may precipitate cardiac injury and dysfunction after contracting the virus. The current study aimed at assessing potential risk factors for COVID-19 cardiac complications in patients with pre-existing conditions and imaging predictors. Methods and Results: The multi-center, retrospective cohort study consecutively enrolled 400 patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in six Chinese hospitals remote to the Wuhan epicenter. Patients were diagnosed with or without the complication of myocardial injury by history and cardiac biomarker Troponin I/T (TnI/T) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit. The majority of COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury exhibited pre-existing health conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary disease. They had increased levels of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and more in-hospital adverse events (admission to an intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death). Chest CT scan on admission demonstrated that COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury had higher epicardial adipose tissue volume ([EATV] 139.1 (83.8-195.9) vs. 92.6 (76.2-134.4) cm2; P = 0.036). The optimal EATV cut-off value (137.1 cm2) served as a useful factor for assessing myocardial injury, which yielded sensitivity and specificity of 55.0% (95%CI, 32.0-76.2%) and 77.4% (95%CI, 71.6-82.3%) in adverse cardiac events, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that EATV over 137.1 cm2 was a strong independent predictor for myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 [OR 3.058, (95%CI, 1.032-9.063); P = 0.044]. Conclusions: Augmented EATV on admission chest CT scan, together with the pre-existing health conditions (hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia) and inflammatory cytokine production, is associated with increased myocardial injury and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Assessment of pre-existing conditions and chest CT scan EATV on admission may provide a threshold point potentially useful for predicting cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.

15.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1168-1176, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995932

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on incidence, delays, and outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in France. Methods: We analyzed all patients undergoing PPCI <24 hours STEMI included in the prospective France PCI registry. The 2 groups were compared on mean monthly number of patients, delays in the pathway care, and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, unplanned coronary revascularization, stroke, and major bleeding). Results: From January 15, 2019 to April 14, 2020, 2064 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI were included: 1942 in the prelockdown group and 122 in the lockdown group. Only 2 cases in the lockdown group were positive for COVID-19. A significant drop (12%) in mean number of STEMI/month was observed in the lockdown group compared with prelockdown (139 vs 122, P < 0.04). A significant increase in "symptom onset to first medical contact" delay was found for patients who presented directly to the emergency department (ED) (238 minutes vs 450 minutes; P = 0.04). There were higher rates of in-hospital MACE (7.7% vs 12.3%; P = 0.06) and mortality (4.9% vs 8.2%; P = 0.11) in the lockdown group but the differences were not significant. Conclusion: According to the multicenter France PCI registry, the COVID-19 outbreak in France was associated with a significant decline in STEMI undergoing PPCI and longer transfer time for patients who presented directly to the ED. Mortality rates doubled, but the difference was not statistically significant.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(3): 316-325, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVE: To describe the home health recovery of patients with COVID-19 and risk factors associated with rehospitalization or death. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort. SETTING: New York City. PARTICIPANTS: 1409 patients with COVID-19 admitted to home health care (HHC) between 1 April and 15 June 2020 after hospitalization. MEASUREMENTS: Covariates and outcomes were obtained from the mandated OASIS (Outcome and Assessment Information Set). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of risk factors associated with rehospitalization or death. RESULTS: After an average of 32 days in HHC, 94% of patients were discharged and most achieved statistically significant improvements in symptoms and function. Activity-of-daily-living dependencies decreased from an average of 6 (95% CI, 5.9 to 6.1) to 1.2 (CI, 1.1 to 1.3). Risk for rehospitalization or death was higher for male patients (HR, 1.45 [CI, 1.04 to 2.03]); White patients (HR, 1.74 [CI, 1.22 to 2.47]); and patients with heart failure (HR, 2.12 [CI, 1.41 to 3.19]), diabetes with complications (HR, 1.71 [CI, 1.17 to 2.52]), 2 or more emergency department visits in the past 6 months (HR, 1.78 [CI, 1.21 to 2.62]), pain daily or all the time (HR, 1.46 [CI, 1.05 to 2.05]), cognitive impairment (HR, 1.49 [CI, 1.04 to 2.13]), or functional dependencies (HR, 1.09 [CI, 1.00 to 1.20]). Eleven patients (1%) died, 137 (10%) were rehospitalized, and 23 (2%) remain on service. LIMITATIONS: Care was provided by 1 home health agency. Information on rehospitalization and death after HHC discharge is not available. CONCLUSION: Symptom burden and functional dependence were common at the time of HHC admission but improved for most patients. Comorbid conditions of heart failure and diabetes, as well as characteristics present at admission, identified patients at greatest risk for an adverse event. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: No direct funding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Home Care Services , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 389-391, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954717

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the QTc prolongation and related adverse cardiac events during the administration of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its combinations for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hospitalized patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who received HCQ and had initial and follow-up electrocardiograms performed between March 10 and May 30, 2020 were included. Critical QTc prolongation was detected in 12% of the patients. On multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 5.8, 95% confidence interval 1.11-30.32, p = 0.037) and the use of oseltamivir (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 1.02-28, p = 0.047) were found to be associated with critical QTc prolongation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use
18.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 8: 2050313X20974217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945114

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a widely used drug to treat patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Although evidence of its efficacy and safety remains limited and controversial, both cardiac and non-cardiac adverse events are known to be associated with its use. To our knowledge, electrical storm in patients with COVID-19, or in any case treated with HCQ, has not been reported. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with an implantable cardiac resynchronization defibrillator (CRT-D) and a non-severe form of COVID-19. After a few days of home therapy with HCQ, an electrical storm was revealed that was associated with an increase in QTc. Following admission to the intensive care unit, HCQ was discontinued and progressive reduction of the QTc with electrical stabilization was observed. This clinical case highlights the potential risk of arrythmia associated with the use of HCQ and stresses the need for close electrocardiographic monitoring, especially in patients with established heart disease.

19.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 10(2): 100-107, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932472

ABSTRACT

Many drugs that have been proposed for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are reported to cause cardiac adverse events, including ventricular arrhythmias. In order to properly weigh risks against potential benefits, particularly when decisions must be made quickly, mathematical modeling of both drug disposition and drug action can be useful for predicting patient response and making informed decisions. Here, we explored the potential effects on cardiac electrophysiology of four drugs proposed to treat COVID-19: lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, and azithromycin, as well as combination therapy involving these drugs. Our study combined simulations of pharmacokinetics (PKs) with quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling of ventricular myocytes to predict potential cardiac adverse events caused by these treatments. Simulation results predicted that drug combinations can lead to greater cellular action potential prolongation, analogous to QT prolongation, compared with drugs given in isolation. The combination effect can result from both PK and pharmacodynamic drug interactions. Importantly, simulations of different patient groups predicted that women with pre-existing heart disease are especially susceptible to drug-induced arrhythmias, compared with diseased men or healthy individuals of either sex. Statistical analysis of population simulations revealed the molecular factors that make certain women with heart failure especially susceptible to arrhythmias. Overall, the results illustrate how PK and QSP modeling may be combined to more precisely predict cardiac risks of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Models, Theoretical , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Action Potentials/drug effects , Action Potentials/physiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions/physiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects
20.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 24(5): 334-342, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Delayed admission of myocardial infarction (MI) patients is an important prognostic factor. In the present nationwide registry (TURKMI-2), we evaluated the treatment delays and outcomes of patients with acute MI during the Covid-19 pandemic and compaired with a recentpre-pandemic registry (TURKMI-1). METHODS: The pandemic and pre-pandemic studies were conducted prospectively as 15-day snapshot registries in the same 48 centers. The inclusion criteria for both registries were aged ≥18 years and a final diagnosis of acute MI (AMI) with positive troponin levels. The only difference between the 2 registries was that the pre-pandemic (TURKMI-1) registry (n=1872) included only patients presenting within the first 48 hours after symptom-onset. TURKMI-2 enrolled all consecutive patients (n=1113) presenting with AMI during the pandemic period. RESULTS: A comparison of the patients with acute MI presenting within the 48-hour of symptom-onset in the pre-pandemic and pandemic registries revealed an overall 47.1% decrease in acute MI admissions during the pandemic. Median time from symptom-onset to hospital-arrival increased from 150 min to 185 min in patients with ST elevation MI (STEMI) and 295 min to 419 min in patients presenting with non-STEMI (NSTEMI) (p-values <0.001). Door-to-balloon time was similar in the two periods (37 vs. 40 min, p=0.448). In the pandemic period, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) decreased, especially in the NSTEMI group (60.3% vs. 47.4% in NSTEMI, p<0.001; 94.8% vs. 91.1% in STEMI, p=0.013) but the decrease was not significant in STEMI patients admitted within 12 hours of symptom-onset (94.9% vs. 92.1%; p=0.075). In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly increased during the pandemic period [4.8% vs. 8.9%; p<0.001; age- and sex-adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI) 1.96 (1.20-3.22) for NSTEMI, p=0.007; and 2.08 (1.38-3.13) for STEMI, p<0.001]. CONCLUSION: The present comparison of 2 nationwide registries showed a significant delay in treatment of patients presenting with acute MI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although PCI was performed in a timely fashion, an increase in treatment delay might be responsible for the increased risk of MACE. Public education and establishing COVID-free hospitals are necessary to overcome patients' fear of using healthcare services and mitigate the potential complications of AMI during the pandemic. (Anatol J Cardiol 2020; 24: 334-42).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Registries , Regression Analysis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
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