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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
2.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(5): 230-237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511053

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is a broad term encompassing any disease leading to myocardial inflammation with associated cardiac dysfunction. While endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis, noninvasive imaging techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, have become powerful tools to facilitate the identification of underlying myocardial inflammation. This review presents a series of clinical cases with some common etiologies of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, including diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy
3.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa521, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first documented outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome inducing Coronavirus in China at the end of 2019 the virus has spread to all continents, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. While this virus primarily targets the alveoli in the lungs, multiple authors have described an increased rate of thrombo-embolic events in affected patients. We present this case of a myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in an otherwise healthy 48-year-old patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 48-year-old female, presenting with chest pain radiating to her left shoulder with no cardiovascular risk factors other than genetic predisposition, was screened for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and tested positive. Although computed tomography angiography excluded obstructive coronary heart disease, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries of the inferior wall. The patient was treated with dual anti-platelet therapy, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and a statin, and assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation program. CONCLUSION: We report a serious thrombo-embolic event during an oligosymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthy, young patient. While these two diseases may have occurred simultaneously, by chance, it is possible that the pro-thrombotic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitated the infarction. This case further demonstrates the significant cardiovascular morbidity potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2.

4.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): 279-285, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has been shown to affect the myocardium, resulting in a worse clinical outcome. In this registry study, we aimed to identify differences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) between COVID-19 and all-cause myocarditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined CMRI of patients with COVID-19 and elevated high-sensitivity serum troponin levels performed between March 31st and May 5th and compared them to CMRI of patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection with suspected myocarditis in the same time period. For this purpose, we evaluated Lake-Louise Criteria for myocarditis by determining nonischemic myocardial injury via T1-mapping, extracellular volume, late gadolinium enhancement, and myocardial edema (ME) by T2-mapping and fat-saturated T2w imaging (T2Q). RESULTS: A total of 15 of 18 (89%) patients with COVID-19 had abnormal findings. The control group consisted of 18 individuals. There were significantly fewer individuals with COVID-19 who had increased T2 (5 vs. 10; P=0.038) and all-cause ME (7 vs. 15; P=0.015); thus, significantly fewer patients with COVID-19 fulfilled Lake-Louise Criteria (6 vs. 17; P<0.001). In contrast, nonischemic myocardial injury was not significantly different. In the COVID-19 group, indexed end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle showed a significant correlation to the extent of abnormal T1 (R2=0.571; P=0.017) and extracellular volume (R2=0.605; P=0.013) and absolute T1, T2, and T2Q (R2=0.644; P=0.005, R2=0.513; P=0.035 and R2=0.629; P=0.038, respectively); in the control group, only extracellular volume showed a weak correlation (R2=0.490; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 seems to show less ME than all-cause myocarditis. Abnormal CMRI markers correlated to left ventricle dilation only in the COVID-19 group. Larger comparative studies are needed to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocarditis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Gadolinium , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests
5.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 68, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of myocardial involvement can be relevant in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to timely target symptomatic treatment and decrease the occurrence of the cardiac sequelae of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in characterizing myocardial damage in active COVID-19 patients, through the correlation between qualitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers with clinical and laboratory evidence of myocardial injury. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, we enrolled 27 patients with diagnosis of active COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement, referred to our institution for CMR between March 2020 and January 2021. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, including high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT), and CMR imaging data were obtained. Relationships between CMR parameters, clinical and laboratory findings were explored. Comparisons were made with age-, sex- and risk factor-matched control group of 27 individuals, including healthy controls and patients without other signs or history of myocardial disease, who underwent CMR examination between January 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: The median (IQR) time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and CMR examination was 20 (13.5-31.5) days. Hs-cTnT values were collected within 24 h prior to CMR and resulted abnormally increased in 18 patients (66.6%). A total of 20 cases (74%) presented tissue signal abnormalities, including increased myocardial native T1 (n = 11), myocardial T2 (n = 14) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (n = 10), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (n = 12) or pericardial enhancement (n = 2). A CMR diagnosis of myocarditis was established in 9 (33.3%), pericarditis in 2 (7.4%) and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries in 3 (11.11%) patients. T2 mapping values showed a moderate positive linear correlation with Hs-cTnT (r = 0.58; p = 0.002). A high degree positive linear correlation between ECV and Hs-cTnT was also found (r 0.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CMR allows in vivo recognition and characterization of myocardial damage in a cohort of selected COVID-19 individuals by means of a multiparametric scanning protocol including conventional imaging and T1-T2 mapping sequences. Abnormal T2 mapping was the most commonly abnormality observed in our cohort and positively correlated with hs-cTnT values, reflecting the predominant edematous changes characterizing the active phase of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247849

ABSTRACT

Background: Accumulating evidence has revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be complicated with myocardial injury during hospitalization. However, data regarding persistent cardiac involvement in patients who recovered from COVID-19 are limited. Our goal is to further explore the sustained impact of COVID-19 during follow-up, focusing on the cardiac involvement in the recovered patients. Methods: In this prospective observational follow-up study, we enrolled a total of 40 COVID-19 patients (20 with and 20 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) who were discharged from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for more than 6 months, and 27 patients (13 with and 14 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) were finally included in the analysis. Clinical information including self-reported symptoms, medications, laboratory findings, Short Form 36-item scores, 6-min walk test, clinical events, electrocardiogram assessment, echocardiography measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was collected and analyzed. Results: Among 27 patients finally included, none of patients reported any obvious cardiopulmonary symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the quality of life and exercise capacity between the patients with and without cardiac injury. No significant abnormalities were detected in electrocardiogram manifestations in both groups, except for nonspecific ST-T changes, premature beats, sinus tachycardia/bradycardia, PR interval prolongation, and bundle-branch block. All patients showed normal cardiac structure and function, without any statistical differences between patients with and without cardiac injury by echocardiography. Compared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury exhibited a significantly higher positive proportion in late gadolinium enhancement sequences [7/13 (53.8%) vs. 1/14 (7.1%), p = 0.013], accompanied by the elevation of circulating ST2 level [median (interquartile range) = 16.6 (12.1, 22.5) vs. 12.5 (9.5, 16.7); p = 0.044]. Patients with cardiac injury presented higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without cardiac injury, although these indexes were within the normal range for all recovered patients at the 6-month follow-up. Among patients with cardiac injury, patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement presented higher cardiac biomarker (high-sensitivity troponin I) and inflammatory factor (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) on admission than the late gadolinium enhancement-negative subgroup. Conclusions: Our preliminary 6-month follow-up study with a limited number of patients revealed persistent cardiac involvement in 29.6% (8/27) of recovered patients from COVID-19 after discharge. Patients with cardiac injury during hospitalization were more prone to develop cardiac fibrosis during their recovery. Among patients with cardiac injury, those with relatively higher cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory factors on admission appeared more likely to have cardiac involvement in the convalescence phase.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(9): 1078-1087, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245319

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in competitive athletes. Myocardial inflammation is known to occur with SARS-CoV-2. Different screening approaches for detection of myocarditis have been reported. The Big Ten Conference requires comprehensive cardiac testing including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for all athletes with COVID-19, allowing comparison of screening approaches. Objective: To determine the prevalence of myocarditis in athletes with COVID-19 and compare screening strategies for safe return to play. Design, Setting, and Participants: Big Ten COVID-19 Cardiac Registry principal investigators were surveyed for aggregate observational data from March 1, 2020, through December 15, 2020, on athletes with COVID-19. For athletes with myocarditis, presence of cardiac symptoms and details of cardiac testing were recorded. Myocarditis was categorized as clinical or subclinical based on the presence of cardiac symptoms and CMR findings. Subclinical myocarditis classified as probable or possible myocarditis based on other testing abnormalities. Myocarditis prevalence across universities was determined. The utility of different screening strategies was evaluated. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction testing. Main Outcome and Measure: Myocarditis via cardiovascular diagnostic testing. Results: Representing 13 universities, cardiovascular testing was performed in 1597 athletes (964 men [60.4%]). Thirty-seven (including 27 men) were diagnosed with COVID-19 myocarditis (overall 2.3%; range per program, 0%-7.6%); 9 had clinical myocarditis and 28 had subclinical myocarditis. If cardiac testing was based on cardiac symptoms alone, only 5 athletes would have been detected (detected prevalence, 0.31%). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for all athletes yielded a 7.4-fold increase in detection of myocarditis (clinical and subclinical). Follow-up CMR imaging performed in 27 (73.0%) demonstrated resolution of T2 elevation in all (100%) and late gadolinium enhancement in 11 (40.7%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of 1597 US competitive athletes with CMR screening after COVID-19 infection, 37 athletes (2.3%) were diagnosed with clinical and subclinical myocarditis. Variability was observed in prevalence across universities, and testing protocols were closely tied to the detection of myocarditis. Variable ascertainment and unknown implications of CMR findings underscore the need for standardized timing and interpretation of cardiac testing. These unique CMR imaging data provide a more complete understanding of the prevalence of clinical and subclinical myocarditis in college athletes after COVID-19 infection. The role of CMR in routine screening for athletes safe return to play should be explored further.


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19/complications , Mass Screening/methods , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
8.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2021(2): omaa142, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238225

ABSTRACT

A 31-year- old male with no comorbidities presented with chest discomfort and shortness of breath following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary viral myocarditis was confirmed with the aid of cardiac biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Herein, we detail his clinical presentation, management and highlight the role of CMR in viral myocarditis.

9.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(5): ytab143, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with features resembling Kawasaki disease has been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CASE SUMMARY: We report the rare case of a 22 months old boy with a history of operated simple transposition of the great arteries (TGA), who developed features of MIS-C likely to be associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and involving the coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac catheterization showed long-distance ectasia of both coronary arteries after their origins and an origin stenosis of the right coronary artery with a perfusion defect. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulation together with antiplatelet therapy and remains under careful monitoring. DISCUSSION: This rare case demonstrates that also patients with TGA after the arterial switch operation (ASO) can develop coronary artery dilatation in association with MIS-C. The most interesting finding in this patient was that the origins of the reimplanted coronary arteries were not dilated. We speculate that scar tissue formation in the area of coronary artery transfer after ASO has prevented proximal coronary artery dilation.

10.
J Cardiol Cases ; 24(5): 203-205, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230593

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence of the potential for cardiac involvement in patients who have been infected with COVID-19. In this case study, we present a patient with no history of cardiovascular disease, who was hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequently recovered. Despite normal serum troponin levels and left ventricular structure and function, multi-parametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a classic myocarditis-like pattern of injury approximately 6 months after his convalescence. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of late myocardial injury/inflammation in patients with recovered COVID-19, even in the absence of elevated troponin levels and/or left ventricular dysfunction. .

11.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(7): 37, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226237

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the cause of significant global morbidity and mortality. Here, we review the literature to date of the short-term and long-term consequences of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the heart. RECENT FINDINGS: Early case reports described a spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19, including myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmia. However, in most cases, myocardial injury in COVID-19 appears to be predominantly mediated by the severity of critical illness rather than direct injury to myocardium from viral particles. While cardiac magnetic resonance imaging remains a powerful tool for diagnosing acute myocarditis, it should be used judiciously in light of low baseline prevalence of myocarditis. Guiding an athletic patient through return to play (RTP) after COVID-19 infection is a challenging process. More recent data show RTP has been a safe endeavor using a screening protocol. "Long COVID" or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection has also been described. The reported symptoms span a large breadth of cardiopulmonary and neurologic complaints including fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, breathlessness, brain fog, and dysautonomia including postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Management of POTS/dysautonomia primarily centers on education, exercise, and salt and fluid repletion. Our understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system is constantly evolving. As we enter a new age of survivorship, additional research is needed to catalogue the burden of persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms. Research is also needed to learn how acute management may alter the likelihood and prevalence of this chronic syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , Athletes , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin/blood
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223563

ABSTRACT

This report documents a rare case of COVID-19-associated constrictive pericarditis (CP) in the setting of a recent COVID-19 infection. A 55-year-old man with a history of hypertension and gout presented with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. His hospital course was complicated by a large pericardial effusion; an emergent bedside transthoracic echocardiography was concerning for cardiac tamponade, so pericardiocentesis was performed. A workup with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed changes consistent with a diagnosis of CP. Viral and idiopathic aetiologies are the most common cause of CP in the developed world, with COVID-19 now a proposed predisposing viral illness. The virus induces systemic inflammation and pericardial changes that can lead to CP physiology. Imaging modalities including echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance play an integral role in confirming the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Tamponade , Pericardial Effusion , Pericarditis, Constrictive , Pericarditis , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pericardial Effusion/surgery , Pericardiocentesis , Pericarditis, Constrictive/diagnostic imaging , Pericarditis, Constrictive/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 234, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 8-28% of patients infected with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac injury, and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. The cardiovascular mechanisms of injury are poorly understood and speculative. We aim to use multimodality cardiac imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to identify the cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: This is a single-centre exploratory observational study aiming to recruit 50 patients with COVID-19 infection who will undergo cardiac biomarker sampling. Of these, 30 patients will undergo combined CTCA and 18F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by CMR. Prevalence of obstructive and non-obstructive atherosclerotic coronary disease will be assessed using CTCA. CMR will be used to identify and characterise myocardial disease including presence of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial oedema and myocardial infarction. 18F-FDG-PET/CT will identify vascular and cardiac inflammation. Primary endpoint will be the presence of cardiovascular pathology and the association with troponin levels. DISCUSSION: The results of the study will identify the presence and modality of cardiac injury associated COVID-19 infection, and the utility of multi-modality imaging in diagnosing such injury. This will further inform clinical decision making during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry (ID ISRCTN12154994) on 14th August 2020. Accessible at https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12154994.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals
14.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14250, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218713

ABSTRACT

Acute myocarditis is commonly caused by viral infections resulting from viruses such as adenovirus, enteroviruses, and, rarely, coronavirus. It presents with nonspecific symptoms like chest pain, dyspnea, palpitation, or arrhythmias and can progress to dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. Fulminant myocarditis is a potentially life-threatening form of the condition and presents as acute, severe heart failure with cardiogenic shock. In this report, we discuss a case of a 41-year-old female who presented with cough and chest pain of two days' duration. The patient had a new-onset atrial flutter. Her chest auscultation revealed bilateral crackles. Laboratory workup revealed elevated troponin levels, and the patient tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a low left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction of 35-40% compared to 55% one year prior, as well as a granular appearance of LV myocardium. The patient's condition subsequently improved clinically and she was discharged home. Due to cardiac involvement and characteristic myocardial appearance on the echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed for further evaluation about two months from the date of admission. CMR showed extensive myocardial inflammation with a typical pattern of sub-epicardial and mid-wall delayed enhancement, confirming the diagnosis of myocarditis. This case highlights myocarditis as a potential complication of COVID-19 that requires early diagnosis and proper management to improve patients' quality of life. Additionally, we highlight the features of myocarditis on CMR in the acute phase and two months after clinical recovery.

15.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 26(5): 399-414, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216874

ABSTRACT

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, acute cardiac injury (ACI), as reflected by elevated cardiac troponin above the 99th percentile, has been observed in 8%-62% of patients with COVID-19 infection with highest incidence and mortality recorded in patients with severe infection. Apart from the clinically and electrocardiographically discernible causes of ACI, such as acute myocardial infarction (MI), other cardiac causes need to be considered such as myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome, and direct injury from COVID-19, together with noncardiac conditions, such as pulmonary embolism, critical illness, and sepsis. Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with normal or near-normal coronary arteries (ACS-NNOCA) appear to have a higher prevalence in both COVID-19 positive and negative patients in the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic era. Echocardiography, coronary angiography, chest computed tomography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may render a correct diagnosis, obviating the need for endomyocardial biopsy. Importantly, a significant delay has been recorded in patients with ACS seeking advice for their symptoms, while their routine care has been sharply disrupted with fewer urgent coronary angiographies and/or primary percutaneous coronary interventions performed in the case of ST-elevation MI (STEMI) with an inappropriate shift toward thrombolysis, all contributing to a higher complication rate in these patients. Thus, new challenges have emerged in rendering a diagnosis and delivering treatment in patients with ACI/ACS in the pandemic era. These issues, the various mechanisms involved in the development of ACI/ACS, and relevant current guidelines are herein reviewed.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment , Troponin I/blood
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215430

ABSTRACT

Myocardial inflammation is an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and sudden cardiac death in athletes. The relationship between sports practice and myocardial inflammation is complex, and recent data from studies concerning cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy have substantially added to our understanding of the challenges encountered in the comprehensive care of athletes with myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM). In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of myocarditis, ICM, and myopericarditis/perimyocarditis in athletes, with a special emphasis on arrhythmias, patient-tailored therapies, and sports eligibility issues.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Sports , Athletes , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Humans , Inflammation , Myocarditis/diagnosis
17.
Radiology ; 299(2): E230-E240, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203991

ABSTRACT

Background It is unknown if there are cardiac abnormalities in persons who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without cardiac symptoms or in those who have normal biomarkers and normal electrocardiograms. Purpose To evaluate cardiac involvement in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 without clinical evidence of cardiac involvement by using cardiac MRI. Materials and Methods This prospective observational cohort study included 40 participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate (n = 24) or severe (n = 16) pneumonia and who had no cardiovascular medical history, were without cardiac symptoms, had normal electrocardiograms, had normal serologic cardiac enzyme levels, and had been discharged for more than 90 days between May and September 2020. Demographic characteristics were recorded, serum cardiac enzyme levels were measured, and cardiac MRI was performed. Cardiac function, native T1, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and two-dimensional (2D) strain were quantitatively evaluated and compared with values in control subjects (n = 25). Comparisons among the three groups were performed by using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons (for normal distribution) or Kruskal-Wallis tests with post hoc pairwise comparisons (for nonnormal distribution). Results Forty participants (mean age, 54 years ± 12 [standard deviation]; 24 men) were enrolled; participants had a mean time between admission and cardiac MRI of 158 days ± 18 and between discharge and cardiac MRI examination of 124 days ± 17. There were no left or right ventricular size or functional differences between participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and healthy control subjects. Only one (3%) participant had positive late gadolinium enhancement located at the mid inferior wall. Global ECV values were elevated in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate or severe pneumonia compared with those in healthy control subjects (median ECV, 29.7% vs 31.4% vs 25.0%, respectively; interquartile range, 28.0%-32.9% vs 29.3%-34.0% vs 23.7%-26.0%, respectively; P < .001 for both). The 2D global left ventricular longitudinal strain was reduced in both groups of participants (moderate COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.5% to -10.7%]; severe COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.4% to -8.7%]) compared with the healthy control group (-15.4% [interquartile range, -17.6% to -14.6%]) (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusion Cardiac MRI myocardial tissue and strain imaging parameters suggest that a proportion of participants who had recovered from COVID-19 had subclinical myocardial abnormalities detectable months after recovery. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 636637, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186835

ABSTRACT

Objective: Obesity is a risk factor for SARS-COV2 infection and is often associated with hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine if pre-existing hepatic steatosis affects the risk of infection and severity for COVID-19. Design: Prospective cohort study (UK Biobank). Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on liver phenotypic biomarkers to determine if these variables increased risk of testing positive and being hospitalized for COVID-19; then compared to previously described risk factors associated with COVID-19, including age, ethnicity, gender, obesity, socio-economic status. Setting: UK biobank study. Participants: 502,506 participants (healthy at baseline) in the UK Biobank, of whom 41,791 underwent MRI (aged 50-83) for assessment of liver fat, liver fibro-inflammatory disease, and liver iron. Positive COVID-19 test was determined from UK testing data, starting in March 2020 and censored in January 2021. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: Liver fat measured as proton density fat fraction (PDFF%) MRI and body mass index (BMI, Kg/m2) to assess prior to February 2020 using MRI of the liver to assess hepatic steatosis. Results: Within the imaged cohort (n = 41, 791), 4,458 had been tested and 1,043 (2.49% of the imaged population) tested positive for COVID-19. Individuals with fatty liver (≥10%) were at increased risk of testing positive (OR: 1.35, p = 0.007) and those participants with obesity and fatty liver, were at increased risk of hospitalization with a positive test result by 5.14 times (p = 0.0006). Conclusions: UK Biobank data revealed obese individuals with fatty liver disease were at increased risk of infection and hospitalization for COVID-19. Public policy measures and personalized medicine should be considered in order to protect these high-risk individuals.

19.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178321

ABSTRACT

Globally, at the time of writing (20 March 2021), 121.759.109 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported to the WHO, including 2.690.731 deaths. Globally, on 18 March 2021, a total of 364.184.603 vaccine doses have been administered. In Italy, 3.306.711 confirmed COVID-19 cases with 103.855 deaths have been reported to WHO. In Italy, on 9 March 2021, a total of 6.634.450 vaccine doses have been administered. On 15 March 2021, Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) decided to temporarily suspend the use of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine throughout the country as a precaution, pending the rulings of the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This decision was taken in line with similar measures adopted by other European countries due to the death of vaccinated people. On 18 March 2021, EMA's safety committee concluded its preliminary review about thromboembolic events in people vaccinated with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca at its extraordinary meeting, confirming the benefits of the vaccine continue to outweigh the risk of side effects, however, the vaccine may be associated with very rare cases of blood clots associated with thrombocytopenia, i.e., low levels of blood platelets with or without bleeding, including rare cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with multi-district thrombosis 12 days after the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine administration. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple subacute intra-axial hemorrhages in atypical locations, including the right frontal and the temporal lobes. A plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) of the right coronary artery was performed, without stent implantation, with restoration of distal flow, but with persistence of extensive thrombosis of the vessel. A successive thorax angio-CT added the findings of multiple contrast filling defects with multi-vessel involvement: at the level of the left upper lobe segmental branches, of left interlobar artery, of the right middle lobe segmental branches and of the right interlobar artery. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the same day showed the presence of an acute basilar thrombosis associated with the superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. An abdomen angio-CT showed filling defects at the level of left portal branch and at the level of right suprahepatic vein. Bilaterally, it was adrenal hemorrhage and blood in the pelvis. An evaluation of coagulation factors did not show genetic alterations so as the nasopharyngeal swab ruled out a COVID-19 infection. The patient died after 5 days of hospitalization in intensive care.

20.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(4): 35, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the application of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with heart failure (HF). RECENT FINDINGS: CMR is an important non-invasive imaging modality in the assessment of ventricular volumes and function and in the analysis of myocardial tissue characteristics. The information derived from CMR provides a comprehensive evaluation of HF. Its unique ability of tissue characterization not only helps to reveal the underlying etiologies of HF but also offers incremental prognostic information. CMR is a useful non-invasive tool for the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in patients suffering from heart failure.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Contrast Media , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis
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