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1.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153220

ABSTRACT

ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Yet, little is known about the clinical and biologic correlates of circulating ACE2 levels in humans. We assessed the clinical and proteomic correlates of plasma (soluble) ACE2 protein levels in human heart failure. We measured plasma ACE2 using a modified aptamer assay among PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=2248). We performed an association study of ACE2 against ≈5000 other plasma proteins measured with the SomaScan platform. Plasma ACE2 was not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, worse New York Heart Association class, a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, and higher pro-BNP (pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. Plasma ACE2 exhibited associations with 1011 other plasma proteins. In pathway overrepresentation analyses, top canonical pathways associated with plasma ACE2 included clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mechanisms of viral exit from host cells, EIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) signaling, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. In conclusion, in humans with heart failure, plasma ACE2 is associated with various clinical factors known to be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including older age, male sex, and diabetes mellitus, but is not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 protein levels are prominently associated with multiple cellular pathways involved in cellular endocytosis, exocytosis, and intracellular protein trafficking. Whether these have a causal relationship with ACE2 or are relevant to novel coronavirus-2 infection remains to be assessed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/enzymology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Proteomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , United States
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(4): 268-277, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused more than 210 000 deaths worldwide. However, little is known about the causes of death and the virus's pathologic features. OBJECTIVE: To validate and compare clinical findings with data from medical autopsy, virtual autopsy, and virologic tests. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Autopsies performed at a single academic medical center, as mandated by the German federal state of Hamburg for patients dying with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. PATIENTS: The first 12 consecutive COVID-19-positive deaths. MEASUREMENTS: Complete autopsy, including postmortem computed tomography and histopathologic and virologic analysis, was performed. Clinical data and medical course were evaluated. RESULTS: Median patient age was 73 years (range, 52 to 87 years), 75% of patients were male, and death occurred in the hospital (n = 10) or outpatient sector (n = 2). Coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common comorbid conditions (50% and 25%, respectively). Autopsy revealed deep venous thrombosis in 7 of 12 patients (58%) in whom venous thromboembolism was not suspected before death; pulmonary embolism was the direct cause of death in 4 patients. Postmortem computed tomography revealed reticular infiltration of the lungs with severe bilateral, dense consolidation, whereas histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage was seen in 8 patients. In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart. LIMITATION: Limited sample size. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of thromboembolic events suggests an important role of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism and overall clinical incidence of COVID-19-related death, as well as possible therapeutic interventions to reduce it. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 62(6): 851-858, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) impairs metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary functions in human metabolism, and wearing face masks is recommended for the prevention of contracting or exposing others to cardio-respiratory infections. Since the effect of wearing a surgical face mask (SFM) on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity has not been systematically reported we aimed to determine the effects of wearing SFM during an incremental walking test on metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary gas exchange responses in sedentary individuals. METHODS: The evaluations were performed using a repeated measures study design. Seven sedentary males (age: 40 years, height: 178 cm, weight: 88 kg, BMI: 28 kg/m2, VO2max: 32.7±3.9 mL/kg/min) and 7 sedentary female participants (age: 34 years, height: 169 cm, weight: 62 kg, BMI: 22 kg/m2, VO2max: 32.1±6.8 mL/kg/min) volunteered to participate in the current study. Anthropometric parameters were measured using a Bioelectrical impedance analysis prior to each testing session. The measures of lung function assessed by spirometry, breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity with-and-without mask were measured with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during incremental Bruce protocol on a treadmill with two consecutive sessions with 48-h intervals. Blood pressure values (systolic and diastolic pressure) of the individuals were taken and recorded within 1 minute at the end of every ten minutes, without speed changes. RESULTS: VO2, VCO2, and VE were significantly lower during exercise performed with SFM (P<0.001). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also found significantly higher during exercise performed with SFM (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Wearing a SFM during incremental walking predispose a decrease in oxygen delivery while increasing pulmonary ventilation in sedentary individuals. Thus, it could be speculated that surgical face masks have a negative impact on oxygen delivery during exercise which results in decreased exercise performance due to the restricted ventilatory conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Adult , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption/physiology
5.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 187-198, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956585

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospitalizations for COVID-19 dramatically increase with age. This is likely because of increases in fragility across biological repair systems and a weakened immune system, including loss of the cardiorenal protective arm of the renin--angiotensin system (RAS), composed of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1--7) [Ang-(1--7)] and its actions through the Mas receptor. The purpose of this review is to explore how cardiac ACE2 changes with age, cardiac diseases, comorbid conditions and pharmaceutical regimens in order to shed light on a potential hormonal unbalance facilitating SARs-CoV-2 vulnerabilities in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased ACE2 gene expression has been reported in human hearts with myocardial infarction, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. We also found ACE2 mRNA in atrial appendage tissue from cardiac surgical patients to be positively associated with age, elevated by certain comorbid conditions (e.g. COPD and previous stroke) and increased in conjunction with patients' chronic use of antithrombotic agents and thiazide diuretics but not drugs that block the renin--angiotensin system. SUMMARY: Cardiac ACE2 may have bifunctional roles in COVID-19 as ACE2 not only mediates cellular susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection but also protects the heart via the ACE2/Ang-(1--7) pathway. Linking tissue ACE2 from cardiac surgery patients to their comorbid conditions and medical regimens provides a unique latform to address the influence that altered expression of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis might have on SARs-CoV-2 vulnerability in older adults.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Aged , Aging , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensins , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1380-1385, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898692

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is minimal evidence describing outcomes for emergency department (ED) patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who are not hospitalized. The study objective was to assess 30-day outcomes (ED revisit, admission, ICU admission, and death) for low-risk patients discharged after ED evaluation for COVID-19. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients triaged to a COVID-19 surge area within an urban ED and discharged between March 12 and April 6. Physicians were encouraged to discharge patients if they were well-appearing with few comorbidities. Data were collected from review of medical records and phone follow-up, and the analysis was descriptive. Results: Of 452 patients, the median age was 38, and 61.7% had no comorbidities. Chest radiographs were performed for 50.4% of patients and showed infiltrates in 14% of those tested. Polymerase chain reaction testing was performed for 28.3% of patients during the index ED visit and was positive in 35.9% of those tested. Follow-up was achieved for 75.4% of patients. ED revisits occurred for 13.7% of patients. The inpatient admission rate at 30 days was 4.6%, with 0.7% requiring intensive care. Median number of days between index ED evaluation and return for admission was 5 (interquartile range 3-7, range 1-17). There were no known deaths. Conclusions: A minority of low-risk patients with suspected COVID-19 will require hospitalization after being discharged home from the ED. Outpatient management is likely safe for well-appearing patients with normal vital signs, but patients should be instructed to return for worsening symptoms including labored breathing. Future work is warranted to develop and validate ED disposition guidelines.

7.
Transplantation ; 106(3): 641-647, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HT) recipients may be at higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing critical illness. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of HT recipients infected by SARS-COV-2, from a high-volume transplant center. METHODS: We have described data of all adult HT recipients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 by RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal samples from April 5, 2020, to January 5, 2021. Outcomes and follow-up were recorded until February 5, 2021. RESULTS: Forty patients were included. Twenty-four patients (60%) were men; the median age was 53 (40-60) y old; median HT time was 34 mo; and median follow-up time 162 d. The majority needed hospitalization (83%). Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced/withdrawn in the majority of patients, except from steroids, which were maintained. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were classified as having severe disease according to the ordinal scale developed by the World Health Organization Committee. They tended to have lower absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.001) during follow-up when compared with patients with mild disease. Thirty-day mortality was 12.5%. However, a longer follow-up revealed increased later mortality (27.5%), with median time to death around 35 d. Bacterial nosocomial infections were a leading cause of death. Cardiac allograft rejection (10%) and ventricular dysfunction (12.5%) were also not negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Major findings of this study corroborate other cohorts' results, but it also reports significant rate of later events, suggesting that a strict midterm surveillance is advisable to HT recipients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(1): 269-281, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591653

ABSTRACT

The immune system plays a crucial role in the response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with significant differences among patients. The study investigated the relationships between lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and disease outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The measurements of peripheral blood lymphocytes subsets and cytokine levels were performed by flow cytometry for 57 COVID-19 patients. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the severity of the disease (nonsevere vs. severe). Total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients and statistical differences were found among different severity of illness and survival states (P ˂ 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in severe and death groups and negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets counts. The percentages of Th17 in the peripheral blood of patients were higher than those of healthy controls whereas the percentages of Th2 were lower. For the severe cases, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of IL-6 was the largest among all the immune parameters (0.964; 95% confidence interval: 0.927-1.000, P < 0.0001). In addition, the preoperative IL-6 concentration of 77.38 pg/ml was the optimal cutoff value (sensitivity: 84.6%, specificity: 100%). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC curves, IL-6 > 106.44 pg/ml and CD8+ T cell counts <150 cells/µl were found to be associated with mortality. Measuring the immune parameters and defining a risk threshold can segregate patients who develop a severe disease from those with a mild pathology. The identification of these parameters may help clinicians to predict the outcome of the patients with high risk of unfavorable progress of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Africa, Northern , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
9.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580244

ABSTRACT

The coronary angiographic (CAG) findings of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from increased coronary artery thrombus burden to normal coronaries due to STEMI mimics. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old gentleman who presented with evolved inferior wall myocardial infarction with ongoing angina along with mild COVID-19. CAG showed normal epicardial coronaries except for distal right posterior descending coronary artery (RPDA) 100% occlusion on careful examination. He was treated for the myocardial infarction with medical management along with treatment of COVID-19. The importance of our case is to highlight the possibility of distal total occlusion of small coronary branches which may be missed if not carefully looked for as a normal CAG in COVID-19 patient will require only supportive therapy, while the finding of distal 100% occlusion of RPDA deemed us to prescribe optimal medical therapy as per acute myocardial infarction protocol along with treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
10.
Stem Cell Investig ; 7: 11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579497

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented with debilitating respiratory consequences especially more pronounced in high risk individuals. Individuals with underlying systemic diseases are more prone and vulnerable to suffer severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. The pathophysiological changes identified cytokine storm mechanism for out setting the series of adverse clinical conditions. Thereby, associating it with high mortality rates. This warrants urgent consideration of divergent modalities such as the cellular therapy. Cellular therapy (CT) is a new medical paradigm wherein cellular material is administered to patients for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have yielded the most promising results among stromal vascular fraction (SVF); placental cells; natural killer (NK) cell and platelet lysate respectively. Following the administration of the CT as per preferred route, these play pivotal role in modifying the microenvironment of the lung tissue with their distinct sets of mechanism. Evidences have shown how their immunomodulatory action repairs and prevents lung injury which in turn improvise the compliance of lungs. In this review article we have discussed these emerging novel approaches and their target step serving as a ray of hope to combat severe form of COVID-19. Currently these aren't approved for preventing or treating COVID-19 cases, however clinical trials are afoot to dispense the utmost understanding in terms of efficacy and safety concerns.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Heterogeneity has been observed in outcomes of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Identification of clinical phenotypes may facilitate tailored therapy and improve outcomes. The purpose of this study is to identify specific clinical phenotypes across COVID-19 patients and compare admission characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients from March 7, 2020 to August 25, 2020 at 14 U.S. hospitals. Ensemble clustering was performed on 33 variables collected within 72 hours of admission. Principal component analysis was performed to visualize variable contributions to clustering. Multinomial regression models were fit to compare patient comorbidities across phenotypes. Multivariable models were fit to estimate associations between phenotype and in-hospital complications and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The database included 1,022 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Three clinical phenotypes were identified (I, II, III), with 236 [23.1%] patients in phenotype I, 613 [60%] patients in phenotype II, and 173 [16.9%] patients in phenotype III. Patients with respiratory comorbidities were most commonly phenotype III (p = 0.002), while patients with hematologic, renal, and cardiac (all p<0.001) comorbidities were most commonly phenotype I. Adjusted odds of respiratory, renal, hepatic, metabolic (all p<0.001), and hematological (p = 0.02) complications were highest for phenotype I. Phenotypes I and II were associated with 7.30-fold (HR:7.30, 95% CI:(3.11-17.17), p<0.001) and 2.57-fold (HR:2.57, 95% CI:(1.10-6.00), p = 0.03) increases in hazard of death relative to phenotype III. CONCLUSION: We identified three clinical COVID-19 phenotypes, reflecting patient populations with different comorbidities, complications, and clinical outcomes. Future research is needed to determine the utility of these phenotypes in clinical practice and trial design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Phenotype , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 998-1008, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify the potential for and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: Symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis in whom PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at delivery using maternal serum and at least one of the biological samples: cord blood (CB), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS) of the neonate. The association of parameters with maternal, AF and/or CB positivity and the influence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in AF and/or CB on neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Overall 73.4% (80/109) were admitted in hospital due to COVID-19, 22.9% needed intensive care and there were four maternal deaths. Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 14.7% of maternal blood, 13.9% of AF, 6.7% of CB, 2.1% of colostrum and 3.7% of OPS samples. The interval between COVID-19 symptoms and delivery was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the maternal blood (p = 0.002) and in the AF and/or CB (p = 0.049). Maternal viremia was associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in AF and/or CB (p = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the compartments was not associated with neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission is possible in pregnant women with COVID-19 and a shorter interval between maternal symptoms and delivery is an influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Colostrum/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 614024, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542362

ABSTRACT

Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a major contributor to the poor outcomes of septic shock. As an add-on with conventional sepsis management for over 15 years, the effect of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) on the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction was not well understood. The material basis of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) in managing infections and infection-related complications remains to be defined. A murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model and cardiomyocytes in vitro culture were adopted to study the influence of XBJ on infection-induced cardiac dysfunction. XBJ significantly improved the survival of septic-mice and rescued cardiac dysfunction in vivo. RNA-seq revealed XBJ attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and related signalings in the heart which was further confirmed on the mRNA and protein levels. Xuebijing also protected cardiomyocytes from LPS-induced mitochondrial calcium ion overload and reduced the LPS-induced ROS production in cardiomyocytes. The therapeutic effect of XBJ was mediated by the combination of paeoniflorin and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) (C0127-2). C0127-2 improved the survival of septic mice, protected their cardiac function and cardiomyocytes while balancing gene expression in cytokine-storm-related signalings, such as TNF-α and NF-κB. In summary, Paeoniflorin and HSYA are key active compounds in XBJ for managing sepsis, protecting cardiac function, and controlling inflammation in the cardiac tissue partially by limiting the production of IL-6, IL-1ß, and CXCL2.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 263-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536207

ABSTRACT

We herein seek to expound on up-to-the-minute information regarding cardiovascular disease in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by highlighting acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and probing into its pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and treatment modalities. We aim to share the latest research findings vis-à-vis cardiovascular disease patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 on the association between hypertension and this infectious disease along with the relevant recommendations; describe the mechanism of coronary artery disease in such patients together with the necessary measures in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and chronic coronary syndrome; discuss tachy- and bradyarrhythmias in the COVID-19 setting alongside their treatments; elucidate coagulopathies, venous thromboembolism, and its prophylactic measures in the context of this infection; set out the cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol as well as the pertinent safety concerns during the current pandemic; and, finally, explicate drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 and cardiovascular medication in hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, and arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The in-hospital management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) changed early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Routine in-hospital controls of CIEDs were converted into remote home monitoring (HM). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of the lockdown period on CIEDs patients and its influence on in-hospital admissions through the analysis of HM data. METHODS: We analysed data recorded from 312 patients with HM during the national quarantine related to COVID-19 and then compared data from the same period of 2019. RESULTS: We observed a reduction in the number of HM events in 2020 when compared to 2019. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia episodes decreased (18.3% vs. 9.9% p = 0.002) as well as atrial fibrillation episodes (29.2% vs. 22.4% p = 0.019). In contrast, heart failure (HF) alarm activation was lower in 2019 than in 2020 (17% vs. 25.3% p = 0.012). Hospital admissions for critical events recorded with CIEDs dropped in 2020, including those for HF. CONCLUSIONS: HM, combined with telemedicine use, has ensured the surveillance of CIED patients. In 2020, arrhythmic events and hospital admissions decreased significantly compared to 2019. Moreover, in 2020, patients with HF arrived in hospital in a worse clinical condition compared to previous months.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526819

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently considered an inflammatory disease affecting the entire organism. In severe forms, an augmented inflammatory response leads to the fulminant "cytokine storm", which may result in severe multisystemic end-organ damage. Apart from the acute inflammatory response, it seems that chronic inflammation also plays a major role in the clinical evolution of COVID-19 patients. Pre-existing inflammatory conditions, such as those associated with chronic coronary diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus or obesity, may be associated with worse clinical outcomes in the context of COVID-19 disease. These comorbidities are reported as powerful predictors of poor outcomes and death following COVID-19 disease. Moreover, in the context of chronic coronary syndrome, the cytokine storm triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection may favor vulnerabilization and rupture of a silent atheromatous plaque, with consequent acute coronary syndrome, leading to a sudden deterioration of the clinical condition of the patient. This review aims to present the current status of knowledge regarding the link between COVID-19 mortality, systemic inflammation and several major diseases associated with poor outcomes, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity.

18.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): W70-W88, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526237

ABSTRACT

Infections of the cardiovascular system may present with nonspecific symptoms, and it is common for patients to undergo multiple investigations to arrive at the diagnosis. Echocardiography is central to the diagnosis of endocarditis and pericarditis. However, cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging also play an additive role in these diagnoses; in fact, magnetic resonance imaging is central to the diagnosis of myocarditis. Functional imaging (fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT and radiolabeled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/CT) is useful in the diagnosis in prosthesis-related and disseminated infection. This pictorial review will detail the most commonly encountered cardiovascular bacterial and viral infections, including coronavirus disease-2019, in clinical practice and provide an evidence basis for the selection of each imaging modality in the investigation of native tissues and common prostheses.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacterial Infections/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Software Design , Virus Diseases/diagnostic imaging
19.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
20.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(5): 230-237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511053

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is a broad term encompassing any disease leading to myocardial inflammation with associated cardiac dysfunction. While endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis, noninvasive imaging techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, have become powerful tools to facilitate the identification of underlying myocardial inflammation. This review presents a series of clinical cases with some common etiologies of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, including diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy
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