Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
2.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(8): 1768-1772, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252329

ABSTRACT

Bullae autoimmune diseases can be induced by environmental factors in a genetically susceptible individual, and viruses may be important triggers for this process. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystemic disease known for developing many types of skin lesions. However, little is known about post-COVID-19 manifestations. A previous healthy male patient, 43 years old, with resistant mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma stage II diagnosed in 2019, without treatment at the moment, developed monomorphic flaccid bullae on the trunk 40 days after testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although he had risk factors for IgA and paraneoplastic pemphigus, there were no elements for these diseases. The investigation confirmed a pemphigus vulgaris (PV). PV had a good response to treatment with prednisolone 1 mg/kg per day, and methotrexate 15 mg subcutaneously was added per week. The patient was discharged with oral methotrexate and prednisolone at the same dose. Prednisolone was decreased by 20 mg per day during the follow-up. Viruses such as herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, and varicela zoster can act as triggers for PV. This process is not immediate after the infection because it depends on the change in antibodies initially produced against the virus that start to identify antigens present in the skin's anchoring structures. SARS-CoV-2 can induce autoimmunity, as seen in Guillán-Barré syndrome and in Kawasaki disease. It is a highly immunogenic virus that is the perfect agent for triggering PV. This case can be considered a cutaneous autoimmune post-COVID-19 manifestation.

3.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) ; 11(4): 1119-1126, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230303

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with substantial morbidity. It is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) following decline in cell-mediated immunity, which is commonly age-related, but also occurs in individuals with immunosuppressive diseases and/or treatment. Since coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has been associated with T cell immune dysfunction and there have been reports of HZ in COVID-19 patients, we have performed a review of available literature on whether COVID-19 could trigger HZ. We identified 27 cases of HZ following COVID-19, which most frequently occurred within 1-2 weeks of COVID-19, and the majority of cases had typical presentation. Atypical presentations of HZ were noted especially in patients with lymphopenia. It has been hypothesized that VZV reactivation occurs as a consequence of T cell dysfunction (including lymphopenia and lymphocyte exhaustion) in COVID-19 patients. Based on current evidence, which is limited to case reports and case series, it is not possible to determine whether COVID-19 increases the risk of HZ. Practitioners should be aware of the possible increased risk of HZ during the pandemic period and consider timely therapeutic and preventive measures against it.

4.
Cutis ; 106(6): 318-320, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225960

ABSTRACT

Varicella-zoster virus infection causes 2 distinct forms of disease: varicella (commonly known as chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ)(commonly known as shingles). Primary varicella-zoster virus infection results in the diffuse vesicular rash that is characteristic of chickenpox. Following primary infection, varicella-zoster virus remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglia. This latent phase usually lasts for several decades before reactivation occurs. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation normally presents as HZ in middle-aged adults. A number of cutaneous skin manifestations have appeared in relation to the newly diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and continue to emerge every day. We report a case of HZ complication in a COVID-19-positive woman who was 27 weeks pregnant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Activation , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Herpes Zoster/virology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Pregnancy
5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI90-SI95, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As global vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 disease commence, vaccine safety needs to be closely assessed. The safety profile of mRNA-based vaccines in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) is unknown. The objective of this report is to raise awareness of reactivation of herpes zoster (HZ) following the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in patients with AIIRD. METHODS: The safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination was assessed in an observational study monitoring post-vaccination adverse effects in patients with AIIRD (n = 491) and controls (n = 99), conducted in two rheumatology departments in Israel. RESULTS: The prevalence of HZ was 1.2% (n = 6) in patients with AIIRD compared with none in controls. Six female patients aged 49 ± 11 years with stable AIIRD: RA (n = 4), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 1), and undifferentiated connective disease (n = 1), developed the first in a lifetime event of HZ within a short time after the first vaccine dose in five cases and after the second vaccine dose in one case. In the majority of cases, HZ infection was mild, except a case of HZ ophthalmicus, without corneal involvement, in an RA patient treated with tofacitinib. There were no cases of disseminated HZ disease or postherpetic neuralgia. All but one patient received antiviral treatment with a resolution of HZ-related symptoms up to 6 weeks. Five patients completed the second vaccine dose without other adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Epidemiologic studies on the safety of the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines in patients with AIIRD are needed to clarify the association between the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination and reactivation of zoster.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/chemically induced , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Virus Activation/drug effects , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Herpes Zoster/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(9): 713-718, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infects and establishes latency in neurons in the ganglia of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and enteric ganglia. VZV reactivation in enteric neurons (enteric zoster) can cause non-specific abdominal pain and/or serious gastrointestinal dysfunction without cutaneous manifestations. Detection of VZV DNA in saliva may be useful for identifying enteric zoster. We evaluated the frequency of putative enteric zoster based on the presence of salivary VZV DNA in patients with acute abdominal pain. METHODS: Adult patients who visited the emergency room due to moderate to severe acute abdominal pain were prospectively enrolled at a tertiary hospital between May 2019 and November 2019. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) was performed in all patients. We also evaluated the presence of salivary VZV DNA in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) who were under stressful conditions. Saliva samples were collected from all studied patients. Enteric zoster was suspected based on the presence of salivary VZV DNA, detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Fifty patients with moderate to severe abdominal pain were enrolled. Five of 50 patients exhibited positive VZV-DNA PCR results. APCT revealed that among these five patients, two had pancreatic head cancer, two had small bowel obstruction after intra-abdominal surgery, and one had no remarkable findings. However, all 14 patients with COVID-19 showed negative salivary VZV-DNA PCR results. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 10% of patients with moderate to severe acute abdominal pain showed positivity for salivary VZV DNA. Further studies are warranted on whether antiviral therapy based on salivary VZV-DNA PCR results may relieve abdominal pain in the studied patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrial.gov, number NCT03862092.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Abdominal Pain , Adult , DNA, Viral/genetics , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895332

ABSTRACT

Ruxolitinib (RUX), a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, is approved for second-line therapy in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) who are resistant or intolerant to hydroxyurea. Due to the immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effect of RUX, there is an increased susceptibility to infections. However, an increased risk of infection is inherent to even untreated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). To obtain more information on the clinical significance of RUX-associated infections in PV, we reviewed the available literature. There is no evidence-based approach to managing infection risks. Most data on RUX-associated infections are available for MF. In all studies, the infection rates in the RUX and control groups were fairly similar, with the exception of infections with the varicella zoster virus (VZV). However, individual cases of bilateral toxoplasmosis retinitis, disseminated molluscum contagiosum, or a mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or a hepatitis B reactivation are reported. A careful assessment of the risk of infection for PV patients is required at the initial presentation and before the start of RUX. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in all patients. The risk of RUX-associated infections is lower with PV than with MF, but compared to a normal population there is an increased risk of VZV infection. However, primary VZV prophylaxis for PV patients is not recommended, while secondary prophylaxis can be considered individually. As early treatment is most effective for VZV, patients should be properly informed and trained to seek medical advice immediately if cutaneous signs of VZV develop. Vaccination against influenza, herpes zoster, and pneumococci should be considered in all PV patients at risk of infection, especially if RUX treatment is planned. Current recommendations do not support adjusting or discontinuing JAK inhibition in MPN patients to reduce the risk of COVID-19.

9.
Vaccine ; 38(26): 4170-4182, 2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830155

ABSTRACT

The global population of adults over 65 years of age is growing rapidly and is expected to double by 2050. Countries will face substantial health, economic and social burden deriving from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as influenza, pneumonia and herpes zoster in older adults. It will be essential that countries utilize several public health strategies, including immunization. Understanding the different approaches countries have taken on adult immunization could help provide future learnings and technical support for adult vaccines within life-course immunization strategies. In this study, we describe the priorities and approaches that underlie adult immunization decision-making and implementation processes in 32 high-and-middle-income countries and two territories ("34 countries") who recommend adult vaccines in their national schedule. We conducted an archetype analysis based on a subset of two dozen indicators abstracted from a larger database. The analysis was based on a mixed-methods study, including results from 120 key informant interviews in six countries and a landscape review of secondary data from 34 countries. We found four distinct archetypes: disease prevention-focused; health security-focused; evolving adult focus; and, child-focused and cost-sensitive. The highest performing countries belonged to the disease prevention-focused and health security archetypes, although there was a range of performance within each archetype. Considering common barriers and facilitators of decision-making and implementation of adult vaccines within a primary archetype could help provide a framework for strategies to support countries with similar needs and approaches. It can also help in developing context-specific policies and guidance, including for countries prioritizing adult immunization programs in light of COVID-19. Further research may be beneficial to further refine archetypes and expand the understanding of what influences success within them. This can help advance policies and action that will improve vaccine access for older adults and build a stronger appreciation of the value of immunization amongst a variety of stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Decision Support Techniques , Immunization Schedule , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Economics , Humans , Politics
10.
Cureus ; 12(7): e8998, 2020 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646905

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a broad spectrum of manifestations. A variety of dermatological manifestations were described. We present a case of an immunocompetent middle-aged man who presented with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and later developed herpes zoster (HZ). The case highlights the possibility of COVID-19-related HZ. The highest infection control measures must be abided when managing patients with cutaneous complaints until COVID-19 is ruled out.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL