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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 169: 105689, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525917

ABSTRACT

Genome wide association, epidemiological, and clinical studies have established high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Lp(a) is an apoB100 containing lipoprotein covalently bound to apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a glycoprotein. Plasma Lp(a) levels are to a large extent determined by genetics. Its link to cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be driven by its pro-inflammatory effects, of which its association with oxidized phospholipids (oxPL) bound to Lp(a) is the most studied. Various inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and chronic renal failure are associated with high Lp(a) levels. In cases of RA, high Lp(a) levels are reversed by interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blockade by tocilizumab, suggesting a potential role for IL-6 in regulating Lp(a) plasma levels. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-6R polymorphisms are associated with CVD. Therapies aimed at lowering apo(a) and thereby reducing plasma Lp(a) levels are in clinical trials. Their results will determine if reductions in apo(a) and Lp(a) decrease cardiovascular outcomes. As we enter this new arena of available treatments, there is a need to improve our understanding of mechanisms. This review will focus on the role of Lp(a) in inflammation and CVD.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Lipoprotein(a)/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/physiology
3.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(4): e1271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence of dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment urges investigations on neutrophil characteristics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated neutrophils from the blood of COVID-19 patients receiving general ward care and from patients hospitalised at intensive care units (ICUs) to explore the kinetics of circulating neutrophils and factors important for neutrophil migration and activation. METHODS: Multicolour flow cytometry was exploited for the analysis of neutrophil differentiation and activation markers. Multiplex and ELISA technologies were used for the quantification of protease, protease inhibitor, chemokine and cytokine concentrations in plasma. Neutrophil polarisation responses were evaluated microscopically. Gelatinolytic and metalloproteinase activity in plasma was determined using a fluorogenic substrate. Co-culturing healthy donor neutrophils with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) allowed us to investigate viral replication in neutrophils. RESULTS: Upon ICU admission, patients displayed high plasma concentrations of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the chemokine CXCL8, accompanied by emergency myelopoiesis as illustrated by high levels of circulating CD10-, immature neutrophils with reduced CXCR2 and C5aR expression. Neutrophil elastase and non-metalloproteinase-derived gelatinolytic activity were increased in plasma from ICU patients. Significantly higher levels of circulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in patients at ICU admission yielded decreased total MMP proteolytic activity in blood. COVID-19 neutrophils were hyper-responsive to CXCL8 and CXCL12 in shape change assays. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 failed to replicate inside human neutrophils. CONCLUSION: Our study provides detailed insights into the kinetics of neutrophil phenotype and function in severe COVID-19 patients, and supports the concept of an increased neutrophil activation state in the circulation.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(11): 1976-1985, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical relevance of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) in COVID-19 is controversial. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of conventional and nonconventional aPLs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective observational study in a French cohort of patients hospitalized with suspected COVID-19. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-nine patients were hospitalized with suspected COVID-19, in whom COVID-19 was confirmed in 154 and not confirmed in 95. We found a significant increase in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) positivity among patients with COVID-19 compared to patients without COVID-19 (60.9% versus 23.7%; P < 0.001), while prevalence of conventional aPLs (IgG and IgM anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I and IgG and IgM anticardiolipin isotypes) and nonconventional aPLs (IgA isotype of anticardiolipin, IgA isotype of anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I, IgG and IgM isotypes of anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin, and IgG and IgM isotypes of antiprothrombin) was low in both groups. Patients with COVID-19 who were positive for LAC, as compared to patients with COVID-19 who were negative for LAC, had higher levels of fibrinogen (median 6.0 gm/liter [interquartile range 5.0-7.0] versus 5.3 gm/liter [interquartile range 4.3-6.4]; P = 0.028) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (median 115.5 mg/liter [interquartile range 66.0-204.8] versus 91.8 mg/liter [interquartile range 27.0-155.1]; P = 0.019). Univariate analysis did not show any association between LAC positivity and higher risks of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (odds ratio 1.02 [95% confidence interval 0.44-2.43], P = 0.95) or in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval 0.70-5.05], P = 0.24). With and without adjustment for CRP level, age, and sex, Kaplan-Meier survival curves according to LAC positivity confirmed the absence of an association with VTE or in-hospital mortality (unadjusted P = 0.64 and P = 0.26, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio 1.13 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.60] and 1.80 [95% confidence interval 0.67-5.01], respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 have an increased prevalence of LAC positivity associated with biologic markers of inflammation. However, LAC positivity at the time of hospital admission is not associated with VTE risk and/or in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Venous Thromboembolism/blood
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e699-e709, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody measurements can be used to estimate the proportion of a population exposed or infected and may be informative about the risk of future infection. Previous estimates of the duration of antibody responses vary. METHODS: We present 6 months of data from a longitudinal seroprevalence study of 3276 UK healthcare workers (HCWs). Serial measurements of SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid and anti-spike IgG were obtained. Interval censored survival analysis was used to investigate the duration of detectable responses. Additionally, Bayesian mixed linear models were used to investigate anti-nucleocapsid waning. RESULTS: Anti-spike IgG levels remained stably detected after a positive result, for example, in 94% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 91-96%) of HCWs at 180 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels rose to a peak at 24 (95% CrI 19-31) days post first polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive test, before beginning to fall. Considering 452 anti-nucleocapsid seropositive HCWs over a median of 121 days from their maximum positive IgG titer, the mean estimated antibody half-life was 85 (95% CrI 81-90) days. Higher maximum observed anti-nucleocapsid titers were associated with longer estimated antibody half-lives. Increasing age, Asian ethnicity, and prior self-reported symptoms were independently associated with higher maximum anti-nucleocapsid levels and increasing age and a positive PCR test undertaken for symptoms with longer anti-nucleocapsid half-lives. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid antibodies wane within months and fall faster in younger adults and those without symptoms. However, anti-spike IgG remains stably detected. Ongoing longitudinal studies are required to track the long-term duration of antibody levels and their association with immunity to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Bayes Theorem , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 51, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of headache during the acute phase of COVID-19 could be associated with the innate response and the cytokine release. We aim to compare the cytokine and interleukin profile in hospitalized COVID-19 patients at the moment of admission with and without headache during the course of the disease. METHODS: An observational analytic study with a case control design was performed. Hospitalized patients from a tertiary hospital with confirmed COVID-19 disease were included. Patients were classified into the headache or the control group depending on whether they presented headache not better accounted for by another headache disorder other than acute headache attributed to systemic viral infection. Several demographic and clinical variables were studies in both groups. We determined the plasmatic levels of 45 different cytokines and interleukins from the first hospitalization plasma extraction in both groups. RESULTS: One hundred and four patients were included in the study, aged 67.4 (12.8), 43.3% female. Among them, 29 (27.9%) had headache. Patients with headache were younger (61.8 vs. 69.5 years, p = 0.005) and had higher frequency of fever (96.6 vs. 78.7%, p = 0.036) and anosmia (48.3% vs. 22.7%, p = 0.016). In the comparison of the crude median values of cytokines, many cytokines were different between both groups. In the comparison of the central and dispersion parameters between the two groups, GROa, IL-10, IL1RA, IL-21, IL-22 remained statistically significant. After adjusting the values for age, sex, baseline situation and COVID-19 severity, IL-10 remained statistically significant (3.3 vs. 2.2 ng/dL, p = 0.042), with a trend towards significance in IL-23 (11.9 vs. 8.6 ng/dL, p = 0.082) and PIGF1 (1621.8 vs. 110.6 ng/dL, p = 0.071). CONCLUSIONS: The higher levels of IL-10 -an anti-inflammatory cytokine- found in our sample in patients with headache may be explained as a counteract of cytokine release, reflecting a more intense immune response in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Case-Control Studies , Female , Headache/complications , Humans , Interleukins , Male , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Virology ; 559: 165-172, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198236

ABSTRACT

SARS coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) causes a respiratory infection that can lead to acute respiratory distress characterized by inflammation and high levels of cytokines in the lung tissue. In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-dependent process. These results argue that the SARS-CoV-1 spike protein intrinsically activates signaling pathways that induce cytokines and contribute directly to the inflammatory process of SARS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Immunity, Innate , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Cytokines/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Mice , SARS Virus/genetics , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14492, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Isolation precautions are very important for emergency personnel faced with this high risk. This is cross-sectional study carried out to determine the compliance of emergency healthcare personnel with isolation precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was carried out in the Emergency Services department of Erzurum Atatürk University and Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital from May 2020 to June 2020. The study population comprised 184 healthcare professionals working in emergency services, and the sample comprised 138 healthcare professionals who agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using the "Healthcare Professionals Sociodemographic Form" and the "Compliance with Isolation Precautions Scale". Percentage distribution, t test, variance analysis (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyse the data. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the ethics committee and the Ministry of Health. RESULTS: Of the participants, 58.7% were male, 37.7% had worked for 1-5 years, 31.2% were nurses and the mean age was 30.78 ± 7.17. Of the participants, 86.2% wanted to receive training on isolation precautions, 87% knew the type of isolation practiced, 81.2% were able to identify suspected patients and 84.1% knew suspected patients were put into isolation. The emergency healthcare personnel's mean score on the isolation precautions compliance scale was determined as 67.63 ± 4.64. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the emergency healthcare personnel had high levels of knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic; however, they had an average level of compliance with isolation precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 429-434, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275351

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 virus affects many organs, especially the lungs, with widespread inflammation. We aimed to compare the endogenous oxidative damage markers of coenzyme Q10, nicotinamide dinucleotide oxidase 4, malondialdehyde, and ischemia-modified albumin levels in patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 and in an healthy control group. We also aimed to compare these parameters between patients with severe and non-severe pulmonary involvement. METHODS: The study included 58 adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and 30 healthy volunteers. CoQ10 and MDA levels were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. NOX4 and IMA levels were determined by ELISA assay and colorimetric method. RESULTS: Higher levels of CoQ10, MDA, NOX4, and IMA and lower levels of COQ10H were observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia than in the control group. MDA, IMA, NOX4, and CoQ10 levels were significantly higher in patients with severe pulmonary involvement than in patients with non-severe pulmonary involvement, but no significant difference was observed in CoQ10H levels. CoQ10 levels were significantly and positively correlated with both ferritin and CRP levels. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is significantly associated with increased endogenous oxidative damage. Oxidative damage seems to be associated with pulmonary involvement severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 879-887, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278792

ABSTRACT

Early during the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly two thirds of unpaid caregivers of adults reported adverse mental or behavioral health symptoms, compared with approximately one third of noncaregivers† (1). In addition, 27% of parents of children aged <18 years reported that their mental health had worsened during the pandemic (2). To examine mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic among U.S. adults on the basis of their classification as having a parenting role (i.e., unpaid persons caring for children and adolescents aged <18 years, referred to as children in this report) or being an unpaid caregiver of adults (i.e., persons caring for adults aged ≥18 years),§ CDC analyzed data from cross-sectional surveys that were administered during December 2020 and February-March 2021 for The COVID-19 Outbreak Public Evaluation (COPE) Initiative.¶ Respondents were categorized as parents only, caregivers of adults only, parents-caregivers (persons in both roles), or nonparents/noncaregivers (persons in neither role). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for any adverse mental health symptoms, particularly suicidal ideation, were higher among all respondents who were parents, caregivers of adults, or both compared with respondents who were nonparents/noncaregivers and were highest among persons in both roles (parents-caregivers) (any adverse mental health symptoms: aOR = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.1-6.2; serious suicidal ideation: aOR = 8.2, 95% CI = 6.5-10.4). These findings highlight that parents and caregivers, especially those balancing roles both as parents and caregivers, experienced higher levels of adverse mental health symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic than adults without these responsibilities. Caregivers who had someone to rely on for support had lower odds of experiencing any adverse mental health symptoms. Additional measures are needed to improve mental health among parents, caregivers, and parents-caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/economics , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 670824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273358

ABSTRACT

The present longitudinal survey study explored changes in and effects of foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and listening anxiety (FLLA) on Chinese undergraduate students' English proficiency over a semester in the COVID-19 context. A set of 182 matching questionnaires was collected from first-year undergraduate English as a foreign language learners at two time points of a 16-week semester. Analyses of the data revealed the following major findings: (1) the participants experienced high levels of FLCA and FLLA both at the beginning and end of the semester, neither of which changed significantly during the semester, (2) FLCA and FLLA were highly positively related to each other, (3) FLCA and FLLA significantly predicted students' self-rated proficiency in listening and speaking English, and (4) confidence in using English, efforts and motivation to learn English and interaction with instructors and peers mediated FLCA and FLLA to exert effects on students' self-perceived proficiency in listening and speaking English. These findings indicate that the learning environment is critical in influencing the levels of and changes in FLCA and listening anxiety and that these two types of foreign language anxiety are serious issues in the pandemic foreign language learning context.

12.
Front Neurol ; 12: 644317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210488

ABSTRACT

Agitation is a behavioral syndrome characterized by increased, often undirected, motor activity, restlessness, aggressiveness, and emotional distress. According to several observations, agitation prevalence ranges from 30 to 50% in Alzheimer's disease, 30% in dementia with Lewy bodies, 40% in frontotemporal dementia, and 40% in vascular dementia (VaD). With an overall prevalence of about 30%, agitation is the third most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia, after apathy and depression, and it is even more frequent (80%) in residents of nursing homes. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying agitation is represented by a frontal lobe dysfunction, mostly involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), respectively, meaningful in selecting the salient stimuli and subsequent decision-making and behavioral reactions. Furthermore, increased sensitivity to noradrenergic signaling has been observed, possibly due to a frontal lobe up-regulation of adrenergic receptors, as a reaction to the depletion of noradrenergic neurons within the locus coeruleus (LC). Indeed, LC neurons mainly project toward the OFC and ACC. These observations may explain the abnormal reactivity to weak stimuli and the global arousal found in many patients who have dementia. Furthermore, agitation can be precipitated by several factors, e.g., the sunset or low lighted environments as in the sundown syndrome, hospitalization, the admission to nursing residencies, or changes in pharmacological regimens. In recent days, the global pandemic has increased agitation incidence among dementia patients and generated higher distress levels in patients and caregivers. Hence, given the increasing presence of this condition and its related burden on society and the health system, the present point of view aims at providing an extensive guide to facilitate the identification, prevention, and management of acute and chronic agitation in dementia patients.

13.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 561-564, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a reduction in emergency department (ED) visits was seen nationally according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, no data currently exists for the impact of ED transfers to a higher level of care during this same time period. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the rate of non-COVID-19 transfers from a rural community ED. METHODS: We completed a retrospective chart review of all ED patients who presented to Kingman Regional Medical Center in Kingman, Arizona, from March 1-June 31, 2019 and March 1-June 31, 2020. To ensure changes were not due to seasonal trends, we examined transfer rates from the same four-month period in 2019 and 2020. Patients were included in the study if they were transferred to an outside facility for a higher level of care not related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Between the time periods studied there was a 25.33% (P = 0.001) reduction in total ED volume and a 21.44% (P = 0.009) reduction in ED transfers to a higher level of care. No statistical difference was noted in ED transfer volume following adjustment for decreased ED volumes. Transfers for gastroenterology (45%; P = 0.021), neurosurgery (29.2%; P = 0.029), neurology (76.3%; P < 0.001), trauma (37.5%; P = 0.039), urology (41.8%; P = 0.012), and surgery (56.3%; P = 0.028) all experienced a decrease in transfer rates during the time period studied. When gender was considered, males exhibited an increased rate of transfers to psychiatric facilities (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Significant reductions in both ED volume and transfers have coincided with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is needed to determine how the current pandemic has affected patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Arizona/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 63, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health emergency, which presents wide-ranging negative impacts on individuals with diabetes. To examine psychosocial well-being and diabetes outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and investigate how these factors vary in different countries. METHODS: Between April and June 2020 we employed a cross national comparative research study in the United States (US), Brazil, and Iran to collect data from 1788 adults with type 1 diabetes using web-based survey. Study participants answered questions relevant to diabetes distress, diabetes burnout, depressive symptoms, COVID-19 related changes, and socio-demographic characteristics. They also reported their last Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and daily Time-in-Range (TiR) blood glucose. We analyzed data using comparative tests (Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and McNemar test), logistic and linear regression adjusted for fixed effects. RESULTS: There were significant changes prior and during the pandemic regarding access to diabetes care, diabetes supplies and medications, healthy food and safe places to exercise in all countries (p < 0.05). Participants in Iran experienced higher levels of diabetes distress (57.1%), diabetes burnout (50%), and depressive symptoms (60.9%), followed by Brazil and US (p < 0.0001). US participants reported better glycemic control (HbA1c = 6.97%, T1R = 69.64%) compared to Brazil (HbA1c = 7.94%, T1R = 51.95%) and Iran (HbA1c = 7.47%, T1R = 51.53%) (p < 0.0001). There were also significant relationships between psychosocial well-being, diabetes outcomes, socio-demographic data, and COVID-19 related challenges in overall sample (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of differences among US, Brazil, and Iran, our findings revealed that different countries may experience similar challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic which can impact negatively diabetes outcomes and psychosocial well-being in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Countries need to consider modifiable variables associated with poor diabetes outcomes and sub optimal psychosocial well-being and target vulnerable population using significant socio-demographic variables.

15.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): 279-285, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has been shown to affect the myocardium, resulting in a worse clinical outcome. In this registry study, we aimed to identify differences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) between COVID-19 and all-cause myocarditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined CMRI of patients with COVID-19 and elevated high-sensitivity serum troponin levels performed between March 31st and May 5th and compared them to CMRI of patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection with suspected myocarditis in the same time period. For this purpose, we evaluated Lake-Louise Criteria for myocarditis by determining nonischemic myocardial injury via T1-mapping, extracellular volume, late gadolinium enhancement, and myocardial edema (ME) by T2-mapping and fat-saturated T2w imaging (T2Q). RESULTS: A total of 15 of 18 (89%) patients with COVID-19 had abnormal findings. The control group consisted of 18 individuals. There were significantly fewer individuals with COVID-19 who had increased T2 (5 vs. 10; P=0.038) and all-cause ME (7 vs. 15; P=0.015); thus, significantly fewer patients with COVID-19 fulfilled Lake-Louise Criteria (6 vs. 17; P<0.001). In contrast, nonischemic myocardial injury was not significantly different. In the COVID-19 group, indexed end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle showed a significant correlation to the extent of abnormal T1 (R2=0.571; P=0.017) and extracellular volume (R2=0.605; P=0.013) and absolute T1, T2, and T2Q (R2=0.644; P=0.005, R2=0.513; P=0.035 and R2=0.629; P=0.038, respectively); in the control group, only extracellular volume showed a weak correlation (R2=0.490; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 seems to show less ME than all-cause myocarditis. Abnormal CMRI markers correlated to left ventricle dilation only in the COVID-19 group. Larger comparative studies are needed to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocarditis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Gadolinium , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests
16.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1240-1254, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263595

ABSTRACT

In this study, researchers aimed to determine exercise habits, physical activity (PA) levels and anxiety levels of postmenopausal women (PMw) during the self-quarantine period of the COVID-19 pandemic. 104 PMw (59.00 ± 6.61 years old) participated in the study. It was found that PMw who had exercise habits before the pandemic period had higher PA levels, and the women with high anxiety levels during the pandemic had lower PA levels (p < .05). Anxiety levels and PA were negatively associated with each other. Numbers of grandchildren also affected the PA and anxiety levels of the PMw negatively. Women should be encouraged to initiate or maintain PA levels in all circumstances.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Postmenopause/psychology , Aged , Cyprus/epidemiology , Female , Habits , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Br J Nutr ; 126(2): 191-198, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261982

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, exerts far-reaching effects on public health and socio-economic welfare. The majority of infected individuals have mild to moderate symptoms, but a significant proportion develops respiratory failure due to pneumonia. Thrombosis is another frequent manifestation of Covid-19 that contributes to poor outcomes. Vitamin K plays a crucial role in the activation of both pro- and anticlotting factors in the liver and the activation of extrahepatically synthesised protein S which seems to be important in local thrombosis prevention. However, the role of vitamin K extends beyond coagulation. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification and elastic fibre degradation. Severe extrahepatic vitamin K insufficiency was recently demonstrated in Covid-19 patients, with high inactive MGP levels correlating with elastic fibre degradation rates. This suggests that insufficient vitamin K-dependent MGP activation leaves elastic fibres unprotected against SARS-CoV-2-induced proteolysis. In contrast to MGP, Covid-19 patients have normal levels of activated factor II, in line with previous observations that vitamin K is preferentially transported to the liver for activation of procoagulant factors. We therefore expect that vitamin K-dependent endothelial protein S activation is also compromised, which would be compatible with enhanced thrombogenicity. Taking these data together, we propose a mechanism of pneumonia-induced vitamin K depletion, leading to a decrease in activated MGP and protein S, aggravating pulmonary damage and coagulopathy, respectively. Intervention trials should be conducted to assess whether vitamin K administration plays a role in the prevention and treatment of severe Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Vitamin K Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamin K/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Protein S/metabolism , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Vitamin K Deficiency/etiology
18.
Adv Ther ; 38(7): 3911-3923, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258274

ABSTRACT

INTRODUTION: COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the contribution of platelet reactivity (PR) to the aetiology of the increased thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19 remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate PR in stable patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized with respiratory symptoms (mainly dyspnoea and dry cough), in comparison with a control group comprised of non-hospitalized healthy controls. METHODS: Observational, case control study that included patients with confirmed COVID-19 (COVID-19 group, n = 60) and healthy individuals matched by age and sex (control group, n = 60). Multiplate electrode aggregometry (MEA) tests were used to assess PR with adenosine diphosphate (MEA-ADP, low PR defined as < 53 AUC), arachidonic acid (MEA-ASPI, low PR < 86 AUC) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (MEA-TRAP, low PR < 97 AUC) in both groups. RESULTS: The rates of low PR with MEA-ADP were 27.5% in the COVID-19 group and 21.7% in the control group (OR = 1.60, p = 0.20); with MEA-ASPI, the rates were, respectively, 37.5% and 22.5% (OR = 3.67, p < 0.001); and with MEA-TRAP, the incidences were 48.5% and 18.8%, respectively (OR = 9.58, p < 0.001). Levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were higher in the COVID-19 group in comparison with the control group (all p < 0.05). Thromboelastometry was utilized in a subgroup of patients and showed a hypercoagulable state in the COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: Patients hospitalized with non-severe COVID-19 had lower PR compared to healthy controls, despite having higher levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and PAI-1, and hypercoagulability by thromboelastometry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04447131.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Platelets , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 603331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259400

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. This study aimed to assess the psychological outcomes and their influencing factors among medical and non-medical University students during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey using structured questionnaires was conducted from February 20 to March 20, 2020. Psychological outcomes were assessed according to the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Influencing factors were assessed by COVID-19 knowledge, mindful coping scale, and sense of control scale. Results: Our sample is comprised of 563 University students (male = 172, mean age = 21.52). Among them, 382 are medical students. Among the participants, 12.26, 18.47, and 8.53% have moderate to severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Compared with the non-medical students, the medical students had a higher knowledge level of COVID-19, a higher sense of awareness, and fewer mental health symptoms. After controlling the covariance, perceived constraints of sense of control were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress among both medical and non-medical students. Prevention of negative emotions by mindful coping was negatively associated with depression and anxiety among non-medical students. Knowledge of COVID-19 is not associated with mental distress among medical and non-medical students. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic in China, the mental health of University students was affected. Our findings suggested that a sense of control is a protective factor for both medical and non-medical students, while mindful coping is a protective factor for only non-medical students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Omega (Westport) ; : 302228211020602, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259082

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to examine the effect of attitude to death on self-management in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was carried out in a descriptive and correlational type with the participation of n = 103 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients registered in the Internal Medicine Unit at a University Hospital. Personal Information Form, Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R), Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire and Fear of COVID-19 Scale were used in data collection. According to the results of the study, it was determined that diabetes patients' fear of COVID-19 increased their fear of death and self-management. Similarly, neuropathy and nephropathy developed in these patients. In addition, it was determined that the diabetic patients who worked 6-7 days a week outside the home had higher levels of fear. It was found that those with high fear were more attentive to social distancing, wearing masks and hand sanitizer use. Staying at home is also not always possible for patients with chronic diseases, and people struggle with COVID-19 by working in crowded workspaces. It is necessary to recognize the struggle of patients with chronic diseases and provide social, economic and psychological support.

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