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1.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 12(1): e2020046, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate, retrospectively, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, laboratory results, radiologic findings, and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with transfusion-dependent ß thalassemia major (TM), ß-thalassemia intermedia (TI) and sickle cell disease (SCD). DESIGN: A total of 17 Centers, from 10 countries, following 9,499 patients with hemoglobinopathies, participated in the survey. MAIN OUTCOME DATA: Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 were collected from medical records and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients, 7 with TM, 3 with TI, and 3 with SCD, with confirmed COVID-19, were identified in 6 Centers from different countries. The overall mean age of patients was 33.7±12.3 years (range:13-66); 9/13 (69.2%) patients were females. Six patients had pneumonia, and 4 needed oxygen therapy. Increased C-reactive protein (6/10), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 6/10), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; 6/10) were the most common laboratory findings. 6/10 patients had an exacerbation of anemia (2 with SCD). In the majority of patients, the course of COVID-19 was moderate (6/10) and severe in 3/10 patients. A 30-year-old female with TM, developed a critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by death in an Intensive Care Unit. In one Center (Oman), the majority of suspected cases were observed in patients with SCD between the age of 21 and 40 years. A rapid clinical improvement of tachypnea/dyspnea and oxygen saturation was observed, after red blood cell exchange transfusion, in a young girl with SCD and worsening of anemia (Hb level from 9.2 g/dl to 6.1g/dl). CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this survey permit an early assessment of the clinical characteristics of COVID 19 in different countries. 70% of symptomatic patients with COVID- 19 required hospitalization. The presence of associated co-morbidities can aggravate the severity of COVID- 19, leading to a poorer prognosis irrespective of age.

2.
PM R ; 14(2): 198-201, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors are at risk of functional decline. To address the current gap in knowledge about post-acute needs of those infected by COVID-19, we examined discharge function data to better prepare patients, providers, and health systems to return patients to optimal levels of functioning. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of functional decline and related rehabilitation needs at hospital discharge. DESIGN: Prospective chart review. SETTING: Academic tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults with a laboratory confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, with admission dates between March 4, 2020 and May 1, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Discharge location; need for outpatient physical, occupational, or speech therapy; need for durable medical equipment at discharge; presence of dysphagia at discharge; functional decline. RESULTS: Three hundred eleven potential cases were reviewed. The final number of cases included in analysis was N = 288; patient ages ranged from 20 to 95 years old (mean 66.80 ± 15.31 years). Nearly 20 % of COVID-19 survivors were discharged to a location other than their home. Forty-five percent of survivors experienced functional decline impacting their discharge. Eighty-seven survivors (80.6%) who showed functional change during hospitalization were referred for additional therapy at discharge. At least 73 (67.6%) of these patients required durable medical equipment at discharge (in 12 cases this was not clearly documented). Twenty-nine (26.7%) of the survivors who showed functional changes had ongoing dysphagia at the time of hospital discharge. Ninety-seven of the survivors (40.6%) were never assessed by a PM&R physician, physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech language pathologist during their hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mortality rates are frequently reported in the media, whereas the effects on function are not as well described. The information provided here highlights the need for rehabilitative services during and after hospitalization for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 387-394, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of remdesivir and dexamethasone for severe COVID-19 treatment, few large multi-hospital-system US studies have described clinical characteristics and outcomes of minority COVID-19 patients who present to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This cohort study from the Cerner Real World Database (87 US health systems) from 1 December 2019 to 30 September 2020 included PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients who self-identified as non-Hispanic Black (Black), Hispanic White (Hispanic), or non-Hispanic White (White). The main outcome was hospitalization among ED patients. Secondary outcomes included mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit care, and in-hospital mortality. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression compared sociodemographics, comorbidities, receipt of remdesivir or dexamethasone, and outcomes by racial/ethnic groups and geographic region. RESULTS: 94 683 COVID-19 patients presented to the ED. Blacks comprised 26.7% and Hispanics 33.6%. Nearly half (45.1%) of ED patients presented to hospitals in the South. 31.4% (n = 29 687) were hospitalized. Lower proportions of Blacks were prescribed dexamethasone (29.4%; n = 7426) compared with Hispanics (40.9%; n = 13 021) and Whites (37.5%; n = 14 088). Hospitalization risks, compared with Whites, were similar in Blacks (RR: .94; 95% CI: .82-1.08; P = .4) and Hispanics (.99; .81-1.21; P = .91), but risk of in-hospital mortality was higher in Blacks (1.18; 1.06-1.31; P = .002) and Hispanics (1.28; 1.13-1.44; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Minority patients were overrepresented among COVID-19 ED patients, and while their risks of hospitalization were similar to Whites, in-hospital mortality risk was higher. Interventions targeting upstream social determinants of health are needed to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 24-31, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has strained healthcare systems with patient hospitalizations and deaths. Anti-spike monoclonal antibodies, including bamlanivimab, have demonstrated reduction in hospitalization rates in clinical trials, yet real-world evidence is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study across a single healthcare system of nonhospitalized patients, age 18 years or older, with documented positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing, risk factors for severe COVID-19, and referrals for bamlanivimab via emergency use authorization. Cases were defined as patients who received bamlanivimab; contemporary controls had a referral order placed but did not receive bamlanivimab. The primary outcome was 30-day hospitalization rate from initial positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Descriptive statistics, including χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U test, were performed. Multivariable logistic regression was used for adjusted analysis to evaluate independent associations with 30-day hospitalization. RESULTS: Between 30 November 2020 and 19 January 2021, 218 patients received bamlanivimab (cases), and 185 were referred but did not receive drug (controls). Thirty-day hospitalization rate was significantly lower among patients who received bamlanivimab (7.3% vs 20.0%, risk ratio [RR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .21-.64, P < .001), and the number needed to treat was 8. On logistic regression, odds of hospitalization were increased in patients not receiving bamlanivimab and with a higher number of pre-specified comorbidities (odds ratio [OR] 4.19 ,95% CI: 1.31-2.16, P < .001; OR 1.68, 95% CI: 2.12-8.30, P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory patients with COVID-19 who received bamlanivimab had a lower 30-day hospitalization than control patients in real-world experience. We identified receipt of bamlanivimab and fewer comorbidities as protective factors against hospitalization.Bamlanivimab's role in preventing hospitalization associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. In a real-world, retrospective study of 403 high-risk, ambulatory patients with COVID-19, receipt of bamlanivimab compared to no monoclonal antibody therapy was associated with lower 30-day hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3279-3288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke hospitalization rates, patient characteristics and 30-day case fatality rates. METHODS: All hospitalizations for stroke from January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020 were selected using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes I60 to I64 in the national hospital discharge database. Patient characteristics and management were described according to three time periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. Weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed to compare time trends in the rates of patients hospitalized for stroke as well as in-hospital and 30-day case fatality rates between the years 2017-2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, between weeks 1 and 24, 55,308 patients were hospitalized for stroke in France. IRRs decreased by up to 30% for all age groups, sex, and stroke types during the lockdown compared to the period 2017-2019. Patients hospitalized during the second and third weeks of the lockdown had higher in-hospital case fatality rates compared to 2017-2019. In-hospital case fatality rates increased by almost 60% in patients aged under 65 years. Out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates increased between weeks 11 and 15 among patients who returned home after their hospitalization. Important changes in care management were found, including fewer stroke patients admitted to resuscitation units, more admitted to stroke care units, and a shorter mean length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: During the first weeks of the lockdown, rates of patients hospitalized for stroke fell by 30% and there were substantial increases of both in-hospital and out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 34-42, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic efficiency of antibody testing in COVID-19 infection. There is limited data on the IgM/IgG changes in asymptomatic and discharged patients with reoccurring positive nucleic acid test (RPNAT). This study aims to investigate these IgM/IgG changes. METHODS: There were 111 patients with positive nucleic acid test (NAT) and 40 suspected patients enrolled in the study. The serum SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM/IgG antibody levels were retrospectively analysed with the disease progress in asymptomatic and RPNAT patients. RESULTS: The best overall performance was found by combining the IgM, IgG, and CT; 95.1% sensitivity and 75% specificity. This was tested in 111 RT-PCR positive cases. The median IgM and IgG levels were lower in the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic group (p < .01). Among 15 RPNAT cases, the IgM levels of the RPNAT group at the time of discharge (IgM2.79, IQR: 0.95-5.37) and retest (IgM 2.35, IQR: 0.88-8.65) were significantly higher than those of the non-reoccurring positive nucleic acid test group (Non-RPNAT) (IgM on discharge: 0.59, IQR: 0.33-1.22, IgG on retest: 0.92, IQR: 0.51-1.58). CONCLUSION: Serum SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM/IgG antibody levels remained at a low level during hospitalisation for asymptomatic patients. Elevated IgM levels may have implications in the identification of RPNAT patients before discharge. Key messages This study determined the IgM/IgG changes in asymptomatic and RPNAT patients. The rate of serum SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM/IgG antibody levels increase in the asymptomatic group was lower than in the symptomatic group during hospitalisation. The IgM level did not decrease significantly at discharge in the RPNAT patients, and was higher than that of the Non-RPNAT group on discharge. These results highlight the importance of timely monitoring of IgM levels to identify RPNAT patients before discharge.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2243-2247, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic created concerns among patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Frequency of COVID-19 and impact of lockdown on treatment compliance in patients with vasculitis are largely unknown. Patients and method: Patients with ANCA-associated and large vessel vasculitis that have been followed-up in our clinic were contacted by phone and a questionnaire containing home isolation status, treatment adherence and history of COVID -19 between March 1st and June 30th, 2020 was applied. Results: The survey was applied to 103 patients (F/M: 59/44, mean age: 53.2±12.5). Thirty-three (32%) patients didn?t attend at least one appointment; 98(95.1%) noted that they spent 3 months in home isolation. Five patients (4.8%) received immunosuppressives irregularly and 3(2.9%) developed symptoms due to undertreatment. Four (3.9%) patients admitted to hospital with a suspicion of COVID-19, but none of them had positive PCR or suggestive findings by imaging. COVID-19 diagnosed in a patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis during hospitalization for disease flare and she died despite treatment. Discussion: Frequency of COVID-19 was low in patients with vasculitis in our single center cohort. Although outpatient appointments were postponed in one-third of our patients, high compliance with treatment and isolation rules ensured patients with vasculitis overcome this period with minimal morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Systemic Vasculitis/complications , Time Factors , Turkey
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4031-e4038, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged QTc intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias (LTA) are potential drug-induced complications previously reported with antimalarials, antivirals, and antibiotics. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of QTc interval prolongation and incidences of LTA during hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with normal admission QTc. METHODS: We enrolled 110 consecutive patients in a multicenter international registry. A 12-lead electrocardiograph was performed at admission, after 7, and at 14 days; QTc values were analyzed. RESULTS: After 7 days, 15 (14%) patients developed a prolonged QTc (pQTc; mean QTc increase 66 ± 20 msec; +16%; P < .001); these patients were older and had higher basal heart rates, higher rates of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and lower platelet counts. The QTc increase was inversely proportional to the baseline QTc level and leukocyte count and directly proportional to the basal heart rate (P < .01).We conducted a multivariate stepwise analysis including age, male gender, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, basal QTc values, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy; age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.13; P < .05), basal heart rate (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P < .01), and dual antiviral therapy (OR, 12.46; 95% CI, 2.09-74.20; P < .1) were independent predictors of QT prolongation.The incidence rate of LTA during hospitalization was 3.6%. There was 1 patient who experienced cardiac arrest and 3 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. LTAs were recorded after a median of 9 days from hospitalization and were associated with 50% of the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After 7 days of hospitalization, 14% of patients with COVID-19 developed pQTc; age, basal heart rate, and dual antiviral therapy were found to be independent predictors of pQTc. Life-threatening arrhythmias have an incidence rate of 3.6%, and were associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long QT Syndrome , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Electrocardiography , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 295-297, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539055

ABSTRACT

Patients with various inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, liver, kidneys, and musculoskeletal system-connective tissues, often undergo different anti-inflammatory therapies to maintain remission and avoid serious and/or life-threatening complications. Available data so far show an increased rate of hospitalization in such patients during the COVID19 pandemic. The key points of our position statement are summarized below: Patients with inflammatory diseases who receive moderate or high-risk anti-inflammatory therapies might be considered as an increased risk group for severe COVID-19 and appropriate measures should be taken in order to protect them. Initiation of immuno-suppressive/modulatory therapies should be done with caution, taking into account the severity of the underlying inflammatory disease, the type of anti-inflammatory treatment, and the risk of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Discontinuation of anti-inflammatory therapies in patients who have not been exposed to or infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus is not recommended. In patients who become infected with SARS-CoV-2, anti-inflammatory therapies should be discontinued, except in special cases. Specialty physicians should actively participate in the Interdisciplinary Teams caring for patients with inflammatory diseases during COVID19 infection.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526831

ABSTRACT

A clinical interpretation of the Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) study was performed to provide a useful tool to understand whether, when, and to whom dexamethasone should be administered during hospitalization for COVID-19. A post hoc analysis of data published in the preliminary report of the RECOVERY study was performed to calculate the person-based number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) of 6 mg dexamethasone once daily for up to 10 days vs. usual care with respect to mortality. At day 28, the NNT of dexamethasone vs. usual care was 36.0 (95%CI 24.9-65.1, p < 0.05) in all patients, 8.3 (95%CI 6.0-13.1, p < 0.05) in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, and 34.6 (95%CI 22.1-79.0, p < 0.05) in patients receiving oxygen only (with or without noninvasive ventilation). Dexamethasone increased mortality compared with usual care in patients not requiring oxygen supplementation, leading to a NNH value of 26.7 (95%CI 18.1-50.9, p < 0.05). NNT of dexamethasone vs. usual care was 17.3 (95%CI 14.9-20.6) in subjects <70 years, 27.0 (95%CI 18.5-49.8) in men, and 16.2 (95%CI 13.2-20.8) in patients in which the onset of symptoms was >7 days. Dexamethasone is effective in male subjects < 70 years that require invasive mechanical ventilation experiencing symptoms from >7 days and those patients receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation; it should be avoided in patients not requiring respiratory support.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526821

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive data on early prognostic indicators in patients with mild COVID-19 remains sparse. In this single center case series, we characterized the initial clinical presentation in 180 patients with mild COVID-19 and defined the earliest predictors of subsequent deterioration and need for hospitalization. Three broad patient phenotypes and four symptom clusters were characterized, differentiated by varying risk for adverse outcomes. Among 14 symptoms assessed, subjective shortness of breath (SOB) most strongly associated with adverse outcomes (odds ratio (OR) 21.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-166.4; p < 0.0001). In combination, SOB and number of comorbidities were highly predictive of subsequent hospitalization (area under the curve (AUC) 92%). Additionally, initial lymphopenia (OR 21.0, 95% CI: 2.1-210.1; p = 0.002) and male sex (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 0.9-13.0; p = 0.05) were associated with increased risk of poor outcomes. Patients with known comorbidities, especially multiple, and those presenting with subjective SOB or lymphopenia should receive close monitoring and consideration for preemptive treatment, even when presenting with mild symptoms.

12.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
13.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1045-1055, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474202

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of multi-component interventions for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in older patients hospitalized in geriatric wards. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial was undertaken in patients aged 65 and above who were admitted to a tertiary hospital geriatric unit from January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018 for an acute non-respiratory illness. Participants were randomized by to receive either a multi-component intervention (consisting of reverse Trendelenburg position, dysphagia screening, oral care and vaccinations), or usual care. The outcome measures were the proportion of patients who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia during hospitalisation, and mean time from randomization to the next hospitalisation due to respiratory infections in 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 123 participants (median age, 85; 43.1% male) were randomized, (n = 59) to intervention group and (n = 64) to control group. The multi-component interventions did not significantly reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia but did increase the mean time to next hospitalisation due to respiratory infection (11.5 months vs. 9.5 months; P = 0.049), and reduced the risk of hospitalisation in 1 year (18.6% vs. 34.4%; P = 0.049). Implementation of multi-component interventions increased diagnoses of oropharyngeal dysphagia (35.6% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001) and improved the influenza (54.5% vs 17.2%; P < 0.001) and pneumococcal vaccination rates (52.5% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The nosocomial pneumonia multi-component intervention did not significantly reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia during hospitalisation but reduce subsequent hospitalisations for respiratory infections. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT04347395.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI25-SI36, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain if the use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ)/cloroquine(CLQ) and other conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) and rheumatic diseases per se may be associated with COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: This case-control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. The risk of COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis comparing HCQ/CLQ vs MTX, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. The presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 1275 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of MTX, no association between HCQ/CLQ monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.69, 1.00)] or mortality [OR 1.19 (95% CI 0.85, 1.67)] was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing HCQ/CLQ use with the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for recent use of either MTX monotherapy [OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05, 1.34)] or other cDMARDs [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08, 1.36)] vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes. CONCLUSION: HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a protective effect against COVID-19-related outcomes. The use of other cDMARDs was associated with an increased risk when compared with non-use and, if concomitantly used with glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably due to immunosuppressive action.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Population Surveillance , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(3): 353-359, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of factors that predict the length of hospital stay (HS) in patients affected by coronavirus desease (COVID-19) might assist therapeutic decisions and patient flow management. METHODOLOGY: We collected, at the time of admission, routine clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters of hypoxia, lung damage, inflammation, and organ dysfunction in a consecutive series of 50 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Respiratory Disease and Infectious Disease Units of the University Hospital of Sassari (North-Sardinia, Italy) and alive on discharge. RESULTS: Prolonged HS (PHS, >21 days) patients had significantly lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio and lymphocytes, and significantly higher Chest CT severity score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) when compared to non-PHS patients. In univariate logistic regression, Chest CT severity score (OR = 1.1891, p = 0.007), intensity of care (OR = 2.1350, p = 0.022), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR = 0.9802, p = 0.007), CRP (OR = 1.0952, p = 0.042) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (OR = 1.0039, p = 0.036) were significantly associated with PHS. However, in multivariate logistic regression, only the PaO2/FiO2 ratio remained significantly correlated with PHS (OR = 0.9164; 95% CI 0.8479-0.9904, p = 0.0275). In ROC curve analysis, using a threshold of 248, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio predicted PHS with sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 91%, respectively (AUC = 0.780, 95% CI 0.637-0.886 p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission is independently associated with PHS in COVID-19 patients. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1337-e1344, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs within the first weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution over time after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are poorly characterized. METHODS: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 and 6 months postinfection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). RESULTS: Levels of seroneutralization and IgG rates against the ancestral strain decreased significantly over time. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2. IgG levels correlated with seroneutralization, and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of seroneutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission to intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation. In addition, sera collected at 6 months were tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and showed efficient neutralizing effects against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants but significantly weaker activity against the B.1.351 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity. Our results indicate a sustained humoral response against the ancestral strain and the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19. A weaker protection was, however, observed for the B.1.351 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Intern Med J ; 51(8): 1236-1242, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests an association between COVID-19 and acute pulmonary embolism (APE). AIMS: To assess the prevalence of APE in patients hospitalised for non-critical COVID-19 who presented clinical deterioration, and to investigate the association of clinical and biochemical variables with a confirmed diagnosis of APE in these subjects. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to the internal medicine department of a general hospital with a diagnosis of non-critical COVID-19, who performed a computer tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for respiratory deterioration in April 2020, were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Study populations: 41 subjects, median (interquartile range) age: 71.7 (63-76) years, CPTA confirmed APE = 8 (19.51%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.82-34.87%). Among patients with and without APE, no significant differences were found with regards symptoms, comorbidities, treatment, Wells score and outcomes. The optimal cut-off value of d-dimer for predicting APE was 2454 ng/mL, sensitivity (95% CI): 63 (24-91), specificity: 73 (54-87), positive predictive value: 36 (13-65), negative predictive value: 89 (71-98) and AUC: 0.62 (0.38-0.85). The standard and age-adjusted d-dimer cut-offs, and the Wells score ≥2 did not associate with confirmed APE, albeit a cut-off value of d-dimer = 2454 ng/mL showed an relative risk: 3.21; 95% CI: 0.92-13.97; P = 0.073. Heparin at anticoagulant doses was used in 70.73% of patients before performing CTPA. CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting pulmonary deterioration after hospitalisation for non-critical COVID-19, the prevalence of APE is high. Traditional diagnostic tools to identify high APE pre-test probability patients do not seem to be clinically useful. These results support the use of a high index of suspicion for performing CTPA to exclude or confirm APE as the most appropriate diagnostic approach in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitalization , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 6-12, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether the active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization affects mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aspirin is often prescribed for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities that might increase mortality, and may therefore falsely demonstrate increased mortality. To reduce bias, only studies that performed an adjusted analysis were included in this review. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed, from inception until 16 April 2021. The exposure was active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization. The primary outcome was mortality. The pooled adjusted effect estimate was reported as relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Six eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 13,993 patients. The studies had low-to-moderate risk of bias based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The meta-analysis indicated that the use of low-dose aspirin was independently associated with reduced mortality {RR 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.61], P < 0.001; I2 = 36.2%}. Subgroup analysis on in-hospital low-dose aspirin administration also showed a significant reduction in mortality [RR 0.39 (95% CI 0.16-0.96), P < 0.001; I2 = 47.0%]. CONCLUSION: Use of low-dose aspirin is independently associated with reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, with low certainty of evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(8): 1436-1440, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, a respiratory illness due to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, was first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, rapidly evolving into a pandemic. Smoking increases the risk of respiratory infections; thus, cessation represents a huge opportunity for public health. However, there is scarce evidence about if and how smoking affects the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed an observational case-control study, assessing the single-day point prevalence of smoking among 218 COVID-19 adult patients hospitalized in seven Italian nonintensive care wards and in a control group of 243 patients admitted for other conditions to seven COVID-19-free general wards. We compared proportions for categorical variables by using the χ 2 test and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify the variables associated with the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19. RESULTS: The percentages of current smokers (4.1% vs 16%, p = .00003) and never smokers (71.6% vs 56.8%, p = .0014) were significantly different between COVID-19 and non-COVID 19 patients. COVID-19 patients had lower mean age (69.5 vs 74.2 years, p = .00085) and were more frequently males (59.2% vs 44%, p = .0011). In the logistic regression analysis, current smokers were significantly less likely to be hospitalized for COVID-19 compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio = 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.48, p < .001), even after adjusting for age and gender (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.31, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We reported an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smokers among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in nonintensive care wards. The meaning of these preliminary findings, which are in line with those currently emerging in literature, is unclear; they need to be confirmed by larger studies. IMPLICATIONS: An unexpectedly low prevalence of current smokers among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in some Italian nonintensive care wards is reported. This finding could be a stimulus for the generation of novel hypotheses on individual predisposition and possible strategies for reducing the risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 and needs to be confirmed by further larger studies designed with adequate methodology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 45: 117-123, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the advantages of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), patients receiving this intervention visit the emergency department (ED) frequently and for various reasons. Many of those ED visits result in hospitalization, and the length of stay varies. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to identify the patients who were only briefly hospitalized and were thus eligible for safe discharge from the ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on all adult patients who have completed a successful BMT and had an ED visit that resulted in hospitalization. RESULTS: Our study included 115 unique BMT with a total number of 357 ED visits. Around half of those visits resulted in a short hospitalization. We found higher odds of a short hospitalization among those who have undergone autologous BMT (95%CI [1.14-2.65]). Analysis of the discharge diagnoses showed that patients with gastroenteritis were more likely to have a shorter hospitalization in comparison to those diagnosed with others (95%CI [1.10-3.81]). Furthermore, we showed that patients who presented after a month from their procedure were more likely to have a short hospitalization (95%CI [1.04-4.87]). Another significant predictor of a short of hospitalization was the absence of Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) (95%CI [2.53-12.28]). Additionally, patients with normal and high systolic blood pressure (95%CI [2.22-6.73] and 95%CI [2.81-13.05]; respectively), normal respiratory rate (95%CI [2.79-10.17]) and temperature (95%CI [2.91-7.44]) were more likely to have a shorter hospitalization, compared to those presenting with abnormal vitals. Likewise, we proved higher odds of a short hospitalization in patients with a quick Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment score of 1-2 (95%CI [1.29-5.20]). Moreover, we demonstrated higher odds of a short hospitalization in patients with a normal platelet count (95%CI [1.39-3.36]) and creatinine level (95%CI [1.30-6.18]). CONCLUSION: In our study, we have shown that BMT patients visit the ED frequently and many of those visits result in a short hospitalization. Our study showed that patients presenting with fever/chills are less likely to have a short hospitalization. We also showed a significant association between a short hospitalization and BMT patients without GvHD, with normal RR, normal T °C and a normal platelet count.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Lebanon , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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