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1.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(10): 914-918, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared SARS-CoV-2 as pandemic. Patients with COVID-19 present mainly with respiratory symptoms. Prone position has been traditionally used in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to improve oxygenation and prevent barotrauma in ventilated patients. Awake proning is being used as an investigational therapy in COVID to defer invasive ventilation, improve oxygenation, and outcomes. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case study to look for benefits of awake proning with oxygen therapy in non-intubated COVID patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case study of 15 COVID patients admitted from June 15 to July 1, 2020 to HDU in our hospital was conducted. Cooperative patients who were hemodynamically stable and SpO2 < 90% on presentation were included. Oxygen was administered through facemask, non-rebreathing mask and noninvasive ventilation to patients as per requirement. Patients were encouraged to maintain prone position and target time was 10-12 hours/day. SpO2 and P/f ratio in supine and prone position was observed till discharge. Primary target was SpO2 > 95% and P/f > 200 mm Hg. Other COVID therapies were used according to institutional protocol. RESULTS: The mean SpO2 on room air on admission was 80%. In day 1 to 3, the mean P/f ratio in supine position was 98.8 ± 29.7 mm Hg which improved to 136.6 ± 38.8 mm Hg after proning (p = 0.005). The difference was significant from day 1 to 10. Two patients were intubated. The mean duration of stay was 11 days. CONCLUSION: Awake prone positioning showed marked improvement in P/f ratio and SpO2 in COVID-19 patients with improvement in clinical symptoms with reduced rate of intubation. HIGHLIGHTS: Prone position ventilation improves oxygenation by reducing V/Q mismatch.Awake prone positioning has been used along with high-flow oxygen therapy in recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus for management of mild to moderate cases. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Singh P, Jain P, Deewan H. Awake Prone Positioning in COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(10):914-918.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3360-3368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute neurological phenotypes are being increasingly recognised, with neurological complications reported in more than 30% of hospitalised patients. However, multicentric studies providing a population-based perspective are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentric study at five hospitals in Northern Portugal, representing 45.1% of all hospitalised patients in this region, between 1 March and 30 June 2020. RESULTS: Among 1261 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, 457 (36.2%) presented neurological manifestations, corresponding to a rate of 357 per 1000 in the North Region. Patients with neurologic manifestations were younger (68.0 vs. 71.2 years, p = 0.002), and the most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (13.4%), delirium (10.1%), and impairment of consciousness (9.7%). Acute well-defined central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 19.1% of patients, corresponding to a rate of 217 per 1000 hospitalised patients in the whole region. Assuming that all patients with severe neurological events were hospitalised, we extrapolated our results to all COVID-19 patients in the region, estimating that 116 will have a severe neurological event, corresponding to a rate of nine per 1000 (95% CI = 7-11). Overall case fatality in patients presenting neurological manifestations was 19.8%, increasing to 32.6% among those with acute well-defined CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised the population of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Northern Portugal and found that neurological symptoms are common and associated with a high degree of disability at discharge. CNS involvement with criteria for in-hospital admission was observed in a significant proportion of patients. This knowledge provides the tools for adequate health planning and for improving COVID-19 multidisciplinary patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4208-e4213, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe adult respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January to 5 February. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy of treatment after hospitalization, and the differences between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with patients with general COVID-19 (45.2%), those with refractory disease were older, were more likely to be male, and had more underlying comorbid conditions, a lower incidence of fever, higher maximum temperatures among patients with fever, higher incidences of shortness of breath and anorexia, more severe disease assessment at admission, higher neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels, lower platelet counts and albumin levels, and higher incidences of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P < .05). Patients with refractory COVID-19 were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immune enhancers (P < .05). Considering the factors of disease severity at admission, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit transfer, patients with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to be male, have manifestations of anorexia on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant, and adjunctive agents (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In nearly 50% of patients with COVID-19 obvious clinical and radiological remission was not achieved within 10 days after hospitalization. Male, anorexia, and no fever at admission was predictive of poor treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(3): 417-425, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are admitted to intensive care units so they can be comprehensively managed and provided with services not covered in general hospital wards, with the aim to increase their chances of survival. These procedures include invasive mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit of a tertiary-level hospital in Colombia. METHODS: This was a retrospective follow-up study of a cohort of adult patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit in San José de Buga Hospital, between 2017 and 2018. Sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were identified. Using Cox regression, variables associated with survival and complications were identified. RESULTS: A total of 357 patients were analyzed. The average age was 64.8 ± 18.9 years, and 52.9% were male. The most frequent diagnoses were sepsis/septic shock (38.4%) and trauma (17.4%). The main factors associated with shorter survival were advanced age (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.99), a diagnosis of septic shock (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.18-0.48) or diabetes mellitus at admission (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.33-0.98), a healthcare-associated infection (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.80), and the need for vasopressors (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59). The administration of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a higher probability of survival (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.15-3.25). CONCLUSIONS: The use of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a greater probability of survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. The identification of the variables associated with a higher risk of dying should allow care protocols to be improved, thereby extending the life expectancy of these patients.

5.
Vox Sang ; 116(9): 983-989, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused a sudden and unexpected increase in the number of hospital admissions and deaths worldwide. The impact of social distancing on blood stocks was significant. Data on the use of blood products by patients with COVID-19 are scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted by analysing the medical records of 3014 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in 16 Brazilian hospitals. Individual data related to clinical, laboratory and transfusion characteristics and outcomes of these patients were collected. Patients characteristics association with mortality and transfusion need were tested independently by logistic regression models. RESULTS: Patients mean age was 57·6 years. In 2298 (76·2%) patients, there was an underlying clinical comorbidity. A total of 1657 (55%) patients required admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and 943 (31%) patients required ventilatory support and orotracheal intubation (OTI). There was a total of 471 (15·6%) deaths among all patients. 325 patients (10·7%) required blood transfusion; 3187 blood products were transfused: 1364 red blood cells in 303 patients, 1092 platelet units in 78 patients, 303 fresh frozen plasma in 49 patients and 423 cryoprecipitates in 21 patients. The mortality among patients who received transfusion was substantially higher than that among the total study population. CONCLUSION: Need for transfusion was low in COVID-19 patients, but significantly higher in patients admitted to ICU and in those who needed OTI. Knowledge of the transfusion profile of these patients allows better strategies for maintaining the blood stocks of hospitals during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Transfusion , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 46-51, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was diagnosed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and, in Ghana, in March 2020. As of 30th July 2020, Ghana had recorded 35,142 cases. COVID-19 which can be transmitted by both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals usually manifest as pneumonia with symptoms like fever, cough, dyspnoea and fatigue. The current non-availability of a vaccine or drug for COVID-19 management calls for early detection and isolation of affected individuals. Chest imaging has become an integral part of patient management with chest radiography serving as a primary imaging modality in many centres. METHODS: The study was a retrospective study conducted at Ga East Municipal Hospital (GEMH). Chest radiographs of patients with mild to moderate disease managed at GEMH were evaluated. The age, gender, symptom status, comorbidities and chest x-ray findings of the patients were documented. RESULTS: 11.4 % of the patients had some form of respiratory abnormality on chest radiography with 88.9% showing COVID-19 pneumonia features. 93.8% showed ground glass opacities (GGO), with 3.1% each showing consolidation (CN) only and CN with GGO. There was a significant association between COVID-19 radiographic features and patient's age, symptom status and comorbidities but not with gender. CONCLUSION: Most radiographs were normal with only 11% showing COVID-19-like abnormality. There was a significant association between age, symptom status and comorbidities with the presence of COVID-19 like features but not for gender. There was no association between the extent of the lung changes and patient characteristics. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
7.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 293-298, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380101

ABSTRACT

The prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be clarified. In this retrospective study, COVID-19 patients treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 7 to February 8, 2020 with measurements of serum IL-6 levels within 1 week after admission were included. Data regarding demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, complications, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Sixty-six patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study (31 patients were females). They were divided into a normal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 35) and an abnormal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 31). Compared with the normal group, the incidence of critical cases (P <0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P = 0.001), acute cardiac injury (P = 0.002), cardiac insufficiency (P = 0.039), mechanical ventilation rate (P = 0.002), and mortality (P = 0.021) was significantly increased in the abnormal group. Serum IL-6 concentration was an independent predictor of fatal outcome (P = 0.04). The optimal cutoff value of serum IL-6 concentration for predicting fatal outcomes was 26.09 pg/mL (P <0.001). In COVID-19, elevated serum IL-6 levels were associated with critical illness, use of mechanical ventilation, and complications, including heart injury and ARDS, and could predict a fatal outcome. Early detection of serum IL-6 levels after admission should be necessary in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(3): e13632, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The profiles of liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 patients need to be clarified. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients over 60 years old in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1 to February 6 were included. Data of demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, medications and outcomes were collected and analysed. Sequential alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were monitored. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included and classified into two groups with normal (n = 234) or elevated ALT (n = 96). There were fewer females (40.6% vs 54.7%, P = .020) and more critical cases (30.2% vs 19.2%, P = .026) in patients with elevated ALT compared with the normal group. Higher levels of bacterial infection indices (eg, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) were observed in the elevated group. Spearman correlation showed that both ALT and AST levels were positively correlated with those indices of bacterial infection. No obvious effects of medications on ALT abnormalities were found. In patients with elevated ALT, most ALT elevations were mild and transient. 59.4% of the patients had ALT concentrations of 41-100 U/L, while only a few patients (5.2%) had high serum ALT concentrations above 300 U/L. ALT elevations occurred at 13 (10-17) days and recovered at 28 (18-35) days from disease onset. For most patients, the elevation of serum ALT levels occurred at 6-20 days after disease onset and reached their peak values within a similar time frame. The recovery of serum ALT levels to normal frequently occurred at 16-20 days or 31-35 days after disease onset. CONCLUSIONS: Liver function abnormalities were observed in 29.1% of elderly people COVID-19 patients, which were slightly and transient in most cases. Liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 may be correlated with bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Liver , Liver Function Tests , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/methods , United States
10.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(2): 020710, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed several challenges to clinical laboratories across the globe. Amidst the outbreak, errors occurring in the preanalytical phase of sample collection, transport and processing, can further lead to undesirable clinical consequences. Thus, this study was designed with the following objectives: (i) to determine and compare the blood specimen rejection rate of a clinical laboratory and (ii) to characterise and compare the types of preanalytical errors between the pre-pandemic and the pandemic phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out in a trauma-care hospital, presently converted to COVID-19 care centre. Data was collected from (i) pre-pandemic phase: 1st October 2019 to 23rd March 2020 and (ii) pandemic phase: 24th March to 31st October 2020. Blood specimen rejection rate was calculated as the proportion of blood collection tubes with preanalytical errors out of the total number received, expressed as percentage. RESULTS: Total of 107,716 blood specimens were screened of which 43,396 (40.3%) were received during the pandemic. The blood specimen rejection rate during the pandemic was significantly higher than the pre-pandemic phase (3.0% versus 1.1%; P < 0.001). Clotted samples were the commonest source of preanalytical errors in both phases. There was a significant increase in the improperly labelled samples (P < 0.001) and samples with insufficient volume (P < 0.001), whereas, a significant decline in samples with inadequate sample-anticoagulant ratio and haemolysed samples (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the ongoing pandemic, preanalytical errors and resultant blood specimen rejection rate in the clinical laboratory have significantly increased due to changed logistics. The study highlights the need for corrective steps at various levels to reduce preanalytical errors in order to optimise patient care and resource utilisation.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pre-Analytical Phase , Blood Specimen Collection/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 258, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, due to the traffic blockade and the shortage of medical resources, more and more premature infants could not receive timely and effective ROP screening, which delayed treatment and even caused children blindness. Therefore, how to carry out ROP screening safely and effectively during the epidemic was very important and urgent. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of ROP screening assisted by telemedicine network during COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Wuhan Children's hospital in Wuhan, China, from January to October, 2020. The measures which were performed to make the ROP screening more safe and effective were summarized and the comparison between ROP screening assisted by telemedicine network in 2020 and usual screening in 2019 were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 267 outpatient infants completed ROP screening. The median gestational age was 32 weeks (30w to 34w) and the median birth weight was 1780 g (1460 g to 2100 g). Meanwhile, 149 (55.8%) out of 267 infants were males. During January to May in 2020, 86 screening appointments were received, among which 67 (77.9%) were from telemedicine platform online. The completing percentage of total online ROP appointments was higher than that of total face-to-face appointments (58.1% VS 22. 1%, P = 0.018). As for the number of infants screened between 2020 and 2019 from Februaryto October, 54 infants completed ROP screening in 2020, which was higher than that (51participants) in 2019 on September. Furthermore, compared with the usual screening in 2019, ROP screening assisted by telemedicine network in 2020 had smaller gestational age (32w VS 33w, p<0.001) and lower birth weight (1780 g VS 1900 g, p = 0.001). However, of the 267 infants screened, 18(6.7%) had ROP while the percentage of ROP screened in 2019 was the same (44[6.7%]). During follow-up, none of medical staffs was infected and no adverse reaction was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The screening for retinopathy of prematurity assisted by telemedicine network was safe and feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preventive measures before and after screening were very necessary, which could effectively avoid cross infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinopathy of Prematurity , Telemedicine , Child , China/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neonatal Screening , Pandemics , Retinopathy of Prematurity/diagnosis , Retinopathy of Prematurity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(6): 568-576, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is generally diagnosed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR or serological assays. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load decreases a few days after symptom onset. Thus, the RT-PCR sensitivity peaks at three days after symptom onset (approximately 80%). We evaluated the performance of the ARCHITECT® SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (henceforth termed IgG assay; Abbott Laboratories, Lake County, IL, USA), and the combination of RT-PCR and the IgG assay for COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 206 samples from 70 COVID-19 cases at two hospitals in Tokyo that were positive using RT-PCR were used to analyze the diagnostic sensitivity. RT-PCR-negative (N=166), COVID-19-unrelated (N=418), and Japanese Red Cross Society (N=100) samples were used to evaluate specificity. RESULTS: Sensitivity increased daily after symptom onset and exceeded 84.4% after 10 days. Specificity ranged from 98.2% to 100% for samples from the three case groups. Seroconversion was confirmed from 9 to 20 days after symptom onset in 18 out of 32 COVID-19 cases with multiple samples and from another case with a positive result in the IgG assay for the first available sample. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of RT-PCR and IgG assay improves the robustness of laboratory diagnostics by compensating for the limitations of each method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(8): 409-412, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262256

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) guidelines recommend delaying clinical care for all affected cancer patients, including incidentally diagnosed asymptomatic infections. This retrospective study conducted in a safety-net hospital in Houston examines the care delivery of asymptomatic COVID-19 cancer patients and how their diagnosis affected their care. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on cancer patients with a documented positive SARS-CoV-2 laboratory result in the Harris Health System in Houston, Texas. Patient demographics, treatment delays, and patient outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirteen percent (n=24) of all patients with cancer and COVID-19 diagnosis (n=181) were asymptomatic and 96% had a solid organ malignancy. Among asymptomatic patients, 44% (n=11) of them experienced a median treatment delay of 33 days and 21% (n=5) transitioned to hospice. No patients had progression of disease at first evaluation after recovering from COVID-19 diagnosis. Asymptomatic patients were more likely to have a worse ECOG performance status, metastatic disease, and charity insurance as compared with symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the safety of our current isolation guidelines for all COVID-19 asymptomatic cancer patients. While treatment delays occurred, they did not appear to significantly impact overall care. Differences in care delivery and health care usage patterns between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients demonstrate the need for continued studies in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Safety-net Providers , Tertiary Care Centers , Texas/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment
14.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 21-30, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the Italian and European literature there are still few studies describing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the organization of nursing care in hospitals, on the actions taken by nursing leaders to contain it, and on the outcomes of these interventions. AIM: To describe nursing leaders' experiences with reorganizing healthcare pathways, through management data and personal accounts. METHODS: A retrospective quali-quantitative observational study was conducted at the Mauriziano Hospital in Turin, with 484 beds and over 1,700 workers. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistical indices and integrated with qualitative data collected through semi-structured telephone interviews. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data provided an objective and experiential representation of the implemented interventions. RESULTS: We described the impact of interventions introduced by the nursing leadership during the pandemic on hospital services. In particular, the reorganization of the emergency department and of the prevention and psychological support services for the hospital's health workers. In addition, specific initiatives to support the discharge of COVID-19 positive patients, and to support and manage contacts with family members both during the hospitalization of their loved ones and following death are described. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the discussion on some crucial issues: the increasingly clear relationship between adequate staffing and safety of patients and professionals, the importance of a good working environment and a solid leadership, the importance of continuing education for professionals and adequate skill mixes; all highlighted by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Leadership , Nursing Care/organization & administration , Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration , Education, Continuing , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Italy , Nurse Administrators/organization & administration , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies
15.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 86, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in severe SARS-CoV2-related pneumonia ICU patients, few data are still available about its risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective observational study performed in four university affiliated hospitals in Paris. AKI was defined according to the KIDGO guidelines. Factors associated with AKI were picked up using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression. Independent risk factors of day 28 mortality were assessed using Cox model. RESULTS: 379 patients (median age 62 [53,69], 77% of male) were included. Half of the patients had AKI (n = 195, 52%) including 58 patients (15%) with AKI stage 1, 44 patients (12%) with AKI stage 2, and 93 patients (25% with AKI stage 3). Chronic kidney disease (OR 7.41; 95% CI 2.98-18.4), need for invasive mechanical ventilation at day 1 (OR 4.83; 95% CI 2.26-10.3), need for vasopressors at day 1 (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.05-4.21) were associated with increased risk of AKI. Day 28 mortality in the cohort was 26.4% and was higher in patients with AKI (37.4 vs. 14.7%, P < 0.001). Neither AKI (HR 1.35; 95% CI 0.78-2.32) nor AKI stage were associated with mortality (HR [95% CI] for stage 1, 2 and 3 when compared to no AKI of, respectively, 1.02 [0.49-2.10], 1.73 [0.81-3.68] and 1.42 [0.78-2.58]). CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of SARS-CoV2-related pneumonia patients admitted to the ICU, AKI was frequent, mostly driven by preexisting chronic kidney disease and life sustaining therapies, with unclear adjusted relationship with day 28 outcome.

16.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 33, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant strain on healthcare resources and this requires diligent resource re-allocation. We aim to describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) during this period as compared to non-pandemic period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. The study compared the incidence and outcomes of code blue activations over a 3-month period from March to May 2020 (COVID-19 period) with the same months in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period). The primary outcome of the study was the rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA. The secondary outcomes included incidence of all code blue activation per 1000 hospital admissions, incidence of IHCA per 1000 hospital admissions. OUTCOMES: The rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA was 5.88% in the COVID-19 period as compared to 10.0% in the pre-COVID-19 period [odds ratio (OR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-1.95]. Compared to pre-COVID-19 period, there were more IHCA incidences per 1000 hospital admissions in the COVID-19 period (1.86 vs 1.03; OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.41). CONCLUSIONS: The study observed a trend towards higher incidence of IHCA and lower rate of survival to hospital discharge during COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19 period.

17.
Future Virol ; 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244946

ABSTRACT

Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a life-threatening disease and how to improve survival of the patients is of great importance. Objective: To determine whether tocilizumab (TCZ) shows favorable results in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Materials & methods: A retrospective study of four patients who received TCZ was conducted from 19 February to 31 March 2020 at Leishenshan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Clinical data of patients were compared before and after the administration of the agent. Results: There was not much difference in the clinical feature improvements and computed tomography images after TCZ administration in two mild patients. The other two severe patients died of disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of TCZ was not shown a favorable outcome in this preliminary uncontrolled case series.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10902, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243311

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to detect the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective single-center study, we included 67 COVID-19 patients with onset time within 2 weeks in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 9 to February 29, 2020. Patients were divided into EBV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection group and SARS-CoV-2 infection alone group according to the serological results of EBV, and the characteristics differences between the two groups were compared. The median age was 37 years, with 35 (52.2%) females. Among these COVID-19 patients, thirty-seven (55.2%) patients were seropositive for EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibody. EBV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection patients had a 3.09-fold risk of having a fever symptom than SARS-CoV-2 infection alone patients (95% CI 1.11-8.56; P = 0.03). C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.02) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.04) in EBV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection patients were higher than that in SARS-CoV-2 infection alone patients. EBV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection patients had a higher portion of corticosteroid use than the SARS-CoV-2 infection alone patients (P = 0.03). We find a high incidence of EBV coinfection in COVID-19 patients. EBV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection was associated with fever and increased inflammation. EBV reactivation may associated with the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Female , Fever/etiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder that frequently causes acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the precise clinical and biochemical variables associated with AKI progression in patients with severe COVID-19 remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on 278 hospitalized patients who were admitted to the ward and intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 between March 2020 and June 2020, at the University Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with COVID-19 confirmed on RT-PCR were included. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We evaluated the incidence of AKI, several clinical variables, medicines used, and outcomes in two sub-groups: COVID-19 patients with AKI (Cov-AKI), and COVID-19 patients without AKI (non-AKI). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: First, an elevated incidence of AKI (71.2%) was identified, distributed across different stages of the KDIGO criteria. We further observed higher levels of creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the Cov-AKI group than in the non-AKI group, at hospital admission. On univariate analysis, Cov-AKI was associated with older age (>62 years), hypertension, CRP, MCV, leucocytes, neutrophils, NLR, combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment, use of mechanical ventilation, and vasoactive drugs. Multivariate analysis showed that hypertension and the use of vasoactive drugs were independently associated with a risk of higher AKI in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we preferentially found an altered erythrocyte and leukocyte cellular profile in the Cov-AKI group compared to the non-AKI group, at hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the development of AKI in patients with severe COVID-19 was related to inflammatory blood markers and therapy with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, with vasopressor requirement and hypertension considered potential risk factors. Thus, attention to the protocol, hypertension, and some blood markers may help assist doctors with decision-making for the management of COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(17): e114, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is underway globally to prevent the infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to investigate the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) for COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of the AEFIs associated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital from March 3 to March 22, 2021. We investigated the systemic and local adverse events during the 7 days following the vaccination using the Mobile Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (MVAERS) developed by our hospital. RESULTS: A total of 1,503 HCWs were vaccinated, and the data of 994 HCWs were reported in the MVAERS. The most commonly reported AEFIs were tenderness at the injection site (94.5%), fatigue (92.9%), pain at the injection site (88.0%), and malaise (83.8%). The severity of most AEFIs was mild-to-moderate, and the severity and number of AEFIs were less in the older age group. There were no serious events requiring hospitalization, and most AEFIs improved within a few days. CONCLUSION: The AEFIs associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were tolerable, and the use of the MVAERS was helpful in monitoring the AEFIs. The use of MVAERS will help in sharing accurate and ample information about vaccination against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Age Factors , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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