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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 107, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 presents challenges to the emergency care system that could lead to emergency department (ED) crowding. The Huddinge site at the Karolinska university hospital (KH) responded through a rapid transformation of inpatient care capacity together with changing working methods in the ED. The aim is to describe the KH response to the COVID-19 crisis, and how ED crowding, and important input, throughput and output factors for ED crowding developed at KH during a 30-day baseline period followed by the first 60 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in Stockholm Region. METHODS: Different phases in the development of the crisis were described and identified retrospectively based on major events that changed the conditions for the ED. Results were presented for each phase separately. The outcome ED length of stay (ED LOS) was calculated with mean and 95% confidence intervals. Input, throughput, output and demographic factors were described using distributions, proportions and means. Pearson correlation between ED LOS and emergency ward occupancy by phase was estimated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: As new working methods were introduced between phase 2 and 3, ED LOS declined from mean (95% CI) 386 (373-399) minutes to 307 (297-317). Imaging proportion was reduced from 29 to 18% and admission rate increased from 34 to 43%. Correlation (95% CI) between emergency ward occupancy and ED LOS by phase was 0.94 (0.55-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to avoid ED crowding, even during extreme and quickly changing conditions by leveraging previously known input, throughput and output factors. One key factor was the change in working methods in the ED with higher competence, less diagnostics and increased focus on rapid clinical admission decisions. Another important factor was the reduction in bed occupancy in emergency wards that enabled a timely admission to inpatient care. A key limitation was the retrospective study design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Crowding , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bed Occupancy , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 66, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for validated clinical risk scores to identify patients at risk of severe disease and to guide decision-making during the covid-19 pandemic. The National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) is widely used in emergency medicine, but so far, no studies have evaluated its use in patients with covid-19. We aimed to study the performance of NEWS2 and compare commonly used clinical risk stratification tools at admission to predict risk of severe disease and in-hospital mortality in patients with covid-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in a public non-university general hospital in the Oslo area, Norway, including a cohort of all 66 patients hospitalised with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from the start of the pandemic; 13 who died during hospital stay and 53 who were discharged alive. Data were collected consecutively from March 9th to April 27th 2020. The main outcome was the ability of the NEWS2 score and other clinical risk scores at emergency department admission to predict severe disease and in-hospital mortality in covid-19 patients. We calculated sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NEWS2 scores ≥5 and ≥ 6, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score ≥ 2, ≥2 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and CRB-65 score ≥ 2. Areas under the curve (AUCs) for the clinical risk scores were compared using DeLong's test. RESULTS: In total, 66 patients (mean age 67.9 years) were included. Of these, 23% developed severe disease. In-hospital mortality was 20%. Tachypnoea, hypoxemia and confusion at admission were more common in patients developing severe disease. A NEWS2 score ≥ 6 at admission predicted severe disease with 80.0% sensitivity and 84.3% specificity (Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.822, 95% CI 0.690-0.953). NEWS2 was superior to qSOFA score ≥ 2 (AUC 0.624, 95% CI 0.446-0.810, p < 0.05) and other clinical risk scores for this purpose. CONCLUSION: NEWS2 score at hospital admission predicted severe disease and in-hospital mortality, and was superior to other widely used clinical risk scores in patients with covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Early Warning Score , Hospital Mortality , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Am Coll Clin Pharm ; 3(8): 1458-1463, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898811

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected health care systems around the world. In many hospitals and health care facilities, services and health care workers have been reorganized and restructured to meet the demands of the pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on hospital-based clinical pharmacists and their ability to deliver pharmaceutical care is currently unknown. Objective: This study aimed to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital-based clinical pharmacists working in Malaysia and the implications on how clinical pharmacy is perceived as a health care service. Methods: A qualitative study was designed to meet the research objectives. Nineteen hospital-based clinical pharmacists consented and participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using an iterative thematic analysis approach. Results: The experiences and views of the participants were reported. Three main themes were developed: "Reassignment and other changes in clinical pharmacist roles," "Adapting clinical pharmacy services to COVID-19," and "The need for clinical pharmacists in the ward." The findings indicate that in many cases, clinical pharmacy services were fully or partially withdrawn from the ward to reduce the risk of infection and to conserve the usage of personal protective equipment. Despite this, clinical pharmacists continued to support patient care in hospitals through the use of technology. The withdrawal of clinical pharmacy services, however, raises concern that the role of clinical pharmacists is still poorly recognized. Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists in hospitals continue to support patient care despite the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Greater support and recognition of their role is required in order to empower and enhance their ability to deliver pharmaceutical care.

4.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2511-2518, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the mental health condition of the world's population. Although the direct effect of COVID-19 on the mental health status of chronic medical patients is well understood, the burden of depression and anxiety on patients with chronic medical conditions is not well studied yet. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and associated factors among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Mettu, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to July 30, 2020 among chronic medical patients in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Consecutive sampling technique was applied with a total of 423 samples. Quantitative data were employed by using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistical procedures, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions with odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed. The statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings showed that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among chronic medical patients was 55.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Female gender (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI (1.06, 2.59)), poor social support (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.10, 3.42)), widowed/divorced (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI (1.59, 9.64)), separated (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI (1.64, 8.19)), and longer duration of illness (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.15, 2.89)) were significantly associated with depression, whereas earlier age at onset of illness, having more than three co-morbid diagnoses, tobacco use and poor social support were found to have significant association with anxiety among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of concurrent depression and anxiety in the current study was high. Strategies for prompt identification and treatment of depression and anxiety should be developed among medically ill patients.

5.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(1): 89-96, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) can accurately diagnose several pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, effusion, and pneumonia. LUS may be useful in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. METHODS: This study was conducted at two United States hospitals from 3/21/2020 to 6/01/2020. Our inclusion criteria included hospitalized adults with COVID-19 (based on symptomatology and a confirmatory RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2) who received a LUS. Providers used a 12-zone LUS scanning protocol. The images were interpreted by the researchers based on a pre-developed consensus document. Patients were stratified by clinical deterioration (defined as either ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death within 28 days from the initial symptom onset) and time from symptom onset to their scan. RESULTS: N = 22 patients (N = 36 scans) were included. Eleven (50%) patients experienced clinical deterioration. Among N = 36 scans, only 3 (8%) were classified as normal. The remaining scans demonstrated B-lines (89%), consolidations (56%), pleural thickening (47%), and pleural effusion (11%). Scans from patients with clinical deterioration demonstrated higher percentages of bilateral consolidations (50 versus 15%; P = .033), anterior consolidations (47 versus 11%; P = .047), lateral consolidations (71 versus 29%; P = .030), pleural thickening (69 versus 30%; P = .045), but not B-lines (100 versus 80%; P = .11). Abnormal findings had similar prevalences between scans collected 0-6 days and 14-28 days from symptom onset. DISCUSSION: Certain LUS findings may be common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially for those that experience clinical deterioration. These findings may occur anytime throughout the first 28 days of illness. Future efforts should investigate the predictive utility of these findings on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4197-e4205, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently require mechanical ventilation and have high mortality rates. However, the impact of viral burden on these outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from 30 March 2020 to 30 April 2020 at 2 hospitals in New York City. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load was assessed using cycle threshold (Ct) values from a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay applied to nasopharyngeal swab samples. We compared characteristics and outcomes of patients with high, medium, and low admission viral loads and assessed whether viral load was independently associated with intubation and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 678 patients with COVID-19. Higher viral load was associated with increased age, comorbidities, smoking status, and recent chemotherapy. In-hospital mortality was 35.0% (Ct <25; n = 220), 17.6% (Ct 25-30; n = 216), and 6.2% (Ct >30; n = 242) with high, medium, and low viral loads, respectively (P < .001). The risk of intubation was also higher in patients with a high viral load (29.1%) compared with those with a medium (20.8%) or low viral load (14.9%; P < .001). High viral load was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.92-12.52) and intubation (aOR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.68-4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Admission SARS-CoV-2 viral load among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 independently correlates with the risk of intubation and in-hospital mortality. Providing this information to clinicians could potentially be used to guide patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 585003, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556373

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying clinical-features or a scoring-system to predict a benefit from hospital admission for patients with COVID-19 can be of great value for the decision-makers in the health sector. We aimed to identify differences in patients' demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of COVID-19 positive cases to develop and validate a diagnostic-model predicting who will develop severe-form and who will need critical-care in the future. Methods: In this observational retrospective study, COVID-19 positive cases (total 417) diagnosed in Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE were recruited, and their prognosis in terms of admission to the hospital and the need for intensive care was reviewed until their tests turned negative. Patients were classified according to their clinical state into mild, moderate, severe, and critical. We retrieved all the baseline clinical data, laboratory, and radiological results and used them to identify parameters that can predict admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Patients with ICU admission showed a distinct clinical, demographic as well as laboratory features when compared to patients who did not need ICU admission. This includes the elder age group, male gender, and presence of comorbidities like diabetes and history of hypertension. ROC and Precision-Recall curves showed that among all variables, D dimers (>1.5 mg/dl), Urea (>6.5 mmol/L), and Troponin (>13.5 ng/ml) could positively predict the admission to ICU in patients with COVID-19. On the other hand, decreased Lymphocyte count and albumin can predict admission to ICU in patients with COVID-19 with acceptable sensitivity (59.32, 95% CI [49.89-68.27]) and specificity (79.31, 95% CI [72.53-85.07]). Conclusion: Using these three predictors with their cut of values can identify patients who are at risk of developing critical COVID-19 and might need aggressive intervention earlier in the course of the disease.

8.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1768-1775, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We performed a population-based study to describe the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This prospective, population-based study included pregnant women who consecutively presented at first/second trimester visits or at delivery at 3 hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (immunoglobulin [Ig] G and IgM/IgA) were measured in all participants, and nasopharyngeal real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed at delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of pregnancy complications in SARS-CoV-2-positive vs negative women that included miscarriage, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, perinatal death, small-for-gestational-age newborn, or neonatal admission. Secondary outcomes were components of the primary outcome plus abnormal fetal growth, malformation, or intrapartum fetal distress. Outcomes were also compared between positive symptomatic and positive asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 women. RESULTS: Of 2225 pregnant women, 317 (14.2%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (n = 314, 99.1%) and/or RT-PCR (n = 36, 11.4%). Among positive women, 217 (68.5%) were asymptomatic, 93 (29.3%) had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and 7 (2.2%) had pneumonia, of whom 3 required intensive care unit admission. In women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the primary outcome occurred in 43 (13.6%) and 268 (14%), respectively (risk difference, -0.4%; 95% confidence interval, -4.1% to 4.1). Compared with noninfected women, those with symptomatic COVID-19 had increased rates of preterm delivery (7.2% vs 16.9%, P = .003) and intrapartum fetal distress (9.1% vs 19.2%, P = .004), while asymptomatic women had rates that were similar to those of noninfected cases. Among 143 fetuses from infected mothers, none had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgA in cord blood. CONCLUSIONS: The overall rate of pregnancy complications in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to that of noninfected women. However, symptomatic COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in preterm delivery and intrapartum fetal distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(8): 1459-1468, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against a spectrum of severe disease, including critical illness and death, remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative study in an intensive care unit (ICU) network at 10 US hospitals to evaluate VE for preventing influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) during the 2019-2020 season, which was characterized by circulation of drifted A/H1N1 and B-lineage viruses. Cases were adults hospitalized in the ICU and a targeted number outside the ICU (to capture a spectrum of severity) with laboratory-confirmed, influenza-associated SARI. Test-negative controls were frequency-matched based on hospital, timing of admission, and care location (ICU vs non-ICU). Estimates were adjusted for age, comorbidities, and other confounders. RESULTS: Among 638 patients, the median (interquartile) age was 57 (44-68) years; 286 (44.8%) patients were treated in the ICU and 42 (6.6%) died during hospitalization. Forty-five percent of cases and 61% of controls were vaccinated, which resulted in an overall VE of 32% (95% CI: 2-53%), including 28% (-9% to 52%) against influenza A and 52% (13-74%) against influenza B. VE was higher in adults 18-49 years old (62%; 95% CI: 27-81%) than those aged 50-64 years (20%; -48% to 57%) and ≥65 years old (-3%; 95% CI: -97% to 46%) (P = .0789 for interaction). VE was significantly higher against influenza-associated death (80%; 95% CI: 4-96%) than nonfatal influenza illness. CONCLUSIONS: During a season with drifted viruses, vaccination reduced severe influenza-associated illness among adults by 32%. VE was high among young adults.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(1): 285-296, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Advanced breast cancer (BC) at diagnosis is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including among women living with HIV (WLWH). In public hospitals across South Africa (SA), 10-15% of women present with stage IV BC, compared to < 5% in the United States (US); 20% of new BC diagnoses in SA are in WLWH. We evaluated the impact of HIV on overall survival (OS) among women with stage IV BC. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with stage IV BC between February 2, 2015 and September 18, 2019 at six public hospitals in SA. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between HIV status and OS. RESULTS: Among 550 eligible women, 147 (26.7%) were WLWH. Compared to HIV-negative BC patients, WLWH were younger (median age 45 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), predominantly black (95.9% vs. 77.9%, p < 0.001), and more likely to have hormone receptor-negative (hormone-negative) BC (32.7% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.016). Most women received systemic cancer-directed therapy (80.1%). HIV status was not associated with treatment or OS (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.13 [95%CI 0.89-1.44]). On exploratory subgroup analysis, WLWH and hormone-negative BC had shorter OS compared to HIV-uninfected women (1-year OS: 27.1% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.003; HR 1.94 [95%CI 1.27-2.94]; p = 0.002), which was not observed for hormone receptor-positive BC. CONCLUSION: HIV status was not associated with worse OS in women with stage IV BC in SA and cannot account for the poor survival in this cohort. Subgroup analysis revealed that WLWH with hormone-negative BC had worse OS, which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , HIV Infections , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , United States
13.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(1): 52-58, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the correlation between bispectral index (BIS) value and modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score in dogs with altered level of consciousness (ALOC). DESIGN: This prospective, observational, clinical study was conducted from February 2016 to March 2017, and follow-up was conducted until the death of dogs or their discharge from the hospital. SETTING: This study was performed at the Small Animal Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: A total of 31 client-owned dogs (males, 20; females, 11) with ALOC and MGCS score <18 with no restrictions for age, breed, sex, and body weight were included. Dogs that received neuromuscular blocking agents before MGCS score evaluation were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: BIS values were measured using the Covidien BIS Loc 2 Channel OEM module and a pediatric 4 sensor with a bifrontal application pattern. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Minimal databases of initial neurological assessment, blood profiles, and chest and skull radiographs were developed. In addition, MGCS scores and BIS values were recorded. The mean BIS values for mild, moderate, and severe brain injuries were 89.14 ± 6.52, 77.21 ± 9.82, and 50.58 ± 27.04, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship between BIS values and MGCS scores (r = 0.75; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The significant correlation observed between MGCS scores and BIS values in dogs with ALOC demonstrated the usefulness of BIS as an alternative to MGCS for monitoring consciousness in patients with ALOC caused by traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, etc.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Glasgow Coma Scale/veterinary , Monitoring, Physiologic/veterinary , Unconsciousness/veterinary , Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Prospective Studies , Unconsciousness/diagnosis
14.
Int J Nurs Stud Adv ; 3: 100026, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing pandemic all over the world, leading to 126, 372, 442 people diagnosed and 2, 769, 696 deaths globally as of March 28, 2021. Nurses are providing care to patients with COVID-19 who require hospitalization. To ensure adequate response capacity and to maintain the health of nurses, it is important to analyse the actual work hours and the nurses reported preferred work hours per shift among frontline nurses. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the actual work hours and preferred work hours per shift of nurses reports among frontline nurses fighting the COVID-19 epidemic and to explore the influencing factors on the nurses reported preferred work hours. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in 10 designated hospitals providing treatments to patients with COVID-19 in China. PARTICIPANTS: Nurses providing care to patients with COVID-19 in designated hospitals in China. METHODS: A questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to assess frontline nurses caring for COVID-19 cases in 10 designated hospitals. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyse the actual work hours, the nurses reported preferred work hours and factors influencing nurses reported preferred work hours among the frontline nurses. RESULTS: A total of 109 nurses responded to the survey. The shift length exceeded the nurses' preferred work hours [Median (interquartile range): 5.00 (2.00) h vs 4.00 (2.00) h; Minimum-Maximum: 4-12 h vs 4-8 h], and 60.55% (66/109) of the nurses regarded 4 h as the preferred number of work hours per shift. Five key themes associated with the influencing factors emerged, including circumstances; personal preventable equipment; the nurses' physical and emotional needs of nurse; and the nurses' safety needs and work intensity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that there is a gap between the actual work hours and the nurses preferred work hours among frontline nurses in different units and different posts. The main influencing factors were circumstances, personal protective equipment, the nurses' physical and emotional needs, and the nurses' safety needs and work intensity.

15.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(6): 277-280, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize health care-related adverse events in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who died in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study, that included patients who died at HUGTiP hospital between 16 March and 10 April 2020. Data was extracted from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: The median age of the 164 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients who died in the center in the study period was 77.5 years and >90% of patients had ≥1 comorbidity. Forty point two percent of patients had at least ≥1 health care-related adverse event. Twenty three point eight of patients had an adverse drug reaction, the leading cause of adverse events in patients who died. Of patients who died in intensive care units, the frequency of problems related to mechanical ventilation was 8.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Although the case fatality rate associated with the adverse events detected was very low, close monitoring of potential health care-related adverse events, especially drug reactions, as the therapeutic management of the disease remains unclear.


OBJETIVO: Caracterizar los eventos adversos relacionados con la asistencia sanitaria en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 fallecidos en un hospital de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron los pacientes fallecidos en el centro entre el 16 de marzo y el 10 de abril de 2020. La información fue extraída desde la historia clínica electrónica. RESULTADOS: La mediana de edad de los 164 pacientes analizados fue de 77,5 años. Más de 9 de cada 10 pacientes fallecidos presentaban al menos una comorbilidad. El 40,2% de los pacientes presentó al menos un evento adverso (EA) asociado a la atención sanitaria. Un 23,8% de los pacientes presentó alguna reacción adversa a medicamentos, constituyendo la primera causa de EA entre los pacientes fallecidos. Entre los pacientes que fallecieron en unidades de cuidados intensivos, los problemas relacionados con la ventilación mecánica han aparecido con una frecuencia del 8,8%. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que la letalidad asociada a los EA detectados fue muy reducida, es fundamental establecer una vigilancia estrecha de los posibles EA asociados a la asistencia sanitaria, especialmente los farmacológicos, dado que se trata de una enfermedad con un manejo terapéutico incierto.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 159-166, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of candesartan to the standard care regimen improved the outcome in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A prospective non-randomized open-label study was undertaken from May to August 2020 on 75 subjects (aged 18-70 years) hospitalized in Siloam Kelapa Dua Hospital. Uni- and multi-variable Cox regression analyses were performed to obtain hazard ratios (HRs). The primary outcomes were: (1) length of hospital stay; (2) time to negative swab; and (3) radiological outcome (time to improvement on chest X ray). RESULTS: None of the 75 patients with COVID-19 required intensive care. All patients were angiotensin-receptor-blocker naïve. In comparison with the control group, the candesartan group had a significantly shorter hospital stay [adjusted HR 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-5.29] after adjusting for a wide range of confounders, and no increased risk of intensive care. In the non-obese subgroup, the candesartan group had a shorter time to negative swab (unadjusted HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.02-4.36; adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.08-5.09) and shorter time to improvement in chest x ray (adjusted HR 2.82, 95% CI 1.13-7.03) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Candesartan significantly reduces the length of hospital stay after adjustment for covariates. All primary outcomes improved significantly in the non-obese subgroup receiving candesartan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Benzimidazoles , Biphenyl Compounds , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5339-5349, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363673

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted from July 1, 2020 to September 25, 2020 in a dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospital in Delhi, India to provide evidence for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in atmospheric air and surfaces of the hospital wards. Swabs from hospital surfaces (patient's bed, ward floor, and nursing stations area) and suspended particulate matter in ambient air were collected by a portable air sampler from the medicine ward, intensive care unit, and emergency ward admitting COVID-19 patients. By performing reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for E-gene and RdRp gene, SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected from hospital surfaces and particulate matters from the ambient air of various wards collected at 1 and 3-m distance from active COVID-19 patients. The presence of the virus in the air beyond a 1-m distance from the patients and surfaces of the hospital indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has the potential to be transmitted by airborne and surface routes from COVID-19 patients to health-care workers working in COVID-19 dedicated hospital. This warrants that precautions against airborne and surface transmission of COVID-19 in the community should be taken when markets, industries, educational institutions, and so on, reopen for normal activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Fomites/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Air/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Particulate Matter/analysis
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 363-369, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since information on the pathology of COVID-19 from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains scarce, the objective of our study was to define the gross pathology and histological features of COVID-19. We report data from 29 whole-body autopsies of COVID-19 deaths occurring in hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia - the first large autopsy case series from Africa. METHODS: We performed a descriptive post-mortem examination study of inpatient COVID-19 related deaths at two hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Whole-body autopsies were conducted according to Standard Operating Procedures. Gross and histopathological examinations of all organs were performed. Patient demographics, history, co-morbidities, autopsy gross and microscopic findings, and cause(s) of death were recorded and analyzed using STATA version 14. Variables were grouped and presented as frequencies and percentages. FINDINGS: Autopsies were performed on 29 decedents (mean age = 44 ± 15.8years; age range = 19-82; 17/29 [58.8%] males). 22/29 [75.9%] cases were <55 years of age. A spectrum of pathological manifestations of COVID-19 were seen in all organs. The commonest causes of death were pulmonary thromboembolism (13/29, 45%), Diffuse Alveolar Damage (9/29, 31%), and COVID-19 pneumonia (7/29, 25%). 22/29 (76%) had co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities included HIV (8/29, 28%), Hypertension (6/29, 20%) Tuberculosis (3/29, 10%), Diabetes (3/29, 10%). CONCLUSIONS: A spectrum of gross anatomical and histopathological findings are seen in COVID-19 deaths in hospitalized decedents. These appear broadly similar to those reported from China, Europe and USA. Differences include a younger age group, and co-morbidities of HIV and TB co-infection which require further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , Zambia/epidemiology
19.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e603-e609, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic sent shockwaves through health services worldwide. Resources were reallocated. Patients with COVID-19 still required instrumented spinal surgery for emergencies. Clinical outcomes for these patients are not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on perioperative morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing emergency instrumented spinal surgery and to determine risk factors for increased morbidity/mortality. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 11 patients who were negative for COVID-19 and 8 patients who were positive for COVID-19 who underwent emergency instrumented spinal surgery in 1 hospital in the United Kingdom during the pandemic peak. Data collection was performed through case note review. Patients in both treatment groups were comparable for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, surgical indication, and preoperative neurologic status. Predefined perioperative outcomes were recorded within a 30-day postoperative period. Univariable analysis was used to identify risk factors for increased morbidity. RESULTS: There were no mortalities in either treatment group. Four patients positive for COVID-19 (50%) developed a complication compared with 6 (55%) in the COVID-19-negative group (P > 0.05). The commonest complication in both groups was respiratory infection. Three patients positive for COVID-19 (37.5%) required intensive care unit admission, compared with 4 (36%) in the COVID-19-negative group (P > 0.05). The average time between surgery and discharge was 19 and 10 days in COVID-19-positive and -negative groups, respectively (P = 0.02). In the COVID-19 positive group, smoking, abnormal BMI, preoperative oxygen requirement, presence of fever, and oxygen saturations <95% correlated with increased risk of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency instrumented spinal surgery in patients positive for COVID-19 was associated with increased length of hospital stay. There was no difference in occurrence of complications or intensive care unit admission. Risk factors for increased morbidity in patients with COVID-19 included smoking, abnormal BMI, preoperative oxygen requirement, fever and saturations <95%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Spinal Fusion , Spinal Injuries/surgery , Spinal Injuries/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Emergency Treatment/adverse effects , Emergency Treatment/methods , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Fusion/adverse effects , Spinal Fusion/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104899, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. The primary outcome was the change in clinical status based on a 7-category ordinal scale (1 = not hospitalised, resuming normal daily activities; 7 = deceased). The 35 patients enrolled from February 23 to March 20, 2020, included 18 in intensive care unit (ICU), and 17 in our infectious diseases ward (IDW). The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. The median follow-up was 39 days (IQR 25-44). At day 28, 14 (82.3 %) patients from IDW were discharged, two were still hospitalized and one died (5.9 %), whereas in ICU 6 (33.3 %) were discharged, 8 (44.4 %) patients died, three (16.7 %) were still mechanically ventilated and one (5.6 %) was improved but still hospitalized. Hypertransaminasemia and acute kidney injury were the most frequent severe adverse events observed (42.8 % and 22.8 % of the cases, respectively). Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed. Ongoing randomised controlled trials will clarify its real efficacy and safety, who to treat, and when.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus , Compassionate Use Trials/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases/blood , Treatment Outcome
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