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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1070-1083, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of adjuvant human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in preventing recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or greater after surgical excision. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched for studies comparing surgical excision alone to surgical excision with adjuvant HPV vaccination for CIN 2 or greater. Studies published from January 1990 to January 2019 were included. METHODS: A total of 5,901 studies were reviewed. The primary outcomes evaluated included: recurrence of CIN 2 or greater, CIN 1 or greater, and HPV 16,18 associated CIN within 6-48 months. We used Covidence software to assist with screening, and meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Six studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. In total 2,984 women were included; 1,360 (45.6%) received adjuvant HPV vaccination after surgical excision, and 1,624 (54.4%) received either placebo or surgical management alone for CIN 2 or greater. Recurrence of CIN 2 or greater occurred within 6-48 months in 115 women (3.9%) overall; however, recurrence was significantly lower for vaccinated women: 26 of 1,360 women (1.9%) vs 89 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (5.9%) (relative risk [RR] 0.36 95% CI 0.23-0.55). The risk of CIN 1 or greater was also significantly lower with adjuvant HPV vaccination, occurring in 86 of 1,360 vaccinated women (6.3%) vs 157 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (9.7%) (RR 0.67 95% CI 0.52-0.85). Thirty-five women developed recurrent CIN 2 or greater lesions specific to HPV 16,18; nine received adjuvant vaccination (0.9%) vs 26 who were unvaccinated (2.0%) (RR 0.41 95% CI 0.20-0.85). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant HPV vaccination in the setting of surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent cervical dysplasia overall and a reduction in the risk of recurrent lesions caused by the most oncogenic strains (HPV 16,18). Human papillomavirus vaccination should therefore be considered for adjuvant treatment in patients undergoing surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019123786.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/surgery , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Young Adult
2.
Prev Med ; 144: 106399, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139631

ABSTRACT

WHO/UNICEF estimates for HPV vaccination coverage from 2010 to 2019 are analyzed against the backdrop of the 90% coverage target for HPV vaccination by 2030 set in the recently approved global strategy for cervical cancer elimination as a public health problem. As of June 2020, 107 (55%) of the 194 WHO Member States have introduced HPV vaccination. The Americas and Europe are by far the WHO regions with the most introductions, 85% and 77% of their countries having already introduced respectively. A record number of introductions was observed in 2019, most of which in low- and middle- income countries (LMIC) where access has been limited. Programs had an average performance coverage of around 67% for the first dose and 53% for the final dose of HPV. LMICs performed on average better than high- income countries for the first dose, but worse for the last dose due to higher dropout. Only 5 (6%) countries achieved coverages with the final dose of more than 90%, 22 countries (21%) achieved coverages of 75% or higher while 35 (40%) had a final dose coverage of 50% or less. When expressed as world population coverage (i.e., weighted by population size), global coverage of the final HPV dose for 2019 is estimated at 15%. There is a long way to go to meet the 2030 elimination target of 90%. In the post-COVID era attention should be paid to maintain the pace of introductions, specially ensuring the most populous countries introduce, and further improving program performance globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Europe , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United Nations , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , World Health Organization
3.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 6(2): 340-345, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite recent advancement recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) remains a rare but challenging benign airway neoplasm. In recent years there has been significant shifts in incidence of this disease due to changes in vaccination and prevention for human papilloma virus (HPV) and its related pathology. This review will highlight the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of RRP. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched using relevant MeSH terms including "recurrent respiratory papillomatosis." The titles and abstracts were reviewed to assess relevance and unrelated articles were excluded. A full-text review for select articles was performed, the data and discussions were interpreted and synthesized to create a concise update on the management of RRP. RESULTS: With the increasing utilization of the 9-valent and quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Australia, we have seen a significant decrease in the incidence of RRP. Preliminary data in the US shows a similar trend of decreased incidence after implementation of vaccination. Single dose Gardasil in developing countries has shown sustained immunization for at least 7 years. Preliminary clinical trials and retrospective studies have shown the HPV vaccine may have benefit as a treatment method in addition to prevention for HPV related diseases. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a VEGF monoclonal antibody, has shown promise as a systemic treatment for RRP. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected perioperative management of RRP. CONCLUSION: RRP continues to decline in incidence since the implementation of HPV vaccination. Advancement in the medical management including Bevacizumab show promise as an additional option for the management of RRP.

4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6): 378-384, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the completeness and timeliness of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme in Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy), notably by monitoring 2-dose coverage among girls before they turn 15 years old (referred to as "at 15") in each year between 2009 and 2018 and making a preliminary evaluation of coverage among boys at 13 years in 2016-2018. DESIGN: retrospective study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: for each vaccine recipient, demographic information and history of HPV vaccine uptake from the digital FVG Vaccination Registry updated as of 31.12.2018 were extracted. Numerator data comprised all doses allocated to FVG residents. Age-specific denominators were derived from the FVG census in each examined year. Coverage estimates for the year 2018 were also provided by number of doses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: coverage for a full course of HPV vaccine, defined as 2 doses in girls and boys younger than age 15 years but 3 doses in less young women. RESULTS: In FVG 52,217 females had received >=1 dose since 2008 and 12,152 males since 2015. >=2-dose coverage in girls at 15 increased from 42% in 2009 to 76% in 2015 and slightly declined afterwards (69% in 2018). In 2008, 3-dose coverage was 65%, 74%, and 59% in females aged 16-17, 18-19, and 20-26 years, respectively. In the same year, 2-dose coverage in boys at 13 years was 54%, similar to the coverage in girls at 13 years (57%). CONCLUSIONS: this paper shows the achievements of routine and catch-up HPV vaccination in FVG. While coverage in girls at 15 years of age peaked in 2015 and slightly diminished in subsequent years, the coverage in boys at 13 in 2018 had already approached the coverage in same-age girls (57%). On account of the signs of weakening in girls' coverage, campaigns in support to HPV vaccination must be repeated, especially in favour of the most cost-effective group, i.e., girls before 15 years of age. The heavy burden posed by the COVID-19 emergency on other prevention-related activities makes a better targeted use of HPV vaccination even more necessary.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Young Adult
5.
Urologe A ; 59(12): 1492-1497, 2020 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018220

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of the most effective weapons of humankind in the fight against various infectious diseases. Therefore, physicians from all specialties should not only regularly confirm their knowledge regarding vaccinations but also actively offer them in their daily routine. Urologists can use various vaccination offers to help protect their patients' future health. In addition to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations for children and adolescents, this article shows how urologists who provide vaccines can fulfill their responsibility to implement the state vaccination recommendations to patients over the age of 60. Among others, HPV vaccination can have the effect of finally eradicating an evolutionary burden of humanity. In addition to standard vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, special vaccinations also protect individuals over the age of 60 against pneumococci, influenza and herpes zoster. Moreover, urologists may in the future also save patients from COVID-19-the disease that actually made people aware of vaccinations again.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologists , Vaccination
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(3): 836-837, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786983

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been growing, including in Japan where it has been estimated that as many as 3.1% of patients positive for new CoV strain SARS-CoV-2 might die of COVID-19-related respiratory failure. Meanwhile, human papillomavirus (HPV) is spreading in Japan. The fatality rate for HPV-associated cancers after infection with HPV is as much as that for COVID-19 in Japan, although the time to disease is much longer for HPV. Among advanced countries, the cervical cancer screening rate in Japanese females is very low. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) suspended its official recommendation for HPV vaccination in June 2013 due to alleged adverse post-vaccination events in several young girls, such as chronic pain and motor impairment, which were repeatedly reported in the media. Subsequently, the rate for vaccinating girls plummeted from approximately 70% to the current rate of 1% or less. Women should accept HPV vaccination for the eventual prevention of cervical cancer with the same passion they are for COVID-19 testing.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Japan , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaccination/methods
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