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1.
Clin Hypertens ; 27(1): 11, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been concerns regarding the safety of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS)-blocking agents including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study sought to evaluate the impact of hypertension and the use of ACEI/ARB on clinical severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 3,788 patients aged 30 years or older who were confirmed with COVID-19 with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were identified from a claims-based cohort in Korea. The primary study outcome was severe clinical events, a composite of intensive care unit admission, need for ventilator care, and death. RESULTS: Patients with hypertension (n = 1,190, 31.4 %) were older and had higher prevalence of comorbidities than those without hypertension. The risk of the primary study outcome was significantly higher in the hypertension group, even after multivariable adjustment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.69). Among 1,044 patients with hypertensive medical treatment, 782 (74.9 %) were on ACEI or ARB. The ACEI/ARB subgroup had a lower risk of severe clinical outcomes compared to the no ACEI/ARB group, but this did not remain significant after multivariable adjustment (aOR, 0.68; 95 % CI, 0.41 to 1.15). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hypertension had worse COVID-19 outcomes than those without hypertension, while the use of RAAS-blocking agents was not associated with increased risk of any adverse study outcomes. The use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs did not increase the risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, supporting current guidance to continue these medications when indicated.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7163, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159799

ABSTRACT

The spread of virus via the blood stream has been suggested to contribute to extra-pulmonary organ failure in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia (RNAemia) and the association between RNAemia and inflammation, organ failure and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We included all patients with PCR verified COVID-19 and consent admitted to ICU. SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies above 1000/ml measured by PCR in plasma was defined as RNAemia and used as surrogate for viremia. In this cohort of 92 patients 59 (64%) were invasively ventilated. RNAemia was found in 31 patients (34%). Hypertension and corticosteroid treatment was more common in patients with RNAemia. Extra-pulmonary organ failure biomarkers and the extent of organ failure were similar in patients with and without RNAemia, but the former group had more renal replacement therapy and higher mortality (26 vs 16%; 35 vs 16%, respectively, p = 0.04). RNAemia was not an independent predictor of death at 30 days after adjustment for age. SARS-CoV2 RNA copies in plasma is a common finding in ICU patients with COVID-19. Although viremia was not associated with extra pulmonary organ failure it was more common in patients who did not survive to 30 days after ICU admission.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials NCT04316884.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Viremia/etiology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Sweden/epidemiology , Viremia/mortality , Viremia/therapy
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e019669, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066983

ABSTRACT

Background Previous reports suggest that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors and increase severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infectivity. We evaluated the association between ACEI or ARB use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection among patients with hypertension. Methods and Results We identified patients with hypertension as of March 1, 2020 (index date) from Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Patients who received ACEIs, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, thiazide diuretics (TD), or no therapy were identified using outpatient pharmacy data covering the index date. Outcome of interest was a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 between March 1 and May 6, 2020. Patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were identified within 1 year preindex date. Among 824 650 patients with hypertension, 16 898 (2.0%) were tested for COVID-19. Of those tested, 1794 (10.6%) had a positive result. Overall, exposure to ACEIs or ARBs was not statistically significantly associated with COVID-19 infection after propensity score adjustment (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.90-1.25) for ACEIs versus calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD; OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31 for ARBs versus calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD). The associations between ACEI use and COVID-19 infection varied in different age groups (P-interaction=0.03). ACEI use was associated with lower odds of COVID-19 among those aged ≥85 years (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12-0.77). Use of no antihypertensive medication was significantly associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection compared with calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.56). Conclusions Neither ACEI nor ARB use was associated with increased likelihood of COVID-19 infection. Decreased odds of COVID-19 infection among adults ≥85 years using ACEIs warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/methods , Hypertension/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(12): 1102-1111, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing controversy about harms and benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in hypertensive patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given the unresolved debate, we investigated the association of ARBs with in-hospital outcomes of these patients. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we studied patients with COVID-19 who referred to Sina Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 20 February to 29 May 2020. Patients with either positive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction test of swab specimens, or high clinical suspicion according to the World Health Organization's interim guidance were included. We followed-up patients for incurring death, severe COVID-19, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS: We evaluated 681 patients with COVID-19 of whom 37 patients were excluded due to incomplete medical records and 8 patients who used ACEIs which left 636 patients in the analysis. In this cohort, 108 (17.0%) patients expired and 407 (64.0%) patients incurred severe COVID-19. Of 254 (39.9%) patients with hypertension, 122 (48.0%) patients were receiving an ARB. After adjustment for possible confounders, we found no independent association between taking ARBs and in-hospital outcomes except for acute kidney injury (AKI), in patients with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19, either hypertensive or not-hypertensive. We found that discontinuation of ARBs during hospitalization was associated with a greater risk of mortality, invasive ventilation, and AKI (all P ˂ 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We found that taking ARBs by patients with hypertension and confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 is not associated with poorer in-hospital outcomes after adjustment for possible confounders.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 228-243, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is occasionally associated with manifold diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We sought to present the neuroimaging features of such CNS involvement. In addition, we sought to identify typical neuroimaging patterns that could indicate possible COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations. METHODS: In this systematic literature review, typical neuroimaging features of cerebrovascular diseases and inflammatory processes associated with COVID-19 were analyzed. Reports presenting individual patient data were included in further quantitative analysis with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified 115 studies reporting a total of 954 COVID-19 patients with associated neurological manifestations and neuroimaging alterations. A total of 95 (82.6%) of the identified studies were single case reports or case series, whereas 660 (69.2%) of the reported cases included individual information and were thus included in descriptive statistical analysis. Ischemia with neuroimaging patterns of large vessel occlusion event was revealed in 59.9% of ischemic stroke patients, whereas 69.2% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage exhibited bleeding in a location that was not associated with hypertension. Callosal and/or juxtacortical location was identified in 58.7% of cerebral microbleed positive images. Features of hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis were detected in 28.8% of patients with meningo-/encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Manifold CNS involvement is increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients. Typical and atypical neuroimaging features have been observed in some disease entities, so that familiarity with these imaging patterns appears reasonable and may assist clinicians in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 CNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2287-2300, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986260

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A meta-analysis was performed. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, EMBASE, medRxiv, and bioRxiv database through October 30, 2020. The primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and severe COVID-19, respectively. We included 25 studies with 22,734 COVID-19 patients, and we compared the outcomes between patients who did and did not receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs). The use of ACEIs/ARBs was not associated with higher risks of severe disease (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 1.15; I2 = 38.55%), mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.16; I2 = 3.19%), dialysis (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 2.39; I2 = 0.00%), or the length of hospital stay (SMD = 0.05; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.26; I2 = 84.43%) in COVID-19 patients. The effect estimates showed an overall protective effect of ACEIs/ARBs against mortality (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85; I2 = 73.37%), severity/mortality (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; I2 = 22.90%), transfer to the intensive care unit among COVID-19 patients with hypertension (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.53, I2 = 0.00%), hospitalization (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.98; I2 = 0.00%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.95; I2 = 0.00%). The use of RAAS inhibitor was not associated with increased mortality or disease severity in COVID-19 patients. This study supports the current guidelines that discourage the discontinuation of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(7): e0166, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977408

ABSTRACT

Risk factors associated with pulmonary embolism in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients deserve to be better known. We therefore performed a post hoc analysis from the COronaVirus-Associated DIsease Study (COVADIS) project, a multicenter observational study gathering 21 ICUs from France (n = 12) and Belgium (n = 9). Three-hundred seventy-five consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and positive coronavirus disease 2019 were included in the study. At day 28, 15% were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Known risk factors for pulmonary embolism including cancer, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease were not associated with pulmonary embolism. In the multivariate analysis, younger age (< 65 yr) (odds ratio, 2.14; 1.17-4.03), time between onset of symptoms and antiviral administration greater than or equal to 7 days (odds ratio, 2.39; 1.27-4.73), and use of neuromuscular blockers greater than or equal to 7 days (odds ratio, 1.89; 1.05-3.43) were independently associated with pulmonary embolism. These new findings reinforce the need for prospective studies that will determine the predictors of pulmonary embolism among patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019.

8.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(5): e12740, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841967

ABSTRACT

Some comorbidities are risk factors for severe coronavirus disease (Covid-19) but it is unknown whether some increase susceptibility to Covid-19 in children. In this Mexican case-control study, contact with patients with Covid-19, or having obesity, or having diabetes, or hypertension or been immunosuppressed independently increased the risk for Covid-19 in the whole sample analysis. However, only contact history and obesity remained statistically significant in the separated analysis of girls and boys. The results suggest that obesity is not only associated with severe disease but also increases risk for Covid-19. Contrary to findings in adults, no difference between cases and controls was found for gender, presence of pneumonia or surrogates of severe disease including admission to intensive care unit, tracheal intubation or whether patient had died. This indicates that Covid-19 is less severe in children than adults. Future research is needed to establish the mechanisms involved in obesity and Covid-19 in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Risk Factors
9.
J Infect ; 81(2): 276-281, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Some studies of hospitalized patients suggested that the risk of death and/or severe illness due to COVID-19 is not associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs). Nevertheless, some controversy still exists and there is limited information of the ACEIs/ARBs effect size on COVID-19 prognosis. AIM AND METHODS: We aimed to measure the effect of ACEIs and/or ARBs on COVID-19 severe clinical illness by a meta-analysis. Literature search included all studies published since the COVID-19 outbreak began (December 2019) until May 9, 2020. We analyzed information from studies that included tested COVID-19 patients with arterial hypertension as comorbidity prior to hospital admission and history of taking ACEIs, ARBs, or ACEIs/ARBs. RESULTS: We included 16 studies that involved 24,676 COVID-19 patients, and we compared patients with critical (n = 4134) vs. non-critical (n = 20,542) outcomes. The overall assessment by estimating random effects shows that the use of ACEIs/ARBs is not associated with higher risk of in-hospital-death and/or severe illness among hypertensive patients with COVID-19 infection. On the contrary, effect estimate shows an overall protective effect of RAAS inhibitors/blockers (ACEIs, ARBs, and/or ACEIs/ARBs) with ∼ 23 % reduced risk of death and/or critical disease (OR: 0.768, 95%CI: 0.651-0.907, p=0.0018). The use of ACEIs (OR:0.652, 95%CI:0.478-0.891, p=0.0072) but not ACEIs/ARBs (OR:0.867, 95%CI:0.638-1.179, p =NS) or ARBs alone (OR:0.810, 95%CI:0.629-1.044, p=NS) may explain the overall protection displayed by RAAS intervention combined. CONCLUSION: RAAS inhibitors might be associated with better COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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