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2.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10308, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228267

ABSTRACT

Prognostic markers are needed to understand the disease course and severity in patients with Covid-19. There is evidence that Covid-19 causes gastrointestinal symptoms and abnormalities in liver enzymes. We aimed to determine if hepatobiliary laboratory data could predict disease severity in patients with Covid-19. In this retrospective, single institution, cohort study that analyzed patients admitted to a community academic hospital with the diagnosis of Covid-19, we found that elevations of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) at any time during hospital admission increased the odds of ICU admission by 5.12 (95% CI: 1.55-16.89; p = 0.007), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.51-14.69; p = 0.01) and 4.12 (95% CI: 1.21-14.06, p = 0.02), respectively. Hypoalbuminemia found at the time of admission to the hospital was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.02), hypotension (p = 0.03), and need for vasopressors (p = 0.02), intubation (p = 0.01) and hemodialysis (p = 0.002). Additionally, there was evidence of liver injury: AST was significantly elevated above baseline in patients admitted to the ICU (54.2 ± 15.70 U/L) relative to those who were not (9.2 ± 4.89 U/L; p = 0.01). Taken together, this study found that hypoalbuminemia and abnormalities in hepatobiliary laboratory data may be prognostic factors for disease severity in patients admitted to the hospital with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201662

ABSTRACT

Hypoalbuminemia is associated with the acquisition and severity of infectious diseases, and intact innate and adaptive immune responses depend on albumin. Albumin oxidation and breakdown affect interactions with bioactive lipid mediators that play important roles in antimicrobial defense and repair. There is bio-mechanistic plausibility for a causal link between hypoalbuminemia and increased risks of primary and secondary infections. Serum albumin levels have prognostic value for complications in viral, bacterial and fungal infections, and for infectious complications of non-infective chronic conditions. Hypoalbuminemia predicts the development of healthcare-associated infections, particularly with Clostridium difficile. In coronavirus disease 2019, hypoalbuminemia correlates with viral load and degree of acute lung injury and organ dysfunction. Non-oncotic properties of albumin affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials. Low serum albumin is associated with inadequate antimicrobial treatment. Infusion of human albumin solution (HAS) supplements endogenous albumin in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and effectively supported antimicrobial therapy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence of the beneficial effects of HAS on infections in hypoalbuminemic patients without cirrhosis is largely observational. Prospective RCTs are underway and, if hypotheses are confirmed, could lead to changes in clinical practice for the management of hypoalbuminemic patients with infections or at risk of infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Hypoalbuminemia/pathology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/pathology , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/drug therapy , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Immunity, Innate , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Albumin/therapeutic use
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4532-4536, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172352

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a contagious virus that has spread to more than 200 countries, territories, and regions. Thousands of studies to date have examined all aspects of this disease, yet little is known about the postrecovery status of patients, especially in the long term. Here, we examined erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum albumin biomarkers in patients with a history of severe and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 following their recovery. In patients with severe COVID-19 serum albumin had a strong negative correlation with both ESR and CRP levels (R2 = - 0.861 and R2 = - 0.711), respectively. Also, there was a positive correlation between ESR and CRP level (R2 = 0.85) in the same group. However, there was no correlation between these biomarkers among mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. In addition, no correlation was recorded between the severe and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 groups. This finding highlights the sustained elevation of ESR and CRP level and reduced serum albumin level that may persist postrecovery in patients with a history of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 625377, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170105

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that several children diagnosed with COVID-19 have developed Kawasaki Disease (KD)-like symptoms. This systematic review aims to assess the demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of children with KD-like syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate efficacy of treatments and patients' outcome. A comprehensive search was carried out systematically through PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WoS), medRxiv, and bioRxiv by two reviewers independently for all studies or preprints data on the demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of children with K.D-like signs during the COVID-19 outbreak. Overall, 378 studies were identified by the systematic search, of which 25 studies were included in the study. The included studies involved 599 patients in total. Thirteen studies (52%) were case reports or case series, and the rest (48%) were cohort studies. In 19 studies, patients were diagnosed with Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In 16 studies COVID-19 was diagnosed in all patients based on their polymerase chain reaction result, serological findings, and computed tomography results. Higher C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate level were the most prevalent laboratory findings. In most studies, patients had leucopenia with marked lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and increased ferritin, as well as hyponatremia. Abnormal echocardiography and respiratory outcomes were the most common clinical outcomes. In 11 studies, all patients required intensive care unit admission. Findings of the present systematic review show that the incidence of KD-like syndrome in the COVID-19 pandemic increased significantly. Moreover, this study offers new insights in the KD-like syndrome pathogenesis and clinical spectrum during COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The systemic inflammatory response is a pathogenic mechanism shared by cancer progression and COVID-19. We investigated systemic inflammation as a driver of severity and mortality from COVID-19, evaluating the prognostic role of commonly used inflammatory indices in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with cancer accrued to the OnCovid study. METHODS: In a multicenter cohort of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with cancer in Europe, we evaluated dynamic changes in neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR); platelet:lymphocyte ratio (PLR); Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), renamed the OnCovid Inflammatory Score (OIS); modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS); and Prognostic Index (PI) in relation to oncological and COVID-19 infection features, testing their prognostic potential in independent training (n=529) and validation (n=542) sets. RESULTS: We evaluated 1071 eligible patients, of which 625 (58.3%) were men, and 420 were patients with malignancy in advanced stage (39.2%), most commonly genitourinary (n=216, 20.2%). 844 (78.8%) had ≥1 comorbidity and 754 (70.4%) had ≥1 COVID-19 complication. NLR, OIS, and mGPS worsened at COVID-19 diagnosis compared with pre-COVID-19 measurement (p<0.01), recovering in survivors to pre-COVID-19 levels. Patients in poorer risk categories for each index except the PLR exhibited higher mortality rates (p<0.001) and shorter median overall survival in the training and validation sets (p<0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed the OIS to be most independently predictive of survival (validation set HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.20, p=0.001; adjusted concordance index score 0.611). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation is a validated prognostic domain in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with cancer and can be used as a bedside predictor of adverse outcome. Lymphocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia as computed by the OIS are independently predictive of severe COVID-19, supporting their use for risk stratification. Reversal of the COVID-19-induced proinflammatory state is a putative therapeutic strategy in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prognosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research surrounding COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is rapidly increasing, including the study of biomarkers for predicting outcomes. There is little data examining the correlation between serum albumin levels and COVID-19 disease severity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether admission albumin levels reliably predict outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 181 patients from two hospitals who had COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and radiologic imaging, who were hospitalized between March and July 2020. We recorded demographics, COVID-19 testing techniques, and day of admission labs. The outcomes recorded included the following: venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, discharge with new or higher home oxygen supplementation, readmission within 90 days, in-hospital mortality, and total adverse events. A multivariate modified Poisson regression analysis was then performed to determine significant predictors for increased adverse events in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients (60.2%) had hypoalbuminemia (albumin level < 3.3 g/dL). Patients with higher albumin levels on admission had a 72% decreased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (adjusted relative risk [RR]:0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.14-0.53, p<0.001) for every 1 g/dL increase of albumin. Moreover, higher albumin levels on admission were associated with a lower risk of developing ARDS (adjusted RR:0.73, 95% CI:0.55-0.98, p = 0.033), admission to the ICU (adjusted RR:0.64, 95% CI:0.45-0.93, p = 0.019), and were less likely to be readmitted within 90 days (adjusted RR:0.37, 95% CI:0.17-0.81, p = 0.012). Furthermore, higher albumin levels were associated with fewer total adverse events (adjusted RR:0.65, 95% CI:0.52-0.80, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Admission serum albumin levels appear to be a predictive biomarker for outcomes in COVID-19 patients. We found that higher albumin levels on admission were associated with significantly fewer adverse outcomes, including less VTE events, ARDS development, ICU admissions, and readmissions within 90 days. Screening patients may lead to early identification of patients at risk for developing in-hospital complications and improve optimization and preventative efforts in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Serum Albumin/analysis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Hypoalbuminemia/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
9.
Diabetol Int ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120320

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 52-year-old hyperglycemic woman with type 2 diabetes and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia, possibly involving the subcutaneous insulin resistance (SIR) syndrome. After admission for pneumonia, her average daily blood glucose (BG) levels remained at 300-400 mg/dL, although the required dosage of subcutaneous insulin markedly increased (~ 150 units/day; ~ 2.63 units/kg/day). Furthermore, the patient had generalized edema along with hypoalbuminemia, developed extensive abdominal purpuras, and had increased plasma D-dimer levels during treatment, suggestive of coagulation abnormalities. Therefore, intravenous infusion of regular insulin was initiated. The BG level subsequently decreased to < 200 mg/dL 2 days after administering 18 units/day of insulin infusion and 118 units/day of subcutaneous insulin, suggesting that subcutaneous insulin alone might have been ineffective in reducing hyperglycemia, which is clinically consistent with the characteristics of an SIR syndrome. Impaired skin microcirculation arising from coagulation abnormalities, subcutaneous edema associated with inflammation-related hypoalbuminemia or vascular hyperpermeability, and/or reduction in subcutaneous blood flow due to COVID-19-induced downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 might be associated with the development of pathological conditions that resemble SIR syndrome, leading to impaired subcutaneous insulin absorption. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00500-x.

10.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(9): 428-436, 2021 05 07.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hypoalbuminemia is a negative acute phase reactant which has been associated with inflammatory response and poor outcome in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the value of hypoalbuminemia on admission as a predictor of mortality and adverse events in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data from a cohort of 609 consecutive patients, with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, discharged from hospital (deceased or alive). Demographic characteristics, previous comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory findings on admission were collected. Comorbidities were assessed by Charlson-Age Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: Hypoalbuminemia on admission (<34g/L) was more frequent in nonsurvivors than survivors (65.6% vs. 38%, p<0.001) and was significantly associated with the development of sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome, acute heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury, regardless of Charlson-Age Comorbidity Index. Hypoalbuminemia was a predictor of mortality in multivariable Cox regression analysis (HR 1.537, 95% CI 1.050-2.250, p=0.027), independently of Charlson-Age Index, gender, lymphocyte count <800/µL, creatinine, high-sensitivity C- reactive protein >8mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >250U/L, bilateral infiltration on chest X-ray and q-SOFA ≥2. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoalbuminemia was an early predictor of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19, regardless of age, comorbidity and inflammatory markers. It also had significant association with severe adverse events, independently of Charlson-Age Comorbidity Index. Our results suggest that serum albumin determination on admission may help to identify patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at high risk of developing potential life-threatening conditions and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoalbuminemia , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Respir Med ; 178: 106314, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reports comparing the characteristics of patients and their clinical outcomes between community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) COVID-19 have not yet been reported in the literature. We aimed to characterise and compare clinical, biochemical and haematological features, in addition to clinical outcomes, between these patients. METHODS: This multi-centre, retrospective, observational study enrolled 488 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients - 339 with CA infection and 149 with HA infection. All patients were admitted to a hospital within the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust between March 7th and May 18th, 2020. RESULTS: The CA cohort comprised of a significantly younger population, median age 75 years, versus 80 years in the HA cohort (P = 0·0002). Significantly less patients in the HA group experienced fever (P = 0·03) and breathlessness (P < 0·0001). Furthermore, significantly more patients had anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia in the HA group, compared to the CA group (P < 0·0001 for both). Hypertension and a lower median BMI were also significantly more pronounced in the HA cohort (P = 0·03 and P = 0·0001, respectively). The mortality rate was not significantly different between the two cohorts (34% in the CA group and 32% in the HA group, P = 0·64). However, the CA group required significantly greater ICU care (10% versus 3% in the HA group, P = 0·009). CONCLUSION: Hospital-acquired and community-acquired COVID-19 display similar rates of mortality despite significant differences in baseline characteristics of the respective patient populations. Delineation of community- and hospital-acquired COVID-19 in future studies on COVID-19 may allow for more accurate interpretation of results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/complications , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , United Kingdom , Young Adult
12.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 861-872, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first observations of patients with COVID-19, significant hypoalbuminaemia was detected. Its causes have not been investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that pulmonary capillary leakage affects the severity of respiratory failure, causing a shift of fluids and proteins through the epithelial-endothelial barrier. METHODS: One hundred seventy-four COVID-19 patients with respiratory symptoms, 92 admitted to the intermediate medicine ward (IMW) and 82 to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Luigi Sacco Hospital in Milan, were studied. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics at admission were considered. Proteins, interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed in 26 ICU patients. In addition, ten autopsy ultrastructural lung studies were performed in patients with COVID-19 and compared with postmortem findings in a control group (bacterial pneumonia-ARDS and H1N1-ARDS). ICU patients had lower serum albumin than IMW patients [20 (18-23) vs 28 (24-33) g L-1 , P < 0.001]. Serum albumin was lower in more compromised groups (lower PaO2 -to-FiO2 ratio and worst chest X-ray findings) and was associated with 30 days of probability of survival. Protein concentration was correlated with IL-8 and IL-10 levels in BALF. Electron microscopy examinations of eight out of ten COVID-19 lung tissues showed loosening of junctional complexes, quantitatively more pronounced than in controls, and direct viral infection of type 2 pneumocytes and endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Hypoalbuminaemia may serve as severity marker of epithelial-endothelial damage in patients with COVID-19. There are clues that pulmonary capillary leak syndrome plays a key role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and might be a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , Capillary Leak Syndrome/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
13.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(10): 3911-3919, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Around 20% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 need mechanical ventilation (MV). MV may be prolonged, thus warranting tracheostomy. METHODS: Observational cohort study enrolling patients admitted due to COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data at hospital and ICU admission were collected. The primary endpoint was to identify parameters associated with a need for tracheostomy; secondary endpoints were to analyze the clinical course of patients who needed tracheostomy. RESULTS: 118 patients were enrolled; 37 patients (31.5%) were transferred to ICU, of which 11 (29.72%) needed a tracheostomy due to prolonged MV. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at ICU admission (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.92, p 0.015) was the only variable found to be associated with increased risk of the need for tracheostomy, with a cut-off point of 4.5 (sensitivity 0.72, specificity 0.73, positive predictive value 0.57 and negative predictive value 0.85). The main complications were nosocomial infection (100%), supraventricular cardiac arrhythmia (45.5%), agitation (54.5%), pulmonary thromboembolism (9.1%) and depression (9.1%). All patients presented with hypoalbuminemia and significant critical illness polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: SOFA at ICU admission is associated with an increased risk of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, they present clinical features similar to those with chronic critical illness and suffer SARS-CoV-2-related complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
14.
Nephrologe ; 16(1): 26-32, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986660

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to explain the clinical benefits of the growing knowledge about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition to the lungs, SARS-CoV­2 can invade multiple cell types in other organs, such as the kidneys and replicate there. Important damaging pathways of the virus, such as vascular endotheliitis, thrombotic events and systemic cytokine release are still incompletely understood. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease that necessitates intensive medical care and in particular, internal medicine involvement and represents a major challenge for all disciplines of internal medicine. Among these, nephrology in particular is involved in the fight against COVID-19 in a variety of ways: urine investigations can provide indications of multiple organ involvement, endotheliitis, microthrombi and microcirculation damage, etc. Experience with low serum albumin levels and antithrombin III activity in nephrotic patients helps to point out the decreasing effects of loop diuretics and heparin to other specialist disciplines. Nephrological knowledge of the complications of hypoalbuminemia and "resistance" to diuretics must lead to an early implementation of renal replacement procedures in order to be able to prevent mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 intensive care patients with increased extracellular lung fluid. The kidneys can be used as a seismograph for severe courses of COVID-19 and nephrological knowledge can be brought to use to optimize the intensive medical care for critically ill patients. Both together have the potential to considerably reduce morbidity and mortality further.

15.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(4): e13946, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoalbuminemia is frequently observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection although its underlying mechanism and relationship with the clinical outcome still need to be clarified. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated in patients with COVID-19 hospitalised at the Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia, its association with the severity of COVID-19, with the levels of C-reactive protein, d-dimer and interleukin-6 and with clinical outcome over a follow-up period of 30 days. Urinalysis was evaluated in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels <30 g/L were found in 105/207 (50.7%) patients at hospital admission. Overall, the median albumin value was 29.5 g/L (IQR 25-32.8). A negative association was found between albumin levels and severity of COVID-19 (P < .0001) and death (P = .003). An inverse correlation was observed between albumin and both C-reactive protein and D-dimer at hospital admission (r = -.487 and r = -.479, respectively; P < .0001). Finally, a positive correlation was found between albumin levels and eGFR (r = .137; P = .049). Proteinuria was observed in 75% of patients with available data and it did not differ between patients with hypoalbuminemia and those with albumin ≥30 g/L (81% and 67%, respectively; P = .09). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, hypoalbuminemia is common and observed in quite an early stage of pulmonary disease. It is strictly associated with inflammation markers and clinical outcome. The common finding of proteinuria, even in the absence of creatinine increase, indicates protein loss as a possible biomarker of local and systemic inflammation worthwhile to evaluate disease severity in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Proteinuria , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Proteinuria/complications , Retrospective Studies
16.
Biomedicines ; 8(11)2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949004

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 symptoms, including hypokalemia, hypoalbuminemia, ageusia, neurological dysfunctions, D-dimer production, and multi-organ microthrombosis reach beyond effects attributed to impaired angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) signaling and elevated concentrations of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although both SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) and SARS-CoV-2 utilize ACE2 for host entry, distinct COVID-19 pathogenesis coincides with the acquisition of a new sequence, which is homologous to the furin cleavage site of the human epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). This review provides a comprehensive summary of the role of ACE2 in the assembly of Na+-dependent transporters of glucose, imino and neutral amino acids, as well as the functions of ENaC. Data support an osmotic adaptation mechanism in which osmotic and hemostatic instability induced by Ang II-activated ENaC is counterbalanced by an influx of organic osmolytes and Na+ through the ACE2 complex. We propose a paradigm for the two-site attack of SARS-CoV-2 leading to ENaC hyperactivation and inactivation of the ACE2 complex, which collapses cell osmolality and leads to rupture and/or necrotic death of swollen pulmonary, endothelial, and cardiac cells, thrombosis in infected and non-infected tissues, and aberrant sensory and neurological perception in COVID-19 patients. This dual mechanism employed by SARS-CoV-2 calls for combinatorial treatment strategies to address and prevent severe complications of COVID-19.

17.
Chest ; 158(6): e267-e268, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-860852

ABSTRACT

Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by dysfunctional inflammatory response, endothelial dysfunction, and extravasation of fluid from the vascular space to the interstitial space leading to shock, hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, and subsequent organ failure. The condition may be idiopathic or secondary to an underlying cause, which can include viral infections. Here we describe a patient with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who presented with hemoconcentration, shock, and hypoalbuminemia. The patient subsequently developed rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome of all four extremities, requiring fasciotomies. This is the first reported case of systemic capillary leak syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection. This case adds to the evolving spectrum of inflammatory effects associated with this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Capillary Leak Syndrome/physiopathology , Compartment Syndromes/physiopathology , Hypoalbuminemia/physiopathology , Shock/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Acidosis, Lactic/etiology , Acidosis, Lactic/physiopathology , Acidosis, Lactic/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Capillary Leak Syndrome/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Crystalloid Solutions/therapeutic use , Edema/etiology , Edema/physiopathology , Fasciotomy , Fatal Outcome , Fluid Therapy , Hematocrit , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Hypoalbuminemia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 41: 423-428, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856568

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The nutritional diagnosis and early nutritional management of COVID-19 patients must be integrated into the overall therapeutic strategy. The aim of our study is to assess the nutritional status of patients with COVID-19 after a stay in intensive care, to describe the prevalence of undernutrition, to determine the factors influencing undernutrition and to describe the nutritional management. TOOLS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive observational study of adult patients admitted to the endocrinology service for additional care after a stay in intensive care during the period from April 17, 2020 to May 26, 2020. The assessment tool used was the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). RESULTS: Our study included 41 patients; the average age of the patients was 55 years, 51.2% had a severe or critical form of COVID-19, 75.6% stayed in intensive care, 12.2% had a loss of autonomy. The average BMI was 25.2 kg/m2 (17-42 kg/m2), 42.5% were overweight, 61% had weight loss, 26.2% had weight loss greater than 10%, 14.6% of our patients were undernourished, 65.9% were at risk of undernutrition, 19.5% had hypoalbuminemia, 17.1% had hypoprotidemia, 19.5% hypocalcemia, 34.1% anemia, 12.2% hypomagnesemia and 51.2% had a deficiency in vitamin D. A positive correlation was found between poor nutritional status and a longer stay in intensive care (>5 days) (p = 0.011) and lymphopenia (p = 0,02). CONCLUSION: Despite a personalized diet, 14.6% of patients presented undernutrition. Particular attention should be paid to patients with a long stay in intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/etiology , Nutritional Status , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/therapy , Deficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Deficiency Diseases/epidemiology , Deficiency Diseases/etiology , Deficiency Diseases/therapy , Diet , Female , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Nutrients/deficiency , Nutrition Assessment , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
19.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 153, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838591

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 virus and the subsequent pandemic have driven a great deal of research activity. The effects of COVID-19 are caused by the severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it is the underlying actions of SARs-CoV-2 virions on the endothelial glycocalyx that we consider here. One of the key factors in COVID-19 infection is its almost unique age-related profile, with a doubling in mortality every 10 years after the age of 50. The endothelial glycocalyx layer is essential in maintaining normal fluid homeostasis, but is fragile and prone to pathophysiological damage. It is physiologically significant in capillary microcirculation and in fluid distribution to the tissues. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in plasma, is created in the liver which also maintains its concentration, but this reduces by 10-15% after 50 years of age. HSA transports hormones, free fatty acids and maintains oncotic pressure, but SARS-CoV-2 virions bind competitively to HSA diminishing its normal transport function. Furthermore, hypoalbuminemia is frequently observed in patients with such conditions as diabetes, hypertension, and chronic heart failure, i.e., those most vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hypoalbuminemia, coagulopathy, and vascular disease have been linked in COVID-19 and have been shown to predict outcome independent of age and morbidity. Hypoalbuminemia is also known factor in sepsis and Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs when fluids build-up in the alveoli and it is associated with sepsis, whose mechanism is systemic, being associated with the fluid and logistic mechanisms of the circulation. Glycocalyx damage is associated with changes plasma protein concentration, particularly HSA and blockage of albumin transport can produce the systemic symptoms seen in SARS-CoV-2 infection and sepsis. We therefore conclude that albumin binding to SARS-CoV-2 virions may inhibit the formation of the endothelial glycocalyx by inhibition of albumin transport binding sites. We postulate that albumin therapy to replace bound albumin might alleviate some of the symptoms leading to sepsis and that clinical trials to test this postulation should be initiated as a matter of urgency.

20.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1207-1209, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-784294
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