Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 141, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Transcriptome, epigenome and kinome profiling allowed a systems biology level characterisation of genomewide immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract in THP1 monocytes. RESULTS: Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed that Echinaforce® treatment triggers antiviral innate immunity pathways, involving tonic IFN signaling, activation of pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis and immunometabolism. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi) genomic protective response against viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity through tonic IFN regulation of pattern recognition and chemokine gene expression and DNA repeat hypermethylated silencing of HERVs in monocytes. These results suggest that immunomodulation by Echinaforce® treatment holds promise to reduce symptoms and duration of infection episodes of common cold corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2, with strongly impaired interferon (IFN) response and weak innate antiviral defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Echinacea , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 189, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226420

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has become a global pandemic. The spike (S) protein of etiologic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) specifically recognizes human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as its receptor, which is recently identified as an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene. Here, we find that hACE2 exists on the surface of exosomes released by different cell types, and the expression of exosomal hACE2 is increased by IFNα/ß treatment. In particular, exosomal hACE2 can specifically block the cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, subsequently inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Our findings have indicated that IFN is able to upregulate a viral receptor on the exosomes which competitively block the virus entry, exhibiting a potential antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vero Cells
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009111, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015956

ABSTRACT

Antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection is supported by Pattern-Recognition Receptors (PRR) including RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLR), which lead to type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) production. Upon sensing of viral RNA, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TNF Receptor-Associated Factor-3 (TRAF3) is recruited along with its substrate TANK-Binding Kinase (TBK1), to MAVS-containing subcellular compartments, including mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM). However, the regulation of such events remains largely unresolved. Here, we identify TRK-Fused Gene (TFG), a protein involved in the transport of newly synthesized proteins to the endomembrane system via the Coat Protein complex II (COPII) transport vesicles, as a new TRAF3-interacting protein allowing the efficient recruitment of TRAF3 to MAVS and TBK1 following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. Using siRNA and shRNA approaches, we show that TFG is required for virus-induced TBK1 activation resulting in C-terminal IRF3 phosphorylation and dimerization. We further show that the ability of the TRAF3-TFG complex to engage mTOR following SeV infection allows TBK1 to phosphorylate mTOR on serine 2159, a post-translational modification shown to promote mTORC1 signaling. We demonstrate that the activation of mTORC1 signaling during SeV infection plays a positive role in the expression of Viperin, IRF7 and IFN-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) proteins, and that depleting TFG resulted in a compromised antiviral state. Our study, therefore, identifies TFG as an essential component of the RLR-dependent type I IFN antiviral response.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Rhabdoviridae Infections/immunology , Secretory Pathway , Vesiculovirus/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , /metabolism , Proteins/genetics , Rhabdoviridae Infections/metabolism , Rhabdoviridae Infections/virology , Signal Transduction , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/genetics , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/metabolism , Vesiculovirus/physiology
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 590459, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 causes ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), infects the cells of the lower respiratory tract that leads to a cytokine storm in a significant number of patients resulting in severe pneumonia, shortness of breathing, respiratory and organ failure. Extensive studies suggested the role of Vitamin D in suppressing cytokine storm in COVID-19 and reducing viral infection; however, the precise molecular mechanism is not clearly known. In this work, bioinformatics and systems biology approaches were used to understand SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine pathways and the potential mechanism of Vitamin D in suppressing cytokine storm and enhancing antiviral response. RESULTS: This study used transcriptome data and identified 108 differentially expressed host genes (DEHGs) in SARS-CoV-2 infected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells compared to control. Then, the DEHGs was integrated with the human protein-protein interaction data to generate a SARS-CoV-2 induced host gene regulatory network (SiHgrn). Analysis of SiHgrn identified a sub-network "Cluster 1" with the highest MCODE score, 31 up-regulated genes, and predominantly associated immune and inflammatory response. Interestingly, the iRegulone tool identified that "Cluster 1" is under the regulation of transcription factors STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, POU2F2, and NFkB1, collectively referred to as "host response signature network". Functional enrichment analysis with NDEx revealed that the "host response signature network" is predominantly associated with critical pathways, including "cytokines and inflammatory response", "non-genomic action of Vitamin D", "the human immune response to tuberculosis", and "lung fibrosis". Finally, in-depth analysis and literature mining revealed that Vitamin D binds with its receptor and could work through two different pathways: (i) it inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines through blocking the TNF induced NFkB1 signaling pathway; and (ii) it initiates the expression of interferon-stimulating genes (ISGs) for antiviral defense program through activating the IFN-α induced Jak-STAT signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive study identified the pathways associated with cytokine storm in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The proposed underlying mechanism of Vitamin D could be promising in suppressing the cytokine storm and inducing a robust antiviral response in severe COVID-19 patients. The finding in this study urgently needs further experimental validations for the suitability of Vitamin D in combination with IFN-α to control severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Systems Biology/methods , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Transcriptome/genetics
5.
Cell Rep ; 33(7): 108407, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927290

ABSTRACT

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) display hyperactivation of interferon (IFN) signaling and chronic inflammation, which could potentially be explained by the extra copy of four IFN receptor (IFNR) genes encoded on chromosome 21. However, the clinical effects of IFN hyperactivity in DS remain undefined. Here, we report that a commonly used mouse model of DS overexpresses IFNR genes and shows hypersensitivity to IFN ligands in diverse immune cell types. When treated repeatedly with a TLR3 agonist to induce chronic inflammation, these animals overexpress key IFN-stimulated genes, induce cytokine production, exhibit liver pathology, and undergo rapid weight loss. Importantly, the lethal immune hypersensitivity and cytokine production and the ensuing pathology are ameliorated by JAK1 inhibition. These results indicate that individuals with DS may experience harmful hyperinflammation upon IFN-inducing immune stimuli, as observed during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, pointing to JAK1 inhibition as a strategy to restore immune homeostasis in DS.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , Down Syndrome/immunology , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Janus Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Animals , Down Syndrome/complications , Female , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Liver/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Purines , Pyrazoles , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 595739, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886172

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFN-I) were first discovered over 60 years ago in a classical experiment by Isaacs and Lindenman, who showed that IFN-Is possess antiviral activity. Later, it became one of the first approved protein drugs using heterologous protein expression systems, which allowed its large-scale production. It has been approved, and widely used in a pleiotropy of diseases, including multiple-sclerosis, hepatitis B and C, and some forms of cancer. Preliminary clinical data has supported its effectiveness against potential pandemic pathogens such as Ebola and SARS. Still, more efficient and specific drugs have taken its place in treating such diseases. The COVID-19 global pandemic has again lifted the status of IFN-Is to become one of the more promising drug candidates, with initial clinical trials showing promising results in reducing the severity and duration of the disease. Although SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the production of IFNß and thus obstructs the innate immune response to this virus, it is sensitive to the antiviral activity of externally administrated IFN-Is. In this review I discuss the diverse modes of biological actions of IFN-Is and how these are related to biophysical parameters of IFN-I-receptor interaction and cell-type specificity in light of the large variety of binding affinities of the different IFN-I subtypes towards the common interferon receptor. Furthermore, I discuss how these may guide the optimized use IFN-Is in combatting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 20(6): 807-811, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689779
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL