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1.
JTCVS Open ; 7: 63-71, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to model the short term and 2-year overall survival (OS) for intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing timely or delayed transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We developed a decision analysis model to evaluate 2 treatment strategies for both low-risk and intermediate-risk patients with AS during the COVID-19 novel coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Prompt TAVR resulted in improved 2-year OS compared with delayed intervention for intermediate-risk patients (0.81 vs 0.67) and low-risk patients (0.95 vs 0.85), owing to the risk of death or the need for urgent/emergent TAVR in the waiting period. However, if the probability of acquiring COVID-19 novel coronavirus is >55% (intermediate-risk patients) or 47% (low-risk patients), delayed TAVR is favored over prompt intervention (0.66 vs 0.67 for intermediate risk; 0.84 vs 0.85 for low risk). CONCLUSIONS: Prompt transcatheter aortic valve replacement for both intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with symptomatic severe AS results in improved 2-year survival when local healthcare system resources are not significantly constrained by the COVID-19.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3443-3452, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526424

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is phylogenetically related to bat coronaviruses (CoVs), specifically SARS-related CoVs from the Eurasian bat family Rhinolophidae. As this human pandemic virus has spread across the world, the potential impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on native North American bat populations are unknown, as is the ability of North American bats to serve as reservoirs or intermediate hosts able to transmit the virus to humans or to other animal species. To help determine the impacts of the pandemic virus on North American bat populations, we experimentally challenged big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with SARS-CoV-2 under BSL-3 conditions. We inoculated the bats both oropharyngeally and nasally, and over the ensuing three weeks, we measured infectivity, pathology, virus concentrations in tissues, oral and rectal virus excretion, virus transmission, and clinical signs of disease. We found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in any examined bat, including no viral excretion, no transmission, no detectable virus in tissues, and no signs of disease or pathology. Based on our findings, it appears that big brown bats are resistant to infection with the SARS-CoV-2. The potential susceptibility of other North American bat species to SARS-CoV-2 remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(7): 1410-1417.e9, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a sudden, dramatic impact on healthcare. In Italy, since the beginning of the pandemic, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs have been forcefully suspended. We aimed to evaluate whether screening procedure delays can affect the outcomes of CRC screening. METHODS: We built a procedural model considering delays in the time to colonoscopy and estimating the effect on mortality due to up-stage migration of patients. The number of expected CRC cases was computed by using the data of the Italian screened population. Estimates of the effects of delay to colonoscopy on CRC stage, and of stage on mortality were assessed by a meta-analytic approach. RESULTS: With a delay of 0-3 months, 74% of CRC is expected to be stage I-II, while with a delay of 4-6 months there would be a 2%-increase for stage I-II and a concomitant decrease for stage III-IV (P = .068). Compared to baseline (0-3 months), moderate (7-12 months) and long (> 12 months) delays would lead to a significant increase in advanced CRC (from 26% to 29% and 33%, respectively; P = .008 and P < .001, respectively). We estimated a significant increase in the total number of deaths (+12.0%) when moving from a 0-3-months to a >12-month delay (P = .005), and a significant change in mortality distribution by stage when comparing the baseline with the >12-months (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Screening delays beyond 4-6 months would significantly increase advanced CRC cases, and also mortality if lasting beyond 12 months. Our data highlight the need to reorganize efforts against high-impact diseases such as CRC, considering possible future waves of SARS-CoV-2 or other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Delayed Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Aged , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Italy , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics
4.
Viral Immunol ; 34(6): 416-420, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has infected millions of individuals in the world. However, the long-term effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the organs of recovered patients remains unclear. This study is to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the spleen and T lymphocytes. Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19, including 66 cases of moderate pneumonia and 10 cases of severe pneumonia were enrolled in the observation group. The control group consisted of 55 age-matched healthy subjects. The thickness and length of spleen were measured by using B-ultrasound and the levels of T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that the mean length of spleen in the observation group was 89.57 ± 11.49 mm, which was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (103.82 ± 11.29 mm, p < 0.001). The mean thicknesses of spleen between observation group and control group were 29.97 ± 4.04 mm and 32.45 ± 4.49 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the size of spleen between common pneumonia and severe pneumonia (p > 0.05). In addition, the decreased count of T lymphocyte was observed in part of recovered patients. The counts of T suppressor lymphocytes in patients with severe pneumonia were significantly decreased compared with those with moderate pneumonia (p = 0.005). Therefore, these data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the size of spleen and T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389380

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a recently-emerged zoonotic pathogen already well adapted to transmission and replication in humans. Although the mutation rate is limited, recently introduced mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to alter viral fitness. In addition to amino acid changes, mutations could affect RNA secondary structure critical to viral life cycle, or interfere with sequences targeted by host miRNAs. We have analysed subsets of genomes from SARS-CoV-2 isolates from around the globe and show that several mutations introduce changes in Watson-Crick pairing, with resultant changes in predicted secondary structure. Filtering to targets matching miRNAs expressed in SARS-CoV-2-permissive host cells, we identified ten separate target sequences in the SARS-CoV-2 genome; three of these targets have been lost through conserved mutations. A genomic site targeted by the highly abundant miR-197-5p, overexpressed in patients with cardiovascular disease, is lost by a conserved mutation. Our results are compatible with a model that SARS-CoV-2 replication within the human host is constrained by host miRNA defences. The impact of these and further mutations on secondary structures, miRNA targets or potential splice sites offers a new context in which to view future SARS-CoV-2 evolution, and a potential platform for engineering conditional attenuation to vaccine development, as well as providing a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , 3' Untranslated Regions , Base Sequence , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Databases, Genetic , Humans , MicroRNAs/chemistry , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Splice Sites , RNA Splicing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(23): 846-850, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389869

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is constantly mutating, leading to new variants (1). Variants have the potential to affect transmission, disease severity, diagnostics, therapeutics, and natural and vaccine-induced immunity. In November 2020, CDC established national surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 variants using genomic sequencing. As of May 6, 2021, sequences from 177,044 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected during December 20, 2020-May 6, 2021, from 55 U.S. jurisdictions had been generated by or reported to CDC. These included 3,275 sequences for the 2-week period ending January 2, 2021, compared with 25,000 sequences for the 2-week period ending April 24, 2021 (0.1% and 3.1% of reported positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, respectively). Because sequences might be generated by multiple laboratories and sequence availability varies both geographically and over time, CDC developed statistical weighting and variance estimation methods to generate population-based estimates of the proportions of identified variants among SARS-CoV-2 infections circulating nationwide and in each of the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) geographic regions.* During the 2-week period ending April 24, 2021, the B.1.1.7 and P.1 variants represented an estimated 66.0% and 5.0% of U.S. SARS-CoV-2 infections, respectively, demonstrating the rise to predominance of the B.1.1.7 variant of concern† (VOC) and emergence of the P.1 VOC in the United States. Using SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance methods to analyze surveillance data produces timely population-based estimates of the proportions of variants circulating nationally and regionally. Surveillance findings demonstrate the potential for new variants to emerge and become predominant, and the importance of robust genomic surveillance. Along with efforts to characterize the clinical and public health impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, surveillance can help guide interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389388

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389362

ABSTRACT

There is growing literature about the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenetic effects exerted during pregnancy and whether vertical transmission or premature birth is possible. It is not well known whether changes in the immune system of pregnant women may lead to a marked susceptibility to infectious processes and the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal complications such as preterm birth, spontaneous abortion, hospitalization in an intensive care unit, transmission to the fetus or newborns, and fetal mortality are poorly understood. Along with this ongoing debate, it is not well defined whether, during pregnancy, the role of host susceptibility in producing a specific inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 may represent distinctive markers of risk of vertical transmission. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 impact on the vaginal microbiome has not yet been described, despite mounting evidence on its possible effect on the gastrointestinal microbiome and its influence on infectious diseases and preterm labor. This report describes the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on a twin pregnancy diagnosed with infection at the third trimester of gestation including tissue infections, inflammatory response, antibody production, cytokine concentration, and vaginal microbiome composition. We identified a pattern of cytokines including IL1-Ra, IL-9 G-CSF, IL-12, and IL-8 differently expressed, already associated with previously infected patients. We detected a similar concentration of almost all the cytokines tested in both twins, suggesting that the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm is not substantially impaired during the placental passage. The analysis of the vaginal microbiome did not show relevant signs of dysbiosis, similar to other healthy pregnant women and twin healthy pregnancies. The aim of this report was to analyze the immunological response against SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus tissue tropism in a twin pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Twin , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1124-1133, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 alongside influenza is a major concern in the northern hemisphere as winter approaches. METHODS: Test data for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 from national surveillance systems between 20 January 2020 and 25 April 2020 were used to estimate influenza infection on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A test-negative design was used to assess the odds of SARS-CoV-2 in those who tested positive for influenza compared with those who tested negative. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 was also assessed using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 58% lower among influenza-positive cases and patients with a coinfection had a risk of death of 5.92 (95% confidence interval: 3.21-10.91) times greater than among those with neither influenza nor SARS-CoV-2. The odds of ventilator use or death and intensive care unit admission or death were greatest among coinfected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection of these viruses could have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health-service demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(7): 356-357, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386227
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112286, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385569

ABSTRACT

Higher selenium status has been shown to improve the clinical outcome of infections caused by a range of evolutionally diverse viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host-cell selenoproteins remains elusive. The present study investigated the influence of SARS-CoV-2 on expression of selenoprotein mRNAs in Vero cells. SARS-CoV-2 triggered an inflammatory response as evidenced by increased IL-6 expression. Of the 25 selenoproteins, SARS-CoV-2 significantly suppressed mRNA expression of ferroptosis-associated GPX4, DNA synthesis-related TXNRD3 and endoplasmic reticulum-resident SELENOF, SELENOK, SELENOM and SELENOS. Computational analysis has predicted an antisense interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and TXNRD3 mRNA, which is translated with high efficiency in the lung. Here, we confirmed the predicted SARS-CoV-2/TXNRD3 antisense interaction in vitro using DNA oligonucleotides, providing a plausible mechanism for the observed mRNA knockdown. Inhibition of TXNRD decreases DNA synthesis which is thereby likely to increase the ribonucleotide pool for RNA synthesis and, accordingly, RNA virus production. The present findings provide evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 replication on the expression of a specific set of selenoprotein mRNAs, which merits further investigation in the light of established evidence for correlations between dietary selenium status and the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
DNA/biosynthesis , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , Ferroptosis/physiology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Selenoproteins/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Selenoproteins/genetics , Vero Cells
15.
Environ Res ; 198: 111297, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385551

ABSTRACT

In the present review, the authors shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 impact, persistence, and monitoring in the soil environment. With this purpose, several aspects have been deepened: i) viruses in soil ecosystems; ii) direct and indirect impact on the soil before and after the pandemic, and iii) methods for quantification of viruses and SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in soil. Viruses are present in soil (i.e. up to 417 × 107 viruses per g TS-1 in wetlands) and can affect the behavior and ecology of other life forms (e.g. bacteria), which are remarkably important for maintaining environmental equilibrium. Also, SARS-CoV-2 can be found in soil (i.e. up to 550 copies·g-1). Considering that the SARS-CoV-2 is very recent, poor knowledge is available in the literature on persistence in the soil and reference has been made to coronaviruses and other families of viruses. For instance, the survival of enveloped viruses (e.g. SARS-CoV) can reach 90 days in soils with 10% of moisture content at ambient. In such a context, the possible spread of the SARS-CoV-2 in the soil was evaluated by analyzing the possible contamination routes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics , Soil
17.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-26, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384496

ABSTRACT

This work investigates financial volatility cascades generated by SARS-CoV-2 related news using concepts developed in the field of seismology. We analyze the impact of socio-economic and political announcements, as well as of financial stimulus disclosures, on the reference stock markets of the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, France, Germany and Italy. We quantify market efficiency in processing SARS-CoV-2 related news by means of the observed Omori power-law exponents and we relate these empirical regularities to investors' behavior through the lens of a stylized Agent-Based financial market model. The analysis reveals that financial markets may underreact to the announcements by taking a finite time to re-adjust prices, thus moving against the efficient market hypothesis. We observe that this empirical regularity can be related to the speculative behavior of market participants, whose willingness to switch toward better performing investment strategies, as well as their degree of reactivity to price trend or mispricing, can induce long-lasting volatility cascades.

18.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369769

ABSTRACT

At the moment of writing this communication, the health crisis derived from the COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 120 million cases, with 40 million corresponding to Europe. In total, the number of deaths is almost 3 million, but continuously rising. Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, SARS-CoV-2 infects also endothelial cells in the pulmonary capillaries. This affects the integrity of the endothelium and increases vascular permeability. In addition, there are serious indirect consequences, like disruption of endothelial cells' junctions leading to micro-bleeds and uncontrolled blood clotting. The impact of COVID-19 in people with rare chronic cardiovascular diseases is unknown so far, and interesting to assess, because the virus may cause additional complications in these patients. The aim of the present work was to study the COVID-19 infection among the patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT). A retrospective study was carried out in a 138 HHT patients' sample attending an Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) reference consult. The evaluation of the COVID-19 infection in them reveals milder symptoms; among the 25 HHT patients who were infected, only 3 cases were hospitalized, and none of them required ICU or ventilation assistance. The results are discussed in the light of macrophage immune response.

19.
BJOG ; 128(10): 1625-1634, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the management of women with ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: A multicentre observational study comparing outcomes from a prospective cohort during the pandemic [COVID-19-ectopic pregnancy registry (CEPR)] compared with a historical pre-pandemic cohort [non-COVID-19-ectopic pregnancy registry (NCEPR)]. SETTING: Five London university hospitals. POPULATION AND METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed clinically and/or radiologically with ectopic pregnancy (March 2020-August 2020) were entered into the CEPR and results were compared with the NCEPR cohort (January 2019-June 2019). An adjusted analysis was performed for potentially confounding variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, management (expectant, medical and surgical), length of treatment, number of hospital visits (non-surgical management), length of stay (surgical management) and 30-day complications. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-one women met the inclusion criteria: 162 CEPR and 179 NCEPR. A significantly lower percentage of women underwent surgical management versus non-surgical management in the CEPR versus NCEPR (58.6%; 95/162 versus 72.6%; 130/179; P = 0.007). Among patients managed with expectant management, the CEPR had a significantly lower mean number of hospital visits compared with NCEPR (3.0, interquartile range [IQR] [3, 5] versus 9.0, [5, 14]; P = <0.001). Among patients managed with medical management, the CEPR had a significantly lower median number of hospital visits versus NCEPR (6.0, [5, 8] versus 9, [6, 10]; P = 0.003). There was no observed difference in complication rates between cohorts. CONCLUSION: Women were found to undergo significantly higher rates of non-surgical management during the COVID-19 first wave compared with a pre-pandemic cohort. Women managed non-surgically in the CPER cohort were also managed with fewer hospital attendances. This did not lead to an increase in observed complication rates. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: A higher rate of non-surgical management of ectopic pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic did not increase complication rates.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy, Ectopic/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Watchful Waiting/statistics & numerical data
20.
Viral Immunol ; 34(5): 291-299, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343604

ABSTRACT

Due to the worldwide impact of SARS-CoV-2, people have carried out in-depth research on the virus to fight against this highly contagious disease. In this article, many articles published recently are summarized vertically, from the structure and sites of SARS-Cov-2, the mode of transmission, the mathematical model of transmission, the mechanism of the virus itself, the symptoms of patients after infection to medicine used in the early stage period and the prediction as well the analysis of probability in using new medicine.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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