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2.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 160-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rapidly spread globally. Due to different testing strategies, under-detection of positive subjects and COVID-19-related-deaths remains common. Aim of this analysis was to assess the real impact of COVID-19 through the analysis of 2020 Italian all-cause mortality data compared to historical series. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2020 and 2015-2019 all-cause mortality data released by the Italian National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for the time period January 1st-March 21st. This preliminary sample included 1084 Italian municipalities showing at least 10 deaths during the above-mentioned timeframe and an increase in mortality of more than 20% as compared to the previous five years (2015-2019), with a resulting coverage of 21% of Italian population. The difference between 2020 observed and expected deaths (mean of weekly deaths in 2015-2019) was computed, together with mortality rate ratio (MRR) for each of the four weeks following detection of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Italy (February 23rd, 2020 - March 21st, 2020), as well as for this entire timeframe. Subgroup analysis by age groups was also performed. RESULTS: Overall MRR was 1.79 [1.75-1.84], with an observed excess mortality of 8750 individuals in the investigated sample, which in itself outweighs Italian Civil Protection report of only 4,825 COVID-19-related deaths across Italy, as of March 21. Subgroup analysis did not show any difference in mortality rate in '0-14 years' age group, while MRRs were significantly increased in older age groups, in particular in patients >75 years (MRR 1.84 [1.79-1.89]). In addition, week-by-week analysis showed a progressive increase in MRR during this period, peaking in the last week (March 15th, 2020 - March 21st, 2020) with an estimated value of 2.65 [2.53-2.78]. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all-cause mortality data in Italy indicates that reported COVID-19-related deaths are an underestimate of the actual death toll. All-cause death should be seen as the epidemiological indicator of choice to assess the real mortality impact exerted by SARS-CoV-2, given that it also best reflects the toll on frail patient subsets (e.g. the elderly or those with cardiovascular disease).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725660

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of people's lives all over the world. This Facebook survey study aimed to investigate the COVID-19-related factors that were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts among members of the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. The online survey recruited 1970 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported experience of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the previous week were collected along with a number of COVID-19-related factors, including level of worry, change in social interaction and daily lives, any academic/occupational interference, levels of social and specific support, and self-reported physical health. In total, 55.8% of the participants reported sleep disturbance, and 10.8% reported having suicidal thoughts in the previous week. Multiple COVID-19-related factors were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased worry about COVID-19, more severe impact of COVID-19 on social interaction, lower perceived social support, more severe academic/occupational interference due to COVID-19, lower COVID-19-specified support, and poorer self-reported physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Less handwashing, lower perceived social support, lower COVID-19-specified support, poorer self-reported physical health, and younger age were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts. Further investigation is needed to understand the changes in mental health among the public since the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Media , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
5.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722683

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nutrition Disorders , Nutrition Therapy/standards , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Disorders/etiology , Nutrition Disorders/therapy , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139087, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720870

ABSTRACT

In early March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 as a pandemic, and in late March 2020 partial lockdown was ordered by the São Paulo state government. The aim of this study was to assess impacts on air quality in São Paulo - Brazil, during the partial lockdown implemented to provide social distancing required due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have analyzed data from four air quality stations in São Paulo, Brazil to assess air pollutant concentration variations during the partial lockdown. Data were compared to the five-year monthly mean and to the four-week before the partial lockdown. Overall, drastic reductions on NO (up to -77.3%), NO2 (up to -54.3%), and CO (up to -64.8%) concentrations were observed in the urban area during partial lockdown compared to the five-year monthly mean. By contrast, an increase of approximately 30% in ozone concentrations was observed in urban areas highly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably related to nitrogen monoxide decreases. Although the partial lockdown has contributed to a positive impact on air quality, it is important to take into account the negative impacts on social aspects, considering the deaths caused by COVID-19 and also the dramatic economic effects.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Air Pollutants , Brazil , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Food Secur ; 12(4): 783-791, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694259

ABSTRACT

The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of the Pacific food system to externalities and has had far-reaching impacts, despite the small number of COVID-19 cases recorded thus far. Measures adopted to mitigate risk from the pandemic have had severe impacts on tourism, remittances, and international trade, among other aspects of the political economy of the region, and are thus impacting on food systems, food security and livelihoods. Of particular concern will be the interplay between loss of incomes and the availability and affordability of local and imported foods. In this paper, we examine some of the key pathways of impact on food systems, and identify opportunities to strengthen Pacific food systems during these challenging times. The great diversity among Pacific Island Countries and Territories in their economies, societies, and agricultural potential will be an important guide to planning interventions and developing scenarios of alternative futures. Bolstering regional production and intraregional trade in a currently import-dependent region could strengthen the regional economy, and provide the health benefits of consuming locally produced and harvested fresh foods - as well as decreasing reliance on global supply chains. However, significant production, processing, and storage challenges remain and would need to be consistently overcome to influence a move away from shelf-stable foods, particularly during periods when human movement is restricted and during post-disaster recovery.

8.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3375-3383, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-related factors and dysfunctional coping might favor the development of mental distress induced by COVID-19 containment measures. Aim of this study was exploring the relationship between disability, coping strategies, daily life reorganization and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an Italian MS population during the COVID-19 lockdown, in order to identify potentially modifiable factors that could inform clinical management of mental distress in people with MS. METHODS: We explored the relationship between mental distress, disability and coping strategies in the Italian MS population under lockdown. Structural equation modeling was applied to information collected via web survey to identify modifiable factors that could account for mental distress. RESULTS: A total of 845 participants (497 with MS and 348 controls) were included in the study. The MS group had higher scores than the control group for depression (p = 0.005), but not for anxiety, emotional dyscontrol or sleep disturbances. The structural equation modeling explained 74% of the variance observed in depression score. Within the model, three latent factors were characterized from measured variables: motor disability and cognitive dysfunction contributed to disability (ß = 0.509 and ß = 0.836; p < 0.001); positive attitude and exercise contributed to active attitude (ß = 0.386 and ß = 0.297; p < 0.001); and avoidance, social support and watching television contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.301, ß = 0.243 and ß = 0.212; p < 0.001). With regard to the relationship between latent factors and their influence on depression, disability contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.855; p < 0.001), while both passive and active attitude significantly influenced depression (ß = 0.729 and ß = -0.456; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As a practical implication of our model, favoring exercise would enhance active attitude and its positive impact on mental well-being while, at the same time, reducing the negative impact of disability on depression, representing a valuable tool in facing COVID-19-related mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Motor Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, the outbreak of COVID-19 spread throughout the world and its impacts affect different populations differently, where countries with high levels of social and economic inequality such as Brazil gain prominence, for understanding of the vulnerability factors associated with the disease. Given this scenario, in the absence of a vaccine or safe and effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19, nonpharmacological measures are essential for prevention and control of the disease. However, many of these measures are not feasible for millions of individuals who live in territories with increased social vulnerability. The study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Brazil's municipalities (counties) and investigate its association with sociodemographic determinants to better understand the social context and the epidemic's spread in the country. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological study using data from various sources. The study period was February 25 to September 26, 2020. Data analysis used global regression models: ordinary least squares (OLS), spatial autoregressive model (SAR), and conditional autoregressive model (CAR) and the local regression model called multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR). FINDINGS: The higher the GINI index, the higher the incidence of the disease at the municipal level. Likewise, the higher the nurse ratio per 1,000 inhabitants in the municipalities, the higher the COVID-19 incidence. Meanwhile, the proportional mortality ratio was inversely associated with incidence of the disease. DISCUSSION: Social inequality increased the risk of COVID-19 in the municipalities. Better social development of the municipalities was associated with lower risk of the disease. Greater access to health services improved the diagnosis and notification of the disease and was associated with more cases in the municipalities. Despite universal susceptibility to COVID-19, populations with increased social vulnerability were more exposed to risk of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Spatial Regression
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate GPs' experiences of how UK COVID-19 policies have affected the management and safety of complex elderly patients, who suffer from multimorbidity, at the primary care level in North West London (NWL). DESIGN: This is a service evaluation adopting a qualitative approach. SETTING: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted between 6 and 22 May 2020, 2 months after the introduction of the UK COVID-19 Action Plan, allowing GPs to adapt to the new changes and reflect on their impact. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen GPs working in NWL were interviewed, until data saturation was reached. OUTCOME MEASURES: The impact of COVID-19 policies on the management and safety of complex elderly patients in primary care from the GPs' perspective. RESULTS: Participants' average experience was fourteen years working in primary care for the NHS. They stated that COVID-19 policies have affected primary care at three levels, patients' behaviour, work conditions, and clinical practice. GPs reflected on the impact through five major themes; four of which have been adapted from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) framework, changes in primary care (at the three levels mentioned above), involvement of GPs in policy making, communication and coordination (with patients and in between medical teams), stressors and worries; in addition to a fifth theme to conclude the GPs' suggestions for improvement (either proposed mitigation strategies, or existing actions that showed relative success). A participant used an expression of "infodemic" to describe the GPs' everyday pressure of receiving new policy updates with their subsequent changes in practice. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all levels of the health system in the UK, particularly primary care. Based on the GPs' perspective in NWL, changes to practice have offered opportunities to maintain safe healthcare as well as possible drawbacks that should be of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , General Practitioners/psychology , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care , Aged , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Health Policy , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , Policy Making , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(7): 753-762, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571437

ABSTRACT

We sought to determine the impact of wearing cloth or surgical masks on the cardiopulmonary responses to moderate-intensity exercise. Twelve subjects (n = 5 females) completed three, 8-min cycling trials while breathing through a non-rebreathing valve (laboratory control), cloth, or surgical mask. Heart rate (HR), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), breathing frequency, mouth pressure, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and oxygen (PetO2), dyspnea were measured throughout exercise. A subset of n = 6 subjects completed an additional exercise bout without a mask (ecological control). There were no differences in breathing frequency, HR or SpO2 across conditions (all p > 0.05). Compared with the laboratory control (4.7 ± 0.9 cmH2O [mean ± SD]), mouth pressure swings were smaller with the surgical mask (0.9 ± 0.7; p < 0.0001), but similar with the cloth mask (3.6 ± 4.8 cmH2O; p = 0.66). Wearing a cloth mask decreased PetO2 (-3.5 ± 3.7 mm Hg) and increased PetCO2 (+2.0 ± 1.3 mm Hg) relative to the ecological control (both p < 0.05). There were no differences in end-tidal gases between mask conditions and laboratory control (both p > 0.05). Dyspnea was similar between the control conditions and the surgical mask (p > 0.05) but was greater with the cloth mask compared with laboratory (+0.9 ± 1.2) and ecological (+1.5 ± 1.3) control conditions (both p < 0.05). Wearing a mask during short-term moderate-intensity exercise may increase dyspnea but has minimal impact on the cardiopulmonary response. Novelty: Wearing surgical or cloth masks during exercise has no impact on breathing frequency, tidal volume, oxygenation, and heart rate However, there are some changes in inspired and expired gas fractions that are physiologically irrelevant. In young healthy individuals, wearing surgical or cloth masks during submaximal exercise has few physiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate , Masks , Oxyhemoglobins/metabolism , Respiratory Rate , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Equipment Design , Exercise Test , Face , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth/physiology , Oxygen/physiology , Partial Pressure , Pressure , Skin Temperature , Tidal Volume , Young Adult
12.
Science ; 371(6532): 916-921, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532943

ABSTRACT

Limited initial supply of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine raises the question of how to prioritize available doses. We used a mathematical model to compare five age-stratified prioritization strategies. A highly effective transmission-blocking vaccine prioritized to adults ages 20 to 49 years minimized cumulative incidence, but mortality and years of life lost were minimized in most scenarios when the vaccine was prioritized to adults greater than 60 years old. Use of individual-level serological tests to redirect doses to seronegative individuals improved the marginal impact of each dose while potentially reducing existing inequities in COVID-19 impact. Although maximum impact prioritization strategies were broadly consistent across countries, transmission rates, vaccination rollout speeds, and estimates of naturally acquired immunity, this framework can be used to compare impacts of prioritization strategies across contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Mass Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
13.
Urban For Urban Green ; 62: 127136, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531860

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related social distancing measures have altered the daily lifestyles of people worldwide. Although studies on this disease are emerging rapidly, less is known about the impacts of COVID-19 and urban greenery on leisure-time physical activity, which is critical to maintain health for urban residents during the pandemic. In this study, we used a natural experimental research design to identify whether urban greenery cushions the decrease in leisure-time physical activity caused by the pandemic and related social distancing measures in a high-density city. The two-wave physical activity data (before and during the pandemic) were collected for urban residents in neighborhoods with high or low levels of greenery. The results of difference-in-differences model suggest that urban greenery mitigated the decrease in physical activity during the pandemic. People who lived in greener neighborhoods experienced a lesser decrease in the leisure-time physical activity level than those who lived in less green neighborhoods. Additionally, people who lived in greener neighborhoods experienced increased levels of physical activity related to visits to country parks during the pandemic. These findings suggest that urban green spaces play a significant role in shaping physical activity and providing a refuge for the public during crises. Our study is among the first to investigate the impact of urban greenery on pandemic-induced changes in leisure-time physical activity in densely populated Asian cities, and our findings shed light on the potential protective role of urban greenery on public health during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(6): 955-966, 2020 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455300

ABSTRACT

γ-secretase is a macromolecular complex that catalyzes intramembranous hydrolysis of more than 100 membrane-bound substrates. The complex is composed of presenilin (PS1 or PS2), anterior pharynx defect-1 (APH-1), nicastrin (NCT) and PEN-2 and early-onset; autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by inheritance of mutations of PS. No mutations in genes encoding NCT, or PEN-2 have been identified to date that cause AD. In this regard, a large genetic meta-analysis of four cohorts consisting of more than 600 000 individuals identified a common missense variant, rs117618017 in the APH1B gene that results in a T27I mutation, as a novel genome-wide significant locus. In order to confirm the findings that rs117618017 is associated with risk of AD, we performed a genetic screen from deep whole genome sequencing of the large NIMH family-based Alzheimer's Disease (AD) dataset. In parallel, we sought to uncover potential molecular mechanism(s) by which APH-1B T27I might be associated with AD by generating stable HEK293 cell lines, wherein endogenous APH-1A and APH-1B expression was silenced and into which either the wild type APH-1B or the APH-1B T27I variant was stably expressed. We then tested the impact of expressing either the wild type APH-1B or the APH-1B T27I variant on γ-secretase processing of human APP, the murine Notch derivative mNΔE and human neuregulin-1. We now report that we fail to confirm the association of rs1047552 with AD in our cohort and that cells expressing the APH-1B T27I variant show no discernable impact on the γ-secretase processing of established substrates compared with cells expressing wild-type APH-1B.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Endopeptidases/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding
15.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 484-494, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As countries and industries continue to cope with the unparalleled challenges presented by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), a specific area of concern has been the uncertainty surrounding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global and Indian supply chains of the pharmaceutical industry. The COVID-19 crisis has demonstrated the importance of establishing a risk management system that focuses on assessing future risks resulting from the loss of a supply chain among countries. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the role of the Indian pharmaceutical industry towards the pandemic. This review investigates the economic effect of COVID-19 across segments and what it implies for the Indian economy. METHODS: The COVID 19 flare-up has additionally commenced the Indian pharmaceutical organizations an opportunity to transform into a supported trade place point for gathering drugs and intermediates. RESULTS: An enormous pharmaceutical industry in India has consistently been a foundation of reasonable human services, and this pattern would now be able to be required to heighten further. CONCLUSION: The activities from COVID-19 are with a need to change the overall impression of Indian pharmaceutical associations and even more altogether, reduce the dependence of the private pharma associations on alone suppliers like China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Drug Industry , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Oral Dis ; 27 Suppl 3: 688-693, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stress effect of COVID-19 pandemic and Zagreb earthquakes on symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two previously diagnosed TMD patients were contacted by email to participate in an online survey about impact of those events on current and/or new symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety and symptom intensity in time-points at the baseline, following pandemic and following earthquake. We compared data between earthquake-affected and non-affected respondents. RESULTS: Response rate was 79.4%. Effects stress had on deterioration of symptoms were significantly different between earthquake-affected and non-affected (p = .024). In earthquake-affected, numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) scores significantly increased between baseline and after COVID-19 (p > .001) and between baseline and after earthquakes (p > .05). However, scores insignificantly dropped from COVID-19 to after earthquakes time-points. In earthquake-affected, positive correlation was found between impact of COVID-19 on stress and NPRS (p < .001) and between earthquakes' impact on stress and NPRS (p < .001). Earthquake-affected respondents reported significantly more new behavioral habits when compared to non-affected (p = .048). CONCLUSIONS: A series of stressful events do not necessarily have a cumulative effect, but are likely to have a complex interaction (e.g., acute stress might trigger the protective mechanisms), which could have decreased pain scores after the earthquakes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Earthquakes , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/etiology
17.
Indian J Labour Econ ; : 1-5, 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397094

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed the world into an unprecedented crisis and uncertainty, calling to expedite the implementation of the Centenary Declaration. It called upon constituents to pursue 'with unrelenting vigour its [ILO] constitutional mandate for social justice by further developing its human centred approach to the future of work'. It called for putting workers' rights and the needs, aspirations and rights of all people at the heart of economic, social and environmental policies. The international community and ILO's constituents have engaged in a collective endeavour to tackle the devastating human impact of the pandemic, but more is needed.

18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5529256, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394272

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are highly prevalent and the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is responsible for most cases of CVD. The plaque formation and subsequent thrombosis in atherosclerosis constitute an ongoing process that is influenced by numerous risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, inflammation, and sedentary lifestyle. Among the various risk and protective factors, the role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common inborn enzyme disorder across populations, is still debated. For decades, it has been considered a protective factor against the development of CVD. However, in the recent years, growing scientific evidence has suggested that this inherited condition may act as a CVD risk factor. The role of G6PD deficiency in the atherogenic process has been investigated using in vitro or ex vivo cellular models, animal models, and epidemiological studies in human cohorts of variable size and across different ethnic groups, with conflicting results. In this review, the impact of G6PD deficiency on CVD was critically reconsidered, taking into account the most recent acquisitions on molecular and biochemical mechanisms, namely, antioxidative mechanisms, glutathione recycling, and nitric oxide production, as well as their mutual interactions, which may be impaired by the enzyme defect in the context of the pentose phosphate pathway. Overall, current evidence supports the notion that G6PD downregulation may favor the onset and evolution of atheroma in subjects at risk of CVD. Given the relatively high frequency of this enzyme deficiency in several regions of the world, this finding might be of practical importance to tailor surveillance guidelines and facilitate risk stratification.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/physiopathology , Humans , Risk Factors
20.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(5): 539-549, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387508

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the world has woken up to the importance of biosecurity and the need to manage international borders. Yet strong sectorial identities exist within biosecurity that are associated with specific international standards, individual economic interests, specific research communities, and unique stakeholder involvement. Despite considerable research addressing human, animal, plant, and environmental health, the science connections between these sectors remain quite limited. One Biosecurity aims to address these limitations at global, national, and local scales. It is an interdisciplinary approach to biosecurity policy and research that builds on the interconnections between human, animal, plant, and environmental health to effectively prevent and mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species. It provides an integrated perspective to address the many biosecurity risks that transcend the traditional boundaries of health, agriculture, and the environment. Individual invasive alien plant and animal species often have multiple impacts across sectors: as hosts of zoonotic parasites, vectors of pathogens, pests of agriculture or forestry, as well as threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. It is time these risks were addressed in a systematic way. One Biosecurity is essential to address several major sociological and environmental challenges to biosecurity: climate change, increasing urbanisation, agricultural intensification, human global mobility, loss of technical capability as well as public resistance to pesticides and vaccines. One Biosecurity will require the bringing together of taxonomists, population biologists, modellers, economists, chemists, engineers, and social scientists to engage in a new agenda that is shaped by politics, legislation, and public perceptions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Environmental Health , One Health , Animals , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics , Plants , SARS-CoV-2 , Urbanization
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