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1.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(2): e623-e625, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection produces a wide variety of inflammatory responses in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which has similar clinical manifestations as Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We performed a chart review of all patients with KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020, at a tertiary care children's hospital within a larger health system. Relevant symptoms, comorbid illnesses, laboratory results, imaging studies, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Descriptive analyses to compare features over time were performed. RESULTS: We identified 81 cases of KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020. Few clinical features, such as gallbladder involvement, were more prevalent in 2020 than in previous years. A few patients in 2020 required more intensive treatment with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist therapy. There were no other clear differences in incidence, laboratory parameters, number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, or outcomes over the years of the study. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in incidence, laboratory parameters, or number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin required for treatment of KD-like illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with previous years at our institution. Kawasaki disease-like illnesses, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, may not have changed substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 561168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389192

ABSTRACT

Providing routine healthcare to patients with serious health illnesses represents a challenge to healthcare providers amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Treating cancer patients during this pandemic is even more complex due to their heightened vulnerability, as both cancer and cancer treatment weaken the immune system leading to a higher risk of both infections and severe complications. In addition to the need to protect cancer patients from unnecessary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection during their routine care, interruption, and discontinuation of cancer treatment can result in negative consequences on patients' health, in addition to the ghost of rationing healthcare resources in high demand during a global health crisis. This article aims to explore the ethical dilemmas faced by decision-makers and healthcare providers caring for cancer patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This includes setting triage criteria for non-infected cancer patients, fairly allocating limited healthcare resources between cancer patients and SARS-CoV-2 patients, prioritizing SARS-CoV-2 treatment or vaccine, once developed, for cancer patients and non-cancer patients, patient-physician communication on matters such as end-of-life and do-not-resuscitate (DNR), and lastly, shifting physicians' priorities from treating their own cancer patients to treating critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Ultimately, no straightforward decision can be easily made at such exceptionally difficult times. Applying different ethical principles can result in very different scenarios and consequences. In the end, we will briefly share the experience of the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), the only standalone comprehensive cancer center in the region.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S110-S117, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are common, often seasonal, and caused by multiple pathogens. We assessed whether seasonal respiratory illness patterns changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We categorized emergency department (ED) visits reported to the National Syndromic Surveillance Program according to chief complaints and diagnosis codes, excluding visits with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. For each week during 1 March 2020 through 26 December 2020 ("pandemic period"), we compared the proportion of ED visits in each respiratory category with the proportion of visits in that category during the corresponding weeks of 2017-2019 ("pre-pandemic period"). We analyzed positivity of respiratory viral tests from 2 independent clinical laboratories. RESULTS: During March 2020, cough, shortness of breath, and influenza-like illness accounted for twice as many ED visits compared with the pre-pandemic period. During the last 4 months of 2020, all respiratory conditions, except shortness of breath, accounted for a smaller proportion of ED visits than during the pre-pandemic period. Percent positivity for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, and human metapneumovirus was lower in 2020 than 2019. Although test volume decreased, percent positivity was higher for rhinovirus/enterovirus during the final weeks of 2020 compared with 2019, with ED visits similar to the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: Broad reductions in respiratory test positivity and respiratory ED visits (excluding COVID-19) occurred during 2020. Interventions for mitigating spread of SARS-CoV-2 likely also reduced transmission of other pathogens. Timely surveillance is needed to understand community health threats, particularly when current trends deviate from seasonal norms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
4.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(2): 295-302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268380

ABSTRACT

The world is fighting the onslaught of COVID 19 for the last 10 months, ever since the first case was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Now, it has spread to over 200 countries. COVID 19-associated respiratory syndrome is causing a lot of mortality and morbidity. There are reports suggesting that the complications and ARDS associated with COVID 19 is an immune response reaction. The cytokine storm associated with severe cases of COVID 19 acts as a cause of death in many sick patients. It has been shown that COVID 19 is associated with a peculiar immune profile: Decrease in CD3, CD4, CD8, natural killer cell and B-cells; Rise in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha; Decrease in IL-10; Decrease in interferon-gamma. Low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) immunosuppressive features resulting from M2 macrophage phenotype activation, increase in IL-10, transforming growth factor beta, a decrease in IL-6, TNF alpha and an increase in CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cell counts may negate the harmful effects of cytokine release syndrome. Literature review shows that radiation was previously used to treat viral pneumonia with a good success rate. This practice was discontinued in view of the availability of effective antibiotics and antivirals. As there are no scientifically proven treatment for severe COVID 19-associated respiratory distress today, it is prudent that we understand the benefits of LDRT at this critical juncture and take rational decisions to treat the same. This article provides an radioimmunological rationale for the treatment of immune crisis mediated complications in severe cases of COVID 19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/radiotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Radiotherapy Dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Perm J ; 252021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospitals and emergency departments (EDs) faced profound uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early concerns regarding demand far exceeding capacity were balanced by anecdotal reports of decreased patient visits, including those for specific high-acuity conditions. This study sought to identify changes in ED volume and acuity, within a specific managed care environment, associated with the onset of the pandemic. METHODS: Data from patient visits to 2 San Diego, California, EDs-within an integrated health-care system-were extracted from the electronic health record. Daily patient visits, hospital admissions from the ED, Emergency Severity Index scores, and mode of arrival were compared between two 28-day periods, with the 28 days following a "stay at home" order issued by the governor of California and a control period of the same dates in 2019. RESULTS: These EDs observed a significant decrease in daily visits (42% compared to the previous year) associated with the pandemic. An increased rate of hospital admissions (16.6%-21.6%) was suggestive of an overall increase in acuity; however, changes in the distribution of Emergency Severity Index scores were less pronounced. The overall number of admissions declined significantly. Although overall ambulance traffic decreased, the proportion of patients arriving by ambulance was unchanged. CONCLUSION: Patient volume in 2 EDs dropped significantly in association with a statewide response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was also a shift in acuity as measured by the proportion of patients admitted to the hospital, but overall admissions declined, suggesting sicker patients also did not seek care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease , COVID-19/diagnosis , California , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e21864, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218462

ABSTRACT

One of the most at-risk groups during the COVID-19 crisis is older adults, especially those who live in congregate living settings and seniors' care facilities, are immune-compromised, and/or have other underlying illnesses. Measures undertaken to contain the spread of the virus are far-reaching, and older adults were among the first groups to experience restrictions on face-to-face contact. Although reducing viral transmission is critical, physical distancing is associated with negative psychosocial implications, such as increased rates of depression and anxiety. Promising evidence suggests that participatory digital co-design, defined as the combination of user-centered design and community engagement models, is associated with increased levels of engagement with mobile technologies among individuals with mental health conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted shortcomings of existing technologies and challenges in their uptake and usage; however, strategies such as co-design may be leveraged to address these challenges both in the adaptation of existing technologies and the development of new technologies. By incorporating these strategies, it is hoped that we can offset some of the negative mental health implications for older adults in the context of physical distancing both during and beyond the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Digital Technology , Mental Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Age Factors , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Technology
7.
Microb Pathog ; 156: 104941, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213436

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together, and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Although, the incidence of co-infections could be up to 94.2% in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the fate of co-infections among SARS-CoV-2 infected hosts often depends on the balance between the host's protective immunity and immunopathology. Predominantly identified co-pathogens of SARS-CoV-2 are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Legionella pneumophila and Clamydia pneumoniae followed by viruses including influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The cross-talk between co-pathogens (especially lung microbiomes), SARS-CoV-2 and host is an important factor that ultimately increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19. Simultaneously, co-infecting microbiotas may use new strategies to escape host defense mechanisms by altering both innate and adaptive immune responses to further aggravate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Better understanding of co-infections in COVID-19 is critical for the effective patient management, treatment and containment of SARS-CoV-2. This review therefore necessitates the comprehensive investigation of commonly reported microbial co-pathogens amid COVID-19, their transmission pattern along with the possible mechanism of co-infections and outcomes. Thus, identifying the possible co-pathogens and their underlying molecular mechanisms during SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis may shed light in developing diagnostics, appropriate curative and preventive interventions for suspected SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Communicable Diseases , Microbiota , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13767, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168101

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significantly increased risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism, particularly in severely sick patients. Recently, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) cases have been reported in the context of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These cases either had an active COVID infection with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or were symptomatic (fever, respiratory symptoms, myalgia) during the presentation. We present here a 41-year-old male with CVST who had negative RT-PCR and positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) COVID-19 antibodies. He was neither diagnosed nor had a flu-like illness before admission. This case highlights that CVST can be a late sequela of previously undiagnosed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection.

9.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13546, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150959

ABSTRACT

Background The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and pandemic disease with a variable mode of action. Patients with underlying illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and other diseases are more prone to infection. An understanding of the different comorbidities that place patients at the highest risk of COVID-19 pneumonia and other fatal complications associated with COVID-19 is necessary for healthcare professionals. This study aimed to determine the frequency of different comorbid illnesses among COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who required admission for the care of their symptoms were included in this observational, cross-sectional study conducted from May 1 to July 30, 2020. The patients were treated at a specialized COVID-19 isolation ward built at the Dow University of Health Sciences at the Ojha campus. The patients were referred from the emergency department, medical and allied wards, and COVID-19 screening units. A detailed history and clinical examination were performed, and comorbidities were evaluated. Results A total of 212 patients were admitted during the study with a mean age of 52 ± 16 years. The study population consisted of 120 (56.6%) males and 92 (43.39%) females, and the most common comorbidities were uncontrolled diabetes with hypertension (n = 56; 26.4%), controlled diabetes (n = 22; 10.37%), obstructive airway disease (n = 16; 7.5%), and interstitial lung disease (n = 14; 6.6%). A total of 48 (22.64%) patients had no comorbidities. Conclusions Most COVID-19-positive patients with pneumonia were male, and common comorbidities included uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, and obstructive and restrictive lung disease. The presence of comorbidities was associated with a marked increase in the risk of morbidity and mortality. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

10.
Midwifery ; 98: 102991, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore if and how women perceived their prenatal care to have changed as a result of COVID-19 and the impact of those changes on pregnant women. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of open-ended prompts included as part of an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey of pregnant women in the United States. SETTING: Online survey with participants from 47 states within the U.S. PARTICIPANTS: Self-identified pregnant women recruited through Facebook, Twitter, and other online sources. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: An anonymous, online survey of pregnant women (distributed April 3 - 24, 2020) included an open-ended prompt asking women to tell us how COVID-19 had affected their prenatal care. Open-ended narrative responses were downloaded into Excel and coded using the Attride-Sterling Framework. 2519 pregnant women from 47 states responded to the survey, 88.4% of whom had at least one previous birth. Mean age was 32.7 years, mean weeks pregnant was 24.3 weeks, and mean number of prenatal visits at the point of the survey was 6.5. Predominant themes of the open narratives included COVID-19's role in creating structural changes within the healthcare system (reported spontaneously by 2075 respondents), behavioral changes among both pregnant women and their providers (reported by 429 respondents), and emotional consequences for women who were pregnant (reported by 503 respondents) during the pandemic. Changes resulting from COVID-19 varied widely by provider, and women's perceptions of the impact on quality of care ranged from perceiving care as extremely compromised to perceiving it to be improved as a result of the pandemic. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Women who are pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced enormous upheaval as hospitals and healthcare providers have struggled to meet the simultaneous and often competing demands of infection prevention, pandemic preparedness, high patient volumes of extremely sick patients, and the needs of 'non-urgent' pregnant patients. In some settings, women described very few changes, whereas others reported radical changes implemented seemingly overnight. While infection rates may drive variable responses, these inconsistencies raise important questions regarding the need for local, state, national, or even global recommendations for the care of pregnant women during a global pandemic such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Prenatal Care/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): S60-S65, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical characteristics, renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirements, and predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19 associated AKI. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Sakarya University Education and Training Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2020. METHODOLOGY: The study included 55 patients who were admitted with diagnosis of COVID-19, and whose illnesses showed a critical course that leads to AKI. The variables were studied as per objective. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 43 out of 55 patients (78.2%) died and 12 (21.8%) were discharged with recovery. The mortality was higher in patients at stage 3 (88.9% mortality) compared to stage 2 (53.8% mortality) (p=0.014). In the nonsurvivor group, RDW (red cell distribution width) and albumin levels were lower at admission; whereas, the LDH levels and CRP/albumin ratios were higher. On regression analysis, low albumin level (OR: 12.793, p = 0.010), high LDH level (OR: 8.454, p = 0.026), and presence of stage 3 AKI (OR: 10.268, p = 0.020) were found as independent risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 patients, who developed AKI. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who developed AKI, it was seen that the presence of low albumin, high LDH, and stage 3 AKI at the time of admission could be used as predictors of mortality. Moreover,, it was shown for the first time that in these patients, the high CRP/albumin ratio and low RDW could be associated with mortality. Key Words: Acute kidney injury, Mortality, COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
JCI Insight ; 6(6)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097059

ABSTRACT

Comorbid medical illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with more severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. However, the role of the immune system in mediating these clinical outcomes has not been determined. We used multiparameter flow cytometry and systems serology to comprehensively profile the functions of T cells and antibodies targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and envelope proteins in a convalescent cohort of COVID-19 subjects who were either hospitalized (n = 20) or not hospitalized (n = 40). To avoid confounding, subjects were matched by age, sex, ethnicity, and date of symptom onset. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitude and functional breadth of virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses were consistently higher among hospitalized subjects, particularly those with medical comorbidities. However, an integrated analysis identified more coordination between polyfunctional CD4+ T cells and antibodies targeting the S1 domain of spike among subjects who were not hospitalized. These data reveal a functionally diverse and coordinated response between T cells and antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2, which is reduced in the presence of comorbid illnesses that are known risk factors for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/physiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Envelope , Viral Proteins , Young Adult
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(4): 861-867, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe a systematic approach to address advance care planning (ACP) during a COVID-19 outbreak and its impact on the incidence of new do-not-hospitalize (DNH) directives among long-term care (LTC) residents. DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement initiative. SETTING: Two long-term chronic care campuses within a large academic healthcare organization. PARTICIPANTS: LTC residents with activated healthcare proxies who lacked DNH directives based on documentation in the electronic medical record (EMR) as of April 13, 2020. INTERVENTION: Using a structured discussion guide, trained healthcare staff from various disciplines contacted the residents' proxies to conduct COVID-19 focused ACP discussions. Residents without DNH directives with COVID-19 were prioritized. Preferences ascertained in the discussion were communicated to the residents' primary care teams and directives were updated in the EMR accordingly. MEASUREMENTS: Residents who acquired a new DNH directive during the study initiative were determined using the EMR. Subsequent changes in DNH orders, hospitalizations, and deaths were ascertained by retrospective chart review from the date of new DNH through August 5, 2020. RESULTS: At baseline, 315/581 (54%) of LTC residents did not have a DNH directive. Their mean age was 87 (±9) years and 70% were female. Following ACP discussions, 124/315 (39%) of residents acquired a new DNH directive. Among residents with new DNH directives, 65/124 (52%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 from April 2, 2020 to May 21, 2020. During follow-up, only 6/124 (4.8%) residents had their DNH order reversed, 2/124 (1.6%) residents were hospitalized with illnesses unrelated to COVID-19, and 29/124 (23%) died. CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial opportunity to increase the proportion of LTC residents with DNH orders during the COVID-19 pandemic through a systematic ACP initiative which utilized real-time EMR data. New directives to avoid hospitalizations were sustained among the majority of residents beyond the peak of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Long-Term Care , Quality Improvement , Aged, 80 and over , Boston , Documentation , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
14.
JMIR Pediatr Parent ; 4(1): e22696, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine modalities, such as videoconferencing, are used by health care providers to remotely deliver health care to patients. Telemedicine use in pediatrics has increased in recent years. This has resulted in improved health care access, optimized disease management, progress in the monitoring of health conditions, and fewer exposures to patients with illnesses during pandemics (eg, the COVID-19 pandemic). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically evaluate the most recent evidence on the feasibility and accessibility of telemedicine services, patients' and care providers' satisfaction with these services, and treatment outcomes related to telemedicine service use among pediatric populations with different health conditions. METHODS: Studies were obtained from the PubMed database on May 10, 2020. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. In this review, we included randomized controlled trials from the last 10 years that used a telemedicine approach as a study intervention or assessed telemedicine as a subspecialty of pediatric care. Titles and abstracts were independently screened based on the eligibility criteria. Afterward, full texts were retrieved and independently screened based on the eligibility criteria. A standardized form was used to extract the following data: publication title, first author's name, publication year, participants' characteristics, study design, the technology-based approach that was used, intervention characteristics, study goals, and study findings. RESULTS: In total, 11 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. All studies were categorized as randomized controlled trials (8/11, 73%) or cluster randomized trials (3/11, 27%). The number of participants in each study ranged from 22 to 400. The health conditions that were assessed included obesity (3/11, 27%), asthma (2/11, 18%), mental health conditions (1/11, 9%), otitis media (1/11, 9%), skin conditions (1/11, 9%), type 1 diabetes (1/11, 9%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1/11, 9%), and cystic fibrosis-related pancreatic insufficiency (1/11). The telemedicine approaches that were used included patient and doctor videoconferencing visits (5/11, 45%), smartphone-based interventions (3/11, 27%), telephone counseling (2/11, 18%), and telemedicine-based screening visits (1/11, 9%). The telemedicine interventions in all included studies resulted in outcomes that were comparable to or better than the outcomes of control groups. These outcomes were related to symptom management, quality of life, satisfaction, medication adherence, visit completion rates, and disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Although more research is needed, the evidence from this review suggests that telemedicine services for the general public and pediatric care are comparable to or better than in-person services. Patients, health care professionals, and caregivers may benefit from using both telemedicine services and traditional, in-person health care services. To maximize the potential of telemedicine, future research should focus on improving patients' access to care, increasing the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine services, and eliminating barriers to telemedicine use.

15.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(1): 77-84, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068214

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic management of parturients with COVID-19 is a big challenge to anesthesiologists. Limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with SARS and MERS might provide insights into COVID-19's effects during pregnancy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Evidence from previous reports from SARS and MERS, and from COVID-19 cases were reviewed. Concepts from guidelines from the government and academic societies were collected as well. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The evidence was described and summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Principles to minimize the risk of infection as well as optimize patients' safety during obstetric anesthesia were found to include careful evaluation, tight protection, and multi-discipline-based strategy. Though vertical transmission of COVID-19 still needs more definitive evidence, strict isolation is necessary for the newborn of COVID-19 mothers. Psychological support for the parturients is also an important issue during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists , COVID-19/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy
16.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11): 1443-1449, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065253

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus. Public information created awareness as well as concern in the general population. There has been a reported decrease in the number of patients attending emergency departments (ED) during the pandemic. This is the first study to determine differences in the types of presenting illnesses, severity, and rate of resultant surgical intervention during the pandemic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We carried out a retrospective, observational cohort study comparing two groups of patients attending the ED at our tertiary-care academic hospital. A historical comparison cohort was obtained by reviewing the number of patients referred by the ED for abdominal CT between March 15 and April 15, 2020, compared with March 15 and April 15, 2019. CT reports were reviewed; primary pathologies, complications, and subsequent surgical intervention were documented and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In all, 733 patients were included in the 2019 cohort, and 422 patients were included in the 2020 cohort. In 2019, 32.7% had positive CT findings, increasing to 50.5% in 2020. The number of complications increased from 7.9% to 19.7%. The rate requiring surgical intervention increased from 26.3% to 47.6% in 2020. CONCLUSION: To date, there is little published data regarding the presentation and severity of illnesses during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This information has important public health implications, highlighting the need to educate patients to continue to present to hospital services during such crises, including if a purported second wave of COVID-19 arises.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 24(6): 532-536, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061561

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: There is scarcity of data on thyroid function abnormality in COVID-19 patients in world literature. AIMS: The objective of this study was to assess thyroid function tests in hospitalized patients of COVID-19. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Sixty (60) patients with COVID-19 detected by RT-PCR admitted in General Medicine isolation ward and COVID block of a tertiary care teaching hospital were selected by semi-purposive sampling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: These patients were assessed for thyroid function tests, including total T3, free T3, total T4, free T4, TSH and anti-TPO antibody along with other baseline investigations. Patients with pre-existing thyroid-related ailments, those on levothyroxine or anti-thyroid drugs or other drugs known to interfere with the results were excluded. RESULTS: There were 43.3% patients in mild, 26.7% in moderate, and 30% in severe category, according to local COVID-19 severity classification protocol. 35% patients had one or more abnormality in the thyroid function, low TSH being the most common (18.33%). 9.1% patients had characteristic pattern of thyroiditis. In most of the others thyroid function did not match any typical pattern. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters of the thyroid function test between mild, moderate, and severe groups. CONCLUSION: Thyroid function may be abnormal in all categories of patients during COVID-19 infection, even in absence of pre-existing thyroid ailments. Although low TSH is the commonest abnormality and typical pattern of thyroiditis can be seen in a subsection of patients, in majority of the patients, thyroid function abnormality does not follow any characteristic pattern and likely represents a combination of thyroiditis and sick euthyroid syndrome in different points of its spectrum.

18.
Biol Proced Online ; 23(1): 5, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058242

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a pandemic of the 21st century caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was originated from China and shallowed world economy and human resource. The medical cures via herbal treatments, antiviral drugs, and vaccines still in progress, and studying rigorously. SARS-CoV-2 is more virulent than its ancestors due to evolution in the spike protein(s), mediates viral attachment to the host's membranes. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding spike domain associates itself with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors. It causes respiratory ailments with irregularities in the hepatic, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems, as reported in humans suffering from COVID-19 and reviewed in the present article. There are several approaches, have been put forward by many countries under the world health organization (WHO) recommendations and some trial drugs were introduced for possible treatment of COVID-19, such as Lopinavir or Ritonavir, Arbidol, Chloroquine (CQ), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and most important Remdesivir including other like Tocilizumab, Oritavancin, Chlorpromazine, Azithromycin, Baricitinib, etc. RT-PCR is the only and early detection test available besides the rapid test kit (serodiagnosis) used by a few countries due to unreasonable causes. Development of vaccine by several leader of pharmaceutical groups still under trial or waiting for approval for mass inoculation. Management strategies have been evolved by the recommendations of WHO, specifically important to control COVID-19 situations, in the pandemic era. This review will provide a comprehensive collection of studies to support future research and enhancement in our wisdom to combat COVID-19 pandemic and to serve humanity.

19.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(2): 8, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053099

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current knowledge of the impact of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: Several observational studies, including case series, patient surveys, and patient registries, have examined the incidence and severity of COVID-19 in patients with SLE. Due to methodologic limitations (focus on sicker patients, exclusion of asymptomatic or mild cases, limited or inaccurate viral testing), it is difficult to determine the risk and outcomes of COVID-19 in SLE patients. Corticosteroids might be associated with increased hospitalizations from COVID-19 in individuals with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Some immune suppressive treatments do not appear to significantly increase the risk of contracting COVID-19 or poor subsequent outcomes; however, data on the safety of specific drugs remain scarce. Studies in non-autoimmune cohorts have shown more severe COVID-19 in ethnic and racial minorities, populations also more heavily impacted by SLE. Such results have been attributed to highly prevalent socioeconomic disparities and comorbidities. The complex interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the host immunologic milieu may have particular implications for patients with SLE that remain to be explored. Concerns have been raised of COVID-19 heightening the risk of thromboembolic events in the presence of an SLE-induced procoagulant state. Limitations in epidemiologic data available to date do not allow for assessing the risk and severity of COVID-19 in patients with SLE. Other than corticosteroids, prior use of some immune suppressive medications does not appear to increase the risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 however, more comprehensive studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1925-1934, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043084

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory syndrome, reported at the end of 2019 in China originally and immediately spread affecting over ten million world population to date. This pandemic is more lethal for the older population and those who previously suffered from other ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and other immune system affecting abnormalities including cancers. Lung cancer is an important comorbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we emphasized the impact of lung tumor microenvironment (TME) on the possibility of enhanced severity of infection caused by the SARS-Co-V2. The compromised lung TME is further susceptible to the attack of viruses. The lung cells are also abundant in the virus entry receptors. Several SARS-Co-V2 proteins can modulate the lung TME by disrupting the fragile immune mechanisms contributing to cytokine storming and cellular metabolic variations. We also discussed the impact of medication used for lung cancer in the scenario of this infection. Since other respiratory infections can be a risk factor for lung cancer, COVID-19 recovered patients should be monitored for tumor development, especially if there is genetic susceptibility or it involves exposure to other risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Microenvironment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
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