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1.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(2): e623-e625, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection produces a wide variety of inflammatory responses in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which has similar clinical manifestations as Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We performed a chart review of all patients with KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020, at a tertiary care children's hospital within a larger health system. Relevant symptoms, comorbid illnesses, laboratory results, imaging studies, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Descriptive analyses to compare features over time were performed. RESULTS: We identified 81 cases of KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020. Few clinical features, such as gallbladder involvement, were more prevalent in 2020 than in previous years. A few patients in 2020 required more intensive treatment with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist therapy. There were no other clear differences in incidence, laboratory parameters, number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, or outcomes over the years of the study. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in incidence, laboratory parameters, or number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin required for treatment of KD-like illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with previous years at our institution. Kawasaki disease-like illnesses, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, may not have changed substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S110-S117, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are common, often seasonal, and caused by multiple pathogens. We assessed whether seasonal respiratory illness patterns changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We categorized emergency department (ED) visits reported to the National Syndromic Surveillance Program according to chief complaints and diagnosis codes, excluding visits with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. For each week during 1 March 2020 through 26 December 2020 ("pandemic period"), we compared the proportion of ED visits in each respiratory category with the proportion of visits in that category during the corresponding weeks of 2017-2019 ("pre-pandemic period"). We analyzed positivity of respiratory viral tests from 2 independent clinical laboratories. RESULTS: During March 2020, cough, shortness of breath, and influenza-like illness accounted for twice as many ED visits compared with the pre-pandemic period. During the last 4 months of 2020, all respiratory conditions, except shortness of breath, accounted for a smaller proportion of ED visits than during the pre-pandemic period. Percent positivity for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, and human metapneumovirus was lower in 2020 than 2019. Although test volume decreased, percent positivity was higher for rhinovirus/enterovirus during the final weeks of 2020 compared with 2019, with ED visits similar to the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: Broad reductions in respiratory test positivity and respiratory ED visits (excluding COVID-19) occurred during 2020. Interventions for mitigating spread of SARS-CoV-2 likely also reduced transmission of other pathogens. Timely surveillance is needed to understand community health threats, particularly when current trends deviate from seasonal norms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(2): 295-302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268380

ABSTRACT

The world is fighting the onslaught of COVID 19 for the last 10 months, ever since the first case was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Now, it has spread to over 200 countries. COVID 19-associated respiratory syndrome is causing a lot of mortality and morbidity. There are reports suggesting that the complications and ARDS associated with COVID 19 is an immune response reaction. The cytokine storm associated with severe cases of COVID 19 acts as a cause of death in many sick patients. It has been shown that COVID 19 is associated with a peculiar immune profile: Decrease in CD3, CD4, CD8, natural killer cell and B-cells; Rise in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha; Decrease in IL-10; Decrease in interferon-gamma. Low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) immunosuppressive features resulting from M2 macrophage phenotype activation, increase in IL-10, transforming growth factor beta, a decrease in IL-6, TNF alpha and an increase in CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cell counts may negate the harmful effects of cytokine release syndrome. Literature review shows that radiation was previously used to treat viral pneumonia with a good success rate. This practice was discontinued in view of the availability of effective antibiotics and antivirals. As there are no scientifically proven treatment for severe COVID 19-associated respiratory distress today, it is prudent that we understand the benefits of LDRT at this critical juncture and take rational decisions to treat the same. This article provides an radioimmunological rationale for the treatment of immune crisis mediated complications in severe cases of COVID 19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/radiotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Radiotherapy Dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
4.
Perm J ; 252021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospitals and emergency departments (EDs) faced profound uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early concerns regarding demand far exceeding capacity were balanced by anecdotal reports of decreased patient visits, including those for specific high-acuity conditions. This study sought to identify changes in ED volume and acuity, within a specific managed care environment, associated with the onset of the pandemic. METHODS: Data from patient visits to 2 San Diego, California, EDs-within an integrated health-care system-were extracted from the electronic health record. Daily patient visits, hospital admissions from the ED, Emergency Severity Index scores, and mode of arrival were compared between two 28-day periods, with the 28 days following a "stay at home" order issued by the governor of California and a control period of the same dates in 2019. RESULTS: These EDs observed a significant decrease in daily visits (42% compared to the previous year) associated with the pandemic. An increased rate of hospital admissions (16.6%-21.6%) was suggestive of an overall increase in acuity; however, changes in the distribution of Emergency Severity Index scores were less pronounced. The overall number of admissions declined significantly. Although overall ambulance traffic decreased, the proportion of patients arriving by ambulance was unchanged. CONCLUSION: Patient volume in 2 EDs dropped significantly in association with a statewide response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was also a shift in acuity as measured by the proportion of patients admitted to the hospital, but overall admissions declined, suggesting sicker patients also did not seek care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease , COVID-19/diagnosis , California , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Microb Pathog ; 156: 104941, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213436

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together, and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Although, the incidence of co-infections could be up to 94.2% in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, the fate of co-infections among SARS-CoV-2 infected hosts often depends on the balance between the host's protective immunity and immunopathology. Predominantly identified co-pathogens of SARS-CoV-2 are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Legionella pneumophila and Clamydia pneumoniae followed by viruses including influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The cross-talk between co-pathogens (especially lung microbiomes), SARS-CoV-2 and host is an important factor that ultimately increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19. Simultaneously, co-infecting microbiotas may use new strategies to escape host defense mechanisms by altering both innate and adaptive immune responses to further aggravate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Better understanding of co-infections in COVID-19 is critical for the effective patient management, treatment and containment of SARS-CoV-2. This review therefore necessitates the comprehensive investigation of commonly reported microbial co-pathogens amid COVID-19, their transmission pattern along with the possible mechanism of co-infections and outcomes. Thus, identifying the possible co-pathogens and their underlying molecular mechanisms during SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis may shed light in developing diagnostics, appropriate curative and preventive interventions for suspected SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Communicable Diseases , Microbiota , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13767, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168101

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significantly increased risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism, particularly in severely sick patients. Recently, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) cases have been reported in the context of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These cases either had an active COVID infection with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or were symptomatic (fever, respiratory symptoms, myalgia) during the presentation. We present here a 41-year-old male with CVST who had negative RT-PCR and positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) COVID-19 antibodies. He was neither diagnosed nor had a flu-like illness before admission. This case highlights that CVST can be a late sequela of previously undiagnosed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection.

7.
Midwifery ; 98: 102991, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore if and how women perceived their prenatal care to have changed as a result of COVID-19 and the impact of those changes on pregnant women. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of open-ended prompts included as part of an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey of pregnant women in the United States. SETTING: Online survey with participants from 47 states within the U.S. PARTICIPANTS: Self-identified pregnant women recruited through Facebook, Twitter, and other online sources. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: An anonymous, online survey of pregnant women (distributed April 3 - 24, 2020) included an open-ended prompt asking women to tell us how COVID-19 had affected their prenatal care. Open-ended narrative responses were downloaded into Excel and coded using the Attride-Sterling Framework. 2519 pregnant women from 47 states responded to the survey, 88.4% of whom had at least one previous birth. Mean age was 32.7 years, mean weeks pregnant was 24.3 weeks, and mean number of prenatal visits at the point of the survey was 6.5. Predominant themes of the open narratives included COVID-19's role in creating structural changes within the healthcare system (reported spontaneously by 2075 respondents), behavioral changes among both pregnant women and their providers (reported by 429 respondents), and emotional consequences for women who were pregnant (reported by 503 respondents) during the pandemic. Changes resulting from COVID-19 varied widely by provider, and women's perceptions of the impact on quality of care ranged from perceiving care as extremely compromised to perceiving it to be improved as a result of the pandemic. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Women who are pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced enormous upheaval as hospitals and healthcare providers have struggled to meet the simultaneous and often competing demands of infection prevention, pandemic preparedness, high patient volumes of extremely sick patients, and the needs of 'non-urgent' pregnant patients. In some settings, women described very few changes, whereas others reported radical changes implemented seemingly overnight. While infection rates may drive variable responses, these inconsistencies raise important questions regarding the need for local, state, national, or even global recommendations for the care of pregnant women during a global pandemic such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Prenatal Care/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
8.
JCI Insight ; 6(6)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097059

ABSTRACT

Comorbid medical illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with more severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. However, the role of the immune system in mediating these clinical outcomes has not been determined. We used multiparameter flow cytometry and systems serology to comprehensively profile the functions of T cells and antibodies targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and envelope proteins in a convalescent cohort of COVID-19 subjects who were either hospitalized (n = 20) or not hospitalized (n = 40). To avoid confounding, subjects were matched by age, sex, ethnicity, and date of symptom onset. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitude and functional breadth of virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses were consistently higher among hospitalized subjects, particularly those with medical comorbidities. However, an integrated analysis identified more coordination between polyfunctional CD4+ T cells and antibodies targeting the S1 domain of spike among subjects who were not hospitalized. These data reveal a functionally diverse and coordinated response between T cells and antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2, which is reduced in the presence of comorbid illnesses that are known risk factors for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/physiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Envelope , Viral Proteins , Young Adult
9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(4): 861-867, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe a systematic approach to address advance care planning (ACP) during a COVID-19 outbreak and its impact on the incidence of new do-not-hospitalize (DNH) directives among long-term care (LTC) residents. DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement initiative. SETTING: Two long-term chronic care campuses within a large academic healthcare organization. PARTICIPANTS: LTC residents with activated healthcare proxies who lacked DNH directives based on documentation in the electronic medical record (EMR) as of April 13, 2020. INTERVENTION: Using a structured discussion guide, trained healthcare staff from various disciplines contacted the residents' proxies to conduct COVID-19 focused ACP discussions. Residents without DNH directives with COVID-19 were prioritized. Preferences ascertained in the discussion were communicated to the residents' primary care teams and directives were updated in the EMR accordingly. MEASUREMENTS: Residents who acquired a new DNH directive during the study initiative were determined using the EMR. Subsequent changes in DNH orders, hospitalizations, and deaths were ascertained by retrospective chart review from the date of new DNH through August 5, 2020. RESULTS: At baseline, 315/581 (54%) of LTC residents did not have a DNH directive. Their mean age was 87 (±9) years and 70% were female. Following ACP discussions, 124/315 (39%) of residents acquired a new DNH directive. Among residents with new DNH directives, 65/124 (52%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 from April 2, 2020 to May 21, 2020. During follow-up, only 6/124 (4.8%) residents had their DNH order reversed, 2/124 (1.6%) residents were hospitalized with illnesses unrelated to COVID-19, and 29/124 (23%) died. CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial opportunity to increase the proportion of LTC residents with DNH orders during the COVID-19 pandemic through a systematic ACP initiative which utilized real-time EMR data. New directives to avoid hospitalizations were sustained among the majority of residents beyond the peak of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Long-Term Care , Quality Improvement , Aged, 80 and over , Boston , Documentation , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
10.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(1): 77-84, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068214

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic management of parturients with COVID-19 is a big challenge to anesthesiologists. Limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with SARS and MERS might provide insights into COVID-19's effects during pregnancy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Evidence from previous reports from SARS and MERS, and from COVID-19 cases were reviewed. Concepts from guidelines from the government and academic societies were collected as well. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The evidence was described and summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Principles to minimize the risk of infection as well as optimize patients' safety during obstetric anesthesia were found to include careful evaluation, tight protection, and multi-discipline-based strategy. Though vertical transmission of COVID-19 still needs more definitive evidence, strict isolation is necessary for the newborn of COVID-19 mothers. Psychological support for the parturients is also an important issue during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists , COVID-19/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy
11.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11): 1443-1449, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065253

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus. Public information created awareness as well as concern in the general population. There has been a reported decrease in the number of patients attending emergency departments (ED) during the pandemic. This is the first study to determine differences in the types of presenting illnesses, severity, and rate of resultant surgical intervention during the pandemic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We carried out a retrospective, observational cohort study comparing two groups of patients attending the ED at our tertiary-care academic hospital. A historical comparison cohort was obtained by reviewing the number of patients referred by the ED for abdominal CT between March 15 and April 15, 2020, compared with March 15 and April 15, 2019. CT reports were reviewed; primary pathologies, complications, and subsequent surgical intervention were documented and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In all, 733 patients were included in the 2019 cohort, and 422 patients were included in the 2020 cohort. In 2019, 32.7% had positive CT findings, increasing to 50.5% in 2020. The number of complications increased from 7.9% to 19.7%. The rate requiring surgical intervention increased from 26.3% to 47.6% in 2020. CONCLUSION: To date, there is little published data regarding the presentation and severity of illnesses during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This information has important public health implications, highlighting the need to educate patients to continue to present to hospital services during such crises, including if a purported second wave of COVID-19 arises.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Biol Proced Online ; 23(1): 5, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058242

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a pandemic of the 21st century caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was originated from China and shallowed world economy and human resource. The medical cures via herbal treatments, antiviral drugs, and vaccines still in progress, and studying rigorously. SARS-CoV-2 is more virulent than its ancestors due to evolution in the spike protein(s), mediates viral attachment to the host's membranes. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding spike domain associates itself with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors. It causes respiratory ailments with irregularities in the hepatic, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems, as reported in humans suffering from COVID-19 and reviewed in the present article. There are several approaches, have been put forward by many countries under the world health organization (WHO) recommendations and some trial drugs were introduced for possible treatment of COVID-19, such as Lopinavir or Ritonavir, Arbidol, Chloroquine (CQ), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and most important Remdesivir including other like Tocilizumab, Oritavancin, Chlorpromazine, Azithromycin, Baricitinib, etc. RT-PCR is the only and early detection test available besides the rapid test kit (serodiagnosis) used by a few countries due to unreasonable causes. Development of vaccine by several leader of pharmaceutical groups still under trial or waiting for approval for mass inoculation. Management strategies have been evolved by the recommendations of WHO, specifically important to control COVID-19 situations, in the pandemic era. This review will provide a comprehensive collection of studies to support future research and enhancement in our wisdom to combat COVID-19 pandemic and to serve humanity.

13.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(2): 8, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053099

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current knowledge of the impact of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: Several observational studies, including case series, patient surveys, and patient registries, have examined the incidence and severity of COVID-19 in patients with SLE. Due to methodologic limitations (focus on sicker patients, exclusion of asymptomatic or mild cases, limited or inaccurate viral testing), it is difficult to determine the risk and outcomes of COVID-19 in SLE patients. Corticosteroids might be associated with increased hospitalizations from COVID-19 in individuals with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Some immune suppressive treatments do not appear to significantly increase the risk of contracting COVID-19 or poor subsequent outcomes; however, data on the safety of specific drugs remain scarce. Studies in non-autoimmune cohorts have shown more severe COVID-19 in ethnic and racial minorities, populations also more heavily impacted by SLE. Such results have been attributed to highly prevalent socioeconomic disparities and comorbidities. The complex interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the host immunologic milieu may have particular implications for patients with SLE that remain to be explored. Concerns have been raised of COVID-19 heightening the risk of thromboembolic events in the presence of an SLE-induced procoagulant state. Limitations in epidemiologic data available to date do not allow for assessing the risk and severity of COVID-19 in patients with SLE. Other than corticosteroids, prior use of some immune suppressive medications does not appear to increase the risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 however, more comprehensive studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1925-1934, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043084

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory syndrome, reported at the end of 2019 in China originally and immediately spread affecting over ten million world population to date. This pandemic is more lethal for the older population and those who previously suffered from other ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and other immune system affecting abnormalities including cancers. Lung cancer is an important comorbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we emphasized the impact of lung tumor microenvironment (TME) on the possibility of enhanced severity of infection caused by the SARS-Co-V2. The compromised lung TME is further susceptible to the attack of viruses. The lung cells are also abundant in the virus entry receptors. Several SARS-Co-V2 proteins can modulate the lung TME by disrupting the fragile immune mechanisms contributing to cytokine storming and cellular metabolic variations. We also discussed the impact of medication used for lung cancer in the scenario of this infection. Since other respiratory infections can be a risk factor for lung cancer, COVID-19 recovered patients should be monitored for tumor development, especially if there is genetic susceptibility or it involves exposure to other risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Microenvironment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 28, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033375

ABSTRACT

Studies reporting the clinical presentations of COVID-19 in children in sub-Saharan Africa are few, especially from resource-constrained countries. This case series reports the demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in children seen at a district hospital in Sierra Leone. This is a report of nine COVID-19 paediatric cases managed at a secondary level hospital in Kambia District, Northern Sierra Leone. Each child was detected by contact tracing after an infected adult was identified by the COVID-19 response team. The clinical symptoms at presentation, clinical courses, and treatments instituted and patient outcomes are discussed in the context of the facilities available at a typical West African district hospital. Nine out of 30 individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection who presented to the hospital from 24 April to 20 September 2020 and who were admitted to the isolation center of the hospital were in the paediatric age group. The mean age (SD) and median (IQR) of the children were 69.0 ± 51.7months and 84.0 (10.5, 108.0) months, respectively; five (55.6%) were males. The children were asymptomatic or only had mild illnesses and none required intranasal oxygen or ventilatory support. In the five symptomatic children, the most common symptoms were fever (40%) and cough (40%). All children had normal haemoglobin, platelet and white blood cell (WBC) count. Four children had a positive malaria test and were treated with a complete course of anti-malaria medications. No child received steroid or had specific anti-COVID-19 treatment. All children stayed in the isolation center for 14 days and were re-tested for COVID-19 two weeks after initial diagnosis. No complications have been reported in any of them since discharge. The proportion of children among COVID-19 infected cases seen in a rural community in Sierra Leone was 30%. Fever was the most common symptom and malaria was confirmed in 40% of the infected children. This has significant implication on the diagnosis of COVID-19 in malaria-endemic settings and on how best to manage children who present with fever during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, District , Humans , Infant , Male , Sierra Leone
16.
Transfusion ; 61(4): 1029-1034, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests an association between blood hyperviscosity and both propensity for thrombosis and disease severity in patients with COVID-19. This raises the possibility that increased viscosity may contribute to endothelial damage and multiorgan failure in COVID-19, and that therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) to decrease viscosity may improve patient outcomes. Here we sought to share our experience using TPE in the first 6 patients treated for COVID-19-associated hyperviscosity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six critically ill COVID-19 patients with plasma viscosity levels ranging from 2.6 to 4.2 centipoise (cP; normal range, 1.4-1.8 cP) underwent daily TPE for 2-3 treatments. RESULTS: TPE decreased plasma viscosity in all six patients (Pre-TPE median 3.75 cP, range 2.6-4.2 cP; Post-TPE median 1.6 cP, range 1.5-1.9 cP). TPE also decreased fibrinogen levels in all five patients for whom results were available (Pre-TPE median 739 mg/dL, range 601-1188 mg/dL; Post-TPE median 359 mg/dL, range 235-461 mg/dL); D-dimer levels in all six patients (Pre-TPE median 5921 ng/mL, range 1134-60 000 ng/mL; Post-TPE median 4893 ng/mL, range 620-7518 ng/mL); and CRP levels in five of six patients (Pre-TPE median 292 mg/L, range 136-329 mg/L; Post-TPE median 84 mg/L, range 31-211 mg/L). While the two sickest patients died, significant improvement in clinical status was observed in four of six patients shortly after TPE. CONCLUSIONS: This series demonstrates the utility of TPE to rapidly correct increased blood viscosity in patients with COVID-19-associated hyperviscosity. Large randomized trials are needed to determine whether TPE may improve clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Viscosity , COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
17.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955709

ABSTRACT

Comorbid medical illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with more severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. However, the role of the immune system in mediating these clinical outcomes has not been determined. We used multi-parameter flow cytometry and systems serology to comprehensively profile the functions of T cells and antibodies targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and envelope proteins in a convalescent cohort of COVID-19 subjects who were either hospitalized (n=20) or not hospitalized (n=40). To avoid confounding, subjects were matched by age, sex, ethnicity, and date of symptom onset. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitude and functional breadth of virus-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses were consistently higher among hospitalized subjects, particularly those with medical comorbidities. However, an integrated analysis identified more coordination between polyfunctional CD4 T-cells and antibodies targeting the S1 domain of spike among subjects that were not hospitalized. These data reveal a functionally diverse and coordinated response between T cells and antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 which is reduced in the presence of comorbid illnesses that are known risk factors for severe COVID-19. Our data suggest that isolated measurements of the magnitudes of spike-specific immune responses are likely insufficient to anticipate vaccine efficacy in high-risk populations.

18.
Front Neurol ; 11: 584734, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945681

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid and effective medical care for stroke is paramount to achieve maximal functional recovery. Because of the wide spreading of the coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), acute stroke care is negatively impacted. How much acute care for stroke has been affected during the pandemic remains to be assessed. Methods: The first-level response to major public health was launched from January 24th to April 29th, 2020 in Beijing to contain the spread of COVID-19. Based on a database connecting all 77 stroke centers, the quantity and quality in emergency care for stroke during the 97 lockdown days were compared with the equivalent period in 2019. During the pandemic, 15 of the 77 stroke centers were designated to receive patients sick with COVID-19. Subgroup analyses were carried out by different types of hospitals (designated and undesignated). Results: There were 1,281 and 2,354 stroke emergency hospital admissions in the lockdown period and the parallel period in 2019, respectively. A reduction of 45.6% in admission was shown in the lockdown period, with more reductions for hemorrhagic stroke (69.0%) compared with ischemic stroke (42.9%). More reductions happened in COVID-19 designated hospitals (52.6%) compared with undesignated hospitals (41.8%). The mean NIHSS score at hospital arrival was significantly higher in the lockdown period (9.4 ± 7.7 in 2020 vs. 8.4 ± 7.8 in 2019, P < 0.001). For the metrics measuring the quality of acute stroke care, the onset to door (OTD), onset to needle (ONT), and onset to recanalization (OTR) times didn't change significantly, while significant delays are shown for the door to CT scan (DTC, 1 min delay), door to needle (DTN, 4 min delays), and door to puncture (DTP, 29 min delays) times, which mainly happened in COVID-19 undesignated hospitals. Conclusions: Profound reductions in stroke hospital admissions and significant delays in emergency care for acute ischemic stroke occurred during the pandemic of COVID-19. Engagement and effective communication with all stakeholders including patients, health care providers, governmental policymakers, and other implementation partners are required for future success in similar crises.

19.
Am Heart J ; 231: 93-95, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917186

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses nationwide from 2012 to 2014 and compared this to the incidence among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large health system in New York. Non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness was complicated by acute MI in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (5% vs 16%; P< .001). BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is a prominent feature of the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The incidence of thrombosis during hospitalization for non-COVID-19 viral respiratory infections is uncertain. We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses compared to COVID-19. METHODS: Adults age >18 years hospitalized with a non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness between 2002 and 2014 were identified. The primary study outcome was a composite of venous and arterial thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), acute ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of thrombosis in non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illnesses was compared to the recently published incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 from 3,334 patients hospitalized in New York in 2020. RESULTS: Among 954,521 hospitalizations with viral pneumonia from 2002 to 2014 (mean age 62.3 years, 57.1% female), the combined incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis was 5.0%. Acute MI occurred in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. Patients with thrombosis had higher in-hospital mortality (14.9% vs 3.3%, P< .001) than those without thrombosis. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (median age 64; 39.6% female) in 2020 (5% vs 16%; P< .001) CONCLUSION: In a nationwide analysis of hospitalizations for viral pneumonias, thrombosis risk was lower than that observed in patients with COVID-19. Investigations into mechanisms of thrombosis and risk reduction strategies in COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Tract Infections , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926062, 2020 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease that is not yet fully understood. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that is easily transmitted from human to human through the respiratory route. Usually, it presents with fever, headache, fatigue accompanied by respiratory symptoms like cough and dyspnea, and other systemic involvements. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by absolute lymphocytosis and demonstration of clonality unlike other causes of lymphocytosis. Patients with CLL are considered immunocompromised because of impaired humoral immunity (mainly) and cellular immunity. Therefore, they are vulnerable to various infections including COVID-19. Little is known about the COVID-19 infection when it unmasks CLL. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old man with no significant previous illnesses, and an unremarkable family history, presented with a moderate COVID-19 infection. He initially presented to the emergency department with fever and mild shortness of breath. A complete blood count showed a high white blood cell count with absolute lymphocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed the clonality of the lymphocytes confirming the diagnosis of CLL. Despite having CLL, he developed a moderate COVID-19 infection and recovered in a few days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CLL, which presented with a COVID-19 infection as the initial presentation. CONCLUSIONS Lymphocytosis is an unexpected finding in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and the elevated lymphocytes may be indicative of other conditions. Secondary causes of lymphocytosis like malignancy or other infections should be considered in these cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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