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1.
Int J Pharm ; 603: 120686, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220091

ABSTRACT

It is striking that all marketed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are developed for intramuscular administration designed to produce humoral and cell mediated immune responses, preventing viremia and the COVID-19 syndrome. They have a high degree of efficacy in humans (70-95%) depending on the type of vaccine. However, little protection is provided against viral replication and shedding in the upper airways due to the lack of a local sIgA immune response, indicating a risk of transmission of virus from vaccinated individuals. A range of novel nasal COVID-19 vaccines are in development and preclinical results in non-human primates have shown a promising prevention of replication and shedding of virus due to the induction of mucosal immune response (sIgA) in upper and lower respiratory tracts as well as robust systemic and humoral immune responses. Whether these results will translate to humans remains to be clarified. An IM prime followed by an IN booster vaccination would likely result in a better well-rounded immune response, including prevention (or strong reduction) in viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccination
2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e170-e178, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Complex critical syndromes like sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 may be composed of underling "endotypes," which may respond differently to treatment. The aim of this study was to test whether a previously defined bacterial sepsis endotypes classifier recapitulates the same clinical and immunological endotypes in coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Prospective single-center observational cohort study. SETTING: Patients were enrolled in Athens, Greece, and blood was shipped to Inflammatix (Burlingame, CA) for analysis. PATIENTS: Adult patients within 24 hours of hospital admission with coronavirus disease 2019 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and chest radiography. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We studied 97 patients with coronavirus disease 2019, of which 50 went on to severe respiratory failure (SRF) and 16 died. We applied a previously defined 33-messenger RNA classifier to assign endotype (Inflammopathic, Adaptive, or Coagulopathic) to each patient. We tested endotype status against other clinical parameters including laboratory values, severity scores, and outcomes. Patients were assigned as Inflammopathic (29%), Adaptive (44%), or Coagulopathic (27%), similar to our prior study in bacterial sepsis. Adaptive patients had lower rates of SRF and no deaths. Coagulopathic and Inflammopathic endotypes had 42% and 18% mortality rates, respectively. The Coagulopathic group showed highest d-dimers, and the Inflammopathic group showed highest C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our predefined 33-messenger RNA endotypes classifier recapitulated immune phenotypes in viral sepsis (coronavirus disease 2019) despite its prior training and validation only in bacterial sepsis. Further work should focus on continued validation of the endotypes and their interaction with immunomodulatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/classification , Sepsis/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency , Severity of Illness Index
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