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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
2.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 28(2): 188-202, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a key element in most mental disorders. Its objective assessment at initial patient contact in primary care can lead to better adjusted and timely care with personalised treatment and recovery. To enable this, we designed the Mindmore self-administrative cognitive screening battery. What is presented here is normative data for the Mindmore battery for the Swedish population. METHOD: A total of 720 healthy adults (17 to 93 years) completed the Mindmore screening battery, which consists of 14 individual tests across five cognitive domains: attention and processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial functions and executive functions. Regression-based normative data were established for 42 test result measures, investigating linear, non-linear and interaction effects between age, education and sex. RESULTS: The test results were most affected by age and to a lesser extent by education and sex. All but one test displayed either linear or accelerated age-related decline, or a U-shaped association with age. All but two tests showed beneficial effects of education, either linear or subsiding after 12 years of educational attainment. Sex affected tests in the memory and executive domains. In three tests, an interaction between age and education revealed an increased benefit of education later in life. CONCLUSION: This study provides normative models for 14 traditional cognitive tests adapted for self-administration through a digital platform. The models will enable more accurate interpretation of test results, hopefully leading to improved clinical decision making and better care for patients with cognitive impairment.

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537202

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
4.
Front Psychol ; 11: 570160, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389238

ABSTRACT

Reduced self-awareness is a well-known phenomenon investigated in patients with vascular disease; however, its impact on neuropsychological functions remains to be clarified. Importantly, selective vascular lesions provide an opportunity to investigate the key neuropsychological features of reduced self-awareness in neurocognitive disorders. Because of its rarity, we present an unusual case of a woman affected by a combined polar and paramedian bilateral thalamic infarction. The patient underwent an extensive neuropsychological evaluation to assess cognitive, behavioral, and functional domains, with a focus on executive functions. She was assessed clinically in the acute phase and after 6 months from the stroke, both clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient developed a cognitive impairment, characterised by prevalent executive dysfunction associated with reduced self-awareness and mood changes, in terms of apathy and depression. Such condition persisted after 6 months. In May 2020, the patient underwent the serology test in chemiluminescence to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The result of the quantitative test highlighted a high probability of previous contact with the virus. We suggest that reduced self-awareness related to executive dysfunction and behavioral changes may be due to combined polar and paramedian bilateral thalamic lesion. Metacognitive-executive dysfunction affecting the instrumental abilities of everyday life might make people less able to take appropriate precautions, facilitating the risk of SARS-CoV-2 contagion.

5.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(7): 1352-1356.e2, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between the transition to social isolation and cognitive decline in older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included participants from a community in a semiurban area of Japan. We conducted a mailed questionnaire survey of 2000 noninstitutionalized older adults who were randomly sampled. Of those who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys in March and October 2020, respectively, participants aged ≥70 years without cognitive impairment at baseline were included in the analysis. METHODS: Participants were classified into 4 groups based on their baseline and follow-up social isolation status, which were as follows: "remained nonisolated," "isolated from nonisolation," "nonisolated from isolation," and "consistent isolation." Self-reported cognitive function was assessed using the Cognitive Performance Scale, and level 2 (mild impairment) or higher (moderate to severe impairment) was defined as cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Ultimately, 955 older adults were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 79.6 years (standard deviation = 4.7) and 54.7% were women. During the follow-up period, 54 (5.7%) participants developed cognitive impairment. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the group that remained nonisolated, the isolated from nonisolation and consistent isolation groups were significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment [isolated from nonisolation: odds ratio (OR) = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-6.61, P = .026; consistent isolation: OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.07-5.05, P = .033]. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a decline in cognitive function among older adults. Attention to the social isolation process during the pandemic may be necessary to protect older adults' cognitive health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Isolation
6.
Transl Neurodegener ; 10(1): 15, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215126

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has emerged as a key comorbidity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 are elevated in AD due to multiple pathological changes in AD patients such as the excessive expression of viral receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and pro-inflammatory molecules, various AD complications including diabetes, lifestyle alterations in AD, and drug-drug interactions. Meanwhile, COVID-19 has also been reported to cause various neurologic symptoms including cognitive impairment that may ultimately result in AD, probably through the invasion of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system, COVID-19-induced inflammation, long-term hospitalization and delirium, and post-COVID-19 syndrome. In addition, the COVID-19 crisis also worsens behavioral symptoms in uninfected AD patients and poses new challenges for AD prevention. In this review, we first introduce the symptoms and pathogenesis of COVID-19 and AD. Next, we provide a comprehensive discussion on the aggravating effects of AD on COVID-19 and the underlying mechanisms from molecular to social levels. We also highlight the influence of COVID-19 on cognitive function, and propose possible routes of viral invasion into the brain and potential mechanisms underlying the COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment. Last, we summarize the negative impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on uninfected AD patients and dementia prevention.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans
7.
Acta Clin Belg ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191081

ABSTRACT

AIM: Associations of depression, dementia, and poor life quality with mortality of COVID-19have not been studied yet. We aimed to identify the risk factors for mortality and analyze the associations with patients' physiological and mental well-being, as reflected by comorbidities, life quality, depression, and cognitive impairment. METHODS: : Older patients receiving inpatient hospital care for COVID-19 were included.Demographic data, medical history, symptoms at admission, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: : There were 122 patients with a median age of 73.0 years. The mortality rate was 9.0% (n = 11 patients). Patients with mortality were significantly active smokers, obese, and having comorbidities using polypharmacy. Weight loss ≥of 10% during hospitalization was significantly associated with mortality.Poor life quality and a higher risk of depression, cognitive impairment, and falling were more frequently seen in non-survived patients. (p < 0.05). High ferritin was the only independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 15.61, 95% CI:1.08-226.09, p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: : The presence of comorbidities, depression, cognitive impairment, higher falling risk, and poor life quality were significantly associated with higher mortality rates in older adults with COVID-19. High ferritin level was an independent risk factor for mortality.

8.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 50(1): 68-73, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyposmia is frequently reported as an initial symptom in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: As hyposmia accompanies cognitive impairment in several neurological disorders, we aimed to study whether hyposmia represents a clinical biomarker for both neurological involvement and cognitive impairment in mild CO-VID-19. We aimed to study whether olfactory dysfunction (OD) represents a clinical biomarker for both neurological involvement and cognitive impairment in mild COVID-19. METHODS: Formal olfactory testing using the Sniffin'Sticks® Screening test, neuropsychological assessment using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and detailed neurological examination were performed in 7 COVID-19 patients with mild disease course and no history of olfactory or cognitive impairment, and 7 controls matched for age, sex, and education. Controls were initially admitted to a dedicated COVID-19 screening ward but tested negative by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The number of correctly identified odors was significantly lower in COVID-19 than in controls (6 ± 3, vs. 10 ± 1 p = 0.028, r = 0.58). Total MoCA score was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients than in controls (20 ± 5 vs. 26 ± 3, p = 0.042, r = 0.54). Cognitive performance indicated by MoCA was associated with number of correctly identified odors in COVID-19 patients and controls (COVID-19: p = 0.018, 95% CI = 9-19; controls: p = 0.18, r = 0.63, 95% CI = 13-18.5 r = 0.64). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: OD is associated with cognitive impairment in controls and mild COVID-19. OD may represent a potentially useful clinical biomarker for subtle and even subclinical neurological involvement in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
J Nucl Med ; 62(7): 910-915, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167265

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment is a frequent complaint in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be related to cortical hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET at the subacute stage. However, it is unclear if these changes are reversible. Methods: We prospectively assessed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and 18F-FDG PET scans of 8 COVID-19 patients at the subacute stage (once no longer infectious) and the chronic stage (˜6 mo after symptom onset). The expression of the previously established COVID-19-related covariance pattern was analyzed at both stages to examine the time course of post-COVID-19 cognitive impairment. For further validation, we also conducted a conventional group analysis. Results: Follow-up 18F-FDG PET revealed that there was a significant reduction in the initial frontoparietal and, to a lesser extent, temporal hypometabolism and that this reduction was accompanied by a significant improvement in cognition. The expression of the previously established COVID-19-related pattern was significantly lower at follow-up and correlated inversely with Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. However, both 18F-FDG PET and cognitive assessment suggest a residual impairment. Conclusion: Although a significant recovery of regional neuronal function and cognition can be clearly stated, residuals are still measurable in some patients 6 mo after manifestation of COVID-19. Given the current pandemic situation and tremendous uncertainty concerning the long-term effects of COVID-19, the present study provides novel insights of the highest medical and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Neocortex/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chronic Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
11.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 46: 39-48, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157293

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected more than 100 million people and clinics are being established for diagnosing and treating lingering symptoms, so called long-COVID. A key concern are neurological and long-term cognitive complications. At the same time, the prevalence and nature of the cognitive sequalae of COVID-19 are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency, pattern and severity of cognitive impairments 3-4 months after COVID-19 hospital discharge, their relation to subjective cognitive complaints, quality of life and illness variables. We recruited patients at their follow-up visit at the respiratory outpatient clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg, approximately four months after hospitalisation with COVID-19. Patients underwent pulmonary, functional and cognitive assessments. Twenty-nine patients were included. The percentage of patients with clinically significant cognitive impairment ranged from 59% to 65% depending on the applied cut-off for clinical relevance of cognitive impairment, with verbal learning and executive functions being most affected. Objective cognitive impairment scaled with subjective cognitive complaints, lower work function and poorer quality of life. Cognitive impairments were associated with d-dimer levels during acute illness and residual pulmonary dysfunction. In conclusion, these findings provide new evidence for frequent cognitive sequelae of COVID-19 and indicate an association with the severity of the lung affection and potentially restricted cerebral oxygen delivery. Further, the associations with quality of life and functioning call for systematic cognitive screening of patients after recovery from severe COVID-19 illness and implementation of targeted treatments for patients with persistent cognitive impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Patient Discharge/trends , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
12.
Neurol Res Pract ; 3(1): 17, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) invades the respiratory system, causing acute and sometimes severe pulmonary symptoms, but turned out to also act multisystematically with substantial impact on the brain. A growing number of studies suggests a diverse spectrum of neurological manifestations. To investigate the spectrum of symptoms, we here describe the neurological manifestations and complications of patients with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection who have been hospitalized at the RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Germany. METHODS: Between March and September 2020, we evaluated common symptoms, clinical characteristics, laboratory (including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis), radiological, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from 53 patients admitted with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA) to screen for cognitive impairment, when feasible. We compared critically ill and non-critically ill patients categorized according to the presence of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). RESULTS: Major clinical neurological features of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were coordination deficits (74%), cognitive impairment (61.5%), paresis (47%), abnormal reflex status (45%), sensory abnormalities (45%), general muscle weakness and pain (32%), hyposmia (26%), and headache (21%). Patients with ARDS were more severely affected than non-ADRS patients. 29.6% of patients with ARDS presented with subarachnoid bleedings, and 11.1% showed ischemic stroke associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cognitive deficits mainly affected executive functions, attention, language, and delayed memory recall. We obtained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by lumbar puncture in nine of the 53 patients, none of which had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. CONCLUSIONS: In line with previous findings, our results provide evidence for a range of SARS-CoV-2-associated neurological manifestations. 26% of patients reported hyposmia, emphasizing the neuro-invasive potential of SARS-CoV-2, which can enter the olfactory bulb. It can therefore be speculated that neurological manifestations may be caused by direct invasion of the virus in the CNS; however, PCR did not reveal positive intrathecal SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we hypothesize it is more likely that the para-infectious severe pro-inflammatory impact of COVID-19 is responsible for the neurological deficits including cognitive impairment. Future studies with comprehensive longitudinal assessment of neurological deficits are required to determine potential long-term complications of COVID-19.

13.
Int J Audiol ; 61(2): 97-101, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hearing difficulties exacerbate the damaging effects of enforced social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic on isolation and loneliness, and lead to accelerated mental health issues and cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Rapid online survey. Participants completed a series of online questionnaires regarding hearing ability, socialisation (pre- and during-pandemic), loneliness, anxiety, depression and cognitive function. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 80 participants over the age of 70 with access to the internet. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in socialisation levels from pre-pandemic in this population. Hearing difficulties were significantly associated with greater levels of loneliness, depression and self-perceived cognitive dysfunction after controlling for age, gender, and level of education. Additionally, compared to pre-pandemic, people with hearing difficulties had increased odds of reporting worsened anxiety, depression, and memory during the COVID-19 pandemic, although only the effect of hearing difficulties on the change in memory reached statistical significance after controlling for age, gender, and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The worse the self-reported hearing abilities are, the greater the negative impact of enforced social distancing on depression, loneliness and cognitive function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Hearing , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 624125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110353

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to describe how the first phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected older persons from the general Finnish population who are at risk of developing or have cognitive impairment, specifically, to describe whether participants experienced a change in risk factors that are relevant for the prevention of cognitive decline including diet, physical activity, access to medical care, socially and cognitively stimulating activities, and emotional health and well-being. Method: A postal survey was sent in June 2020 to 859 participants from the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), an ongoing longitudinal study. The survey was developed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and related infection-control measures on daily life, specifically commitment to distancing measures, access to health care and social services, daily activities, and changes in cognitive and social activities. Results: By September 2020, 613 (71%) participants responded (mean age = 77.7 years, 32% lived alone, and 80% had at least one chronic condition). Three quarters adopted some distancing practices during the first months of the pandemic. Older participants were more likely to practice total isolation than younger ones (29 vs. 19%; p = 0.003). Non-acute health-care visits were canceled for 5% of the participants who needed appointments, but cancellations in dental health care (43%), home aid (30%), and rehabilitative services (53%) were more common. Pandemic-related changes were reported in social engagements, for example, less contact with friends (55%) and family (31%), or less frequent attendance in cultural events (38%) or associations (25%), although remote contact with others increased for 40%. Feelings of loneliness increased for 21%, particularly those who were older (p = 0.023) or living alone (p < 0.001). Physical activity reduced for 34%, but dietary habits remained stable or improved. Pandemic-related changes in lifestyle and activities were more evident among those living alone. Conclusions: Finnish older persons generally reported less negative changes in lifestyles and behaviors during the pandemic than expected. Older people and those living alone seemed more susceptible to negative changes. It is important to compare how coping strategies may compare with other European countries to identify factors that may help older individuals to maintain healthy lifestyles during future waves of COVID-19.

15.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a rapid shift to telehealth-delivered physical therapy services. Common impairments after stroke create unique challenges when providing rehabilitation via telehealth, particularly when it involves activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions, including walking training. Our scoping review maps the evidence regarding safety, efficacy, and feasibility of remotely supervised telehealth interventions involving activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions for people after stroke. METHODS: Searches of relevant databases for primary research studies were conducted using keywords relating to exercise and telehealth. Studies of stroke survivors undertaking interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions, supervised in real-time via telehealth were included. Two reviewers independently appraised all studies. Data were charted by one reviewer, checked by another, and results synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Seven studies (2 randomized trials, 1 mixed-methods, and 4 pre-post studies) were included, involving 179 participants. Some studies included stroke survivors with cognitive impairment, and 2 (29%) studies included only participants who walked independently. Adherence (reported in 3 studies) and satisfaction (reported in 4 studies) were good, and no serious adverse events (data from 4 studies) related to interventions were reported. Strategies to overcome technological barriers were used to optimize intervention safety and feasibility, along with physiological monitoring, caregiver assistance, and in-person exercise prescription. However, there is limited high-quality evidence of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: We identified strategies used in research to date that can support current practice. However, urgent research is needed to ensure that stroke survivors are receiving evidence-based, effective services. IMPACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated a rapid shift to telerehabilitation services for people with stroke, but there is little evidence to guide best practice. Our review provides practical guidance and strategies to overcome barriers and optimize safety and adherence for telehealth interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy/methods , Standing Position , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Telerehabilitation/methods , Walking , Weight-Bearing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 14: 1756286420985175, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081096

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications of the newly appeared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly recognized. Here, we report a case of a young male presenting with a clinical and neuroimaging scenario of an acute necrotizing encephalopathy related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This case is notable by its distinct pattern of magnetic resonance imaging findings of an extensive involvement of the cerebellum, and emergence of cognitive and behavioral impairment.

17.
Prev Med ; 145: 106415, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003149

ABSTRACT

Implementation of social distancing reduced the incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases. Nevertheless, this strategy has other undesirable effects such as physical inactivity and psychological distress, which are associated with cognitive impairment. We aimed to examine whether physical activity during social distancing restrictions could reduce the risk of subjective memory decline in adults. Participants (n=2321) completed the baseline assessment of PAMPA cohort (Prospective Study About Mental and Physical Health), a ambispective cohort study conducted in southern Brazil. An online-based, self-administered questionnaire assessed physical activity and self-rated memory in two different periods: before and during social distancing. Data collection was executed from June 22nd to July 23rd 2020. Adjusted Poisson regression models were performed and values reported in prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Participants presented with a mean age of 38.2 (95%CI: 37.5, 38.9) years. Most were women (76.6%), had at least a university degree (66.7%), and were overweight or obese (53.3%). Subjective memory decline was reported by 30.0% (95%CI: 27.7%, 32.4%) of respondents. Most individuals with subjective memory decline reported being physically inactive during the pandemic of COVID-19. Participants were less likely to experience subjective memory decline if they either became (PR: 0.56; 95%CI: 0.36, 0.89) or remained (PR: 0.68; 95%CI: 0.49, 0.93) physically active compared to inactive respondents. Physical activity participation during social distancing reduced the likelihood of subjective memory decline in adults. Physical activity should be highlighted as a potential alternative to reduce the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on cognitive function and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise/psychology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Sedentary Behavior , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Memory Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Front Neurol ; 11: 589901, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983701

ABSTRACT

Introduction: State of emergency caused by COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown hit Spain on 14th March 2020 and lasted until 21st June 2020. Social isolation measures were applied. Medical attention was focused on COVID-19. Primary and social care were mainly performed by telephone. This exceptional situation may affect especially vulnerable patients such as people living with dementia. Our aim was to describe the influence of restrictive measures on patients living with mild cognitive decline and dementia evaluating SARS-CoV2 infection, changes in routines, cognitive decline stage, neuropsychiatric symptoms, delirium, falls, caregiver stress, and access to sanitary care. Materials and Methods: We gathered MCI and dementia patients with clinical follow-up before and after confinement from DegMar registry (Hospital del Mar). A telephone ad-hoc questionnaire was administered. Global status was assessed using CDR scale. Changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed by Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and retrospective interview for pre-confinement base characteristics. Results: We contacted a total of 60 patients, age 75.4 years ± 5,192. 53.3% were women. Alzheimer's Disease (41.7%) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (25%) were the most prevalent diagnosis. Remaining cases included different dementia disorders. A total of 10% of patients had been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. During confinement 70% of patients abandoned previous daily activities, 60% had cognitive worsening reported by relatives/caretakers, 15% presented delirium episodes, and 13% suffered increased incidence of falls. Caregivers reported an increased burden in 41% cases and burnout in 11% cases. 16% reported difficulties accessing medical care, 33% received medical phone assistance, 20% needed emergency care and 21% had changes in psychopharmacological therapies. Neuropsychiatric profile globally worsened (p < 0.000), also in particular items like agitation (p = 0.003), depression (p < 0.000), anxiety (p < 0.000) and changes in appetite (p = 0.004). Conclusion: SARS-CoV2-related lockdown resulted in an important effect over social and cognitive spheres and worsening of neuropsychiatric traits in patients living with mild cognitive decline and dementia. Although the uncertainty regarding the evolution of the pandemic makes strategy difficult, we need to reach patients and caregivers and develop adequate strategies to reinforce and adapt social and health care.

19.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975946

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In addition to severe respiratory symptoms, there are a growing number of reports showing a wide range of CNS complications in patients with COVID-19. Here, we review the literature on these complications, ranging from nonspecific symptoms to necrotizing encephalopathies, encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, endotheliitis, and stroke. We postulate that there are several different mechanisms involved in COVID-19-associated CNS dysfunction, particularly activation of inflammatory and thrombotic pathways and, in a few patients, a direct viral effect on the endothelium and the parenchyma. Last, critically ill patients frequently present with protracted cognitive dysfunction in the setting of septic encephalopathy likely due to multifactorial mechanisms. Further studies are needed to clarify the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms, but available data suggest that CNS complications in COVID-19 are rare and probably not directly caused by the virus.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Brain/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(4): 1367-1372, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968075

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the frequency of cognitive impairment (CI) in deceased COVID-19 patients at a tertiary hospital in Spain. Among the 477 adult cases who died after admission from March 1 to March 31, 2020, 281 had confirmed COVID-19. CI (21.1% dementia and 8.9% mild cognitive impairment) was a common comorbidity. Subjects with CI were older, tended to live in nursing homes, had shorter time from symptom onset to death, and were rarely admitted to the ICU, receiving palliative care more often. CI is a frequent comorbidity in deceased COVID-19 subjects and is associated with differences in care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Palliative Care , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
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