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1.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100312, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838937

ABSTRACT

World community is facing an unprecedented pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). The disease has spread globally with more than 1.43 million confirmed cases and 82,100 deaths as of April 8, 2020. Despite worldwide efforts to contain it, the pandemic is continuing to spread for want of a clinically-proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. The dimensions of pandemic require an urgent harnessing of all knowledge systems available globally. Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Wuhan to treat COVID-19 cases sets the example demonstrating that traditional health care can contribute to treatment of these patients successfully. Drawing on the Ayurveda classics, contemporary scientific studies, and experiential knowledge on similar clinical settings, here we propose a pragmatic plan for intervention in India. We provide a plan for graded response, depending on the stage of infection among individuals, in a population. Notwithstanding the fact that no system of medicine has any evidence-based treatment for COVID-19 as yet, clinical interventions are required to be put in place. Therefore, pragmatic strategy proposed here for Ayurveda system of medicine requires immediate implementation. It will facilitate learning, generate evidence and shall be a way forward.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2111417, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242694

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infection with COVID-19 has been associated with long-term symptoms, but the frequency, variety, and severity of these complications are not well understood. Many published commentaries have proposed plans for pandemic control that are primarily based on mortality rates among older individuals without considering long-term morbidity among individuals of all ages. Reliable estimates of such morbidity are important for patient care, prognosis, and development of public health policy. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of studies examining the frequency and variety of persistent symptoms after COVID-19 infection. Evidence Review: A search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted to identify studies published from January 1, 2020, to March 11, 2021, that examined persistent symptoms after COVID-19 infection. Persistent symptoms were defined as those persisting for at least 60 days after diagnosis, symptom onset, or hospitalization or at least 30 days after recovery from the acute illness or hospital discharge. Search terms included COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, long-term, after recovery, long-haul, persistent, outcome, symptom, follow-up, and longitudinal. All English-language articles that presented primary data from cohort studies that reported the prevalence of persistent symptoms among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection and that had clearly defined and sufficient follow-up were included. Case reports, case series, and studies that described symptoms only at the time of infection and/or hospitalization were excluded. A structured framework was applied to appraise study quality. Findings: A total of 1974 records were identified; of those, 1247 article titles and abstracts were screened. After removal of duplicates and exclusions, 92 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; 47 studies were deemed eligible, and 45 studies reporting 84 clinical signs or symptoms were included in the systematic review. Of 9751 total participants, 5266 (54.0%) were male; 30 of 45 studies reported mean or median ages younger than 60 years. Among 16 studies, most of which comprised participants who were previously hospitalized, the median proportion of individuals experiencing at least 1 persistent symptom was 72.5% (interquartile range [IQR], 55.0%-80.0%). Individual symptoms occurring most frequently included shortness of breath or dyspnea (26 studies; median frequency, 36.0%; IQR, 27.6%-50.0%), fatigue or exhaustion (25 studies; median frequency, 40.0%; IQR, 31.0%-57.0%), and sleep disorders or insomnia (8 studies; median 29.4%, IQR, 24.4%-33.0%). There were wide variations in the design and quality of the studies, which had implications for interpretation and often limited direct comparability and combinability. Major design differences included patient populations, definitions of time zero (ie, the beginning of the follow-up interval), follow-up lengths, and outcome definitions, including definitions of illness severity. Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review found that COVID-19 symptoms commonly persisted beyond the acute phase of infection, with implications for health-associated functioning and quality of life. Current studies of symptom persistence are highly heterogeneous, and future studies need longer follow-up, improved quality, and more standardized designs to reliably quantify risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 639393, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241207

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted people with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide, and healthcare systems have reorganized their services in response to the pandemic. Methods: One week after the announcement of the COVID-19 as a pandemic, in a global survey, 177 addiction medicine professionals described COVID-19-related health responses in their own 77 countries in terms of SUD treatment and harm reduction services. The health responses were categorized around (1) managerial measures and systems, (2) logistics, (3) service providers, and (4) vulnerable groups. Results: Respondents from over 88% of countries reported that core medical and psychiatric care for SUDs had continued; however, only 56% of countries reported having had any business continuity plan, and 37.5% of countries reported shortages of methadone or buprenorphine supplies. Participants of 41% of countries reported partial discontinuation of harm-reduction services such as needle and syringe programs and condom distribution. Fifty-seven percent of overdose prevention interventions and 81% of outreach services were also negatively impacted. Conclusions: Participants reported that SUD treatment and harm-reduction services had been significantly impacted globally early during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our findings, we highlight several issues and complications resulting from the pandemic concerning people with SUDs that should be tackled more efficiently during the future waves or similar pandemics. The issues and potential strategies comprise the following: (1) helping policymakers to generate business continuity plans, (2) maintaining the use of evidence-based interventions for people with SUDs, (3) being prepared for adequate medication supplies, (4) integrating harm reduction programs with other treatment modalities, and (5) having specific considerations for vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees.

4.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(4): e27419, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, COVID-19 has claimed more than 300,000 deaths in the United States alone. Although nonpharmaceutical interventions were implemented by federal and state governments in the United States, these efforts have failed to contain the virus. Following the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two COVID-19 vaccines, however, the hope for the return to normalcy has been renewed. This hope rests on an unprecedented nationwide vaccine campaign, which faces many logistical challenges and is also contingent on several factors whose values are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: We study the effectiveness of a nationwide vaccine campaign in response to different vaccine efficacies, the willingness of the population to be vaccinated, and the daily vaccine capacity under two different federal plans. To characterize the possible outcomes most accurately, we also account for the interactions between nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccines through 6 scenarios that capture a range of possible impacts from nonpharmaceutical interventions. METHODS: We used large-scale, cloud-based, agent-based simulations by implementing the vaccination campaign using COVASIM, an open-source agent-based model for COVID-19 that has been used in several peer-reviewed studies and accounts for individual heterogeneity and a multiplicity of contact networks. Several modifications to the parameters and simulation logic were made to better align the model with current evidence. We chose 6 nonpharmaceutical intervention scenarios and applied the vaccination intervention following both the plan proposed by Operation Warp Speed (former Trump administration) and the plan of one million vaccines per day, proposed by the Biden administration. We accounted for unknowns in vaccine efficacies and levels of population compliance by varying both parameters. For each experiment, the cumulative infection growth was fitted to a logistic growth model, and the carrying capacities and the growth rates were recorded. RESULTS: For both vaccination plans and all nonpharmaceutical intervention scenarios, the presence of the vaccine intervention considerably lowers the total number of infections when life returns to normal, even when the population compliance to vaccines is as low as 20%. We noted an unintended consequence; given the vaccine availability estimates under both federal plans and the focus on vaccinating individuals by age categories, a significant reduction in nonpharmaceutical interventions results in a counterintuitive situation in which higher vaccine compliance then leads to more total infections. CONCLUSIONS: Although potent, vaccines alone cannot effectively end the pandemic given the current availability estimates and the adopted vaccination strategy. Nonpharmaceutical interventions need to continue and be enforced to ensure high compliance so that the rate of immunity established by vaccination outpaces that induced by infections.

5.
J Microbiol Biol Educ ; 22(1)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197211

ABSTRACT

Students and instructors have been faced with unexpected challenges that presented rapidly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic forced students into an unfamiliar learning ecosystem to which they had to quickly adapt in order to continue to be successful in their courses. Literature supports the importance of metacognition and self-regulated learning in the success of students in an online environment. More importantly, the concept of metacognitive regulation, which includes monitoring, planning, executing, and adapting learning strategies, is vital to student academic success. These strategies have been shown to close the opportunity gap observed specifically in persons excluded because of their ethnicity or race (PEERs) in STEM. Outlined here is the use of student-developed learning plans as a guided process to enhance students' metacognitive regulation of their learning. These learning plans provide students a template to assist them in time management, practical study skills and planned study sessions, that are designed to increase their self-efficacy, motivation, and performance in online classes. Moreover, the iterative nature of the learning plan encourages students to continue to use and expand this plan in other academic courses.

6.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(6): 478-481, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of telemedicine in the evaluation and treatment of patients with spinal disorders is rapidly expanding, brought on largely by the COVID-19 pandemic. Within this context, the ability of pain specialists to accurately diagnose and plan appropriate interventional spine procedures based entirely on telemedicine visits, without an in-person evaluation, remains to be established. In this study, our primary objective was to assess the relevance of telemedicine to interventional spine procedure planning by determining whether procedure plans established solely from virtual visits changed following in-person evaluation. METHODS: We reviewed virtual and in-person clinical encounters from our academic health system's 10 interventional spine specialists. We included patients who were seen exclusively via telemedicine encounters and indicated for an interventional procedure with documented procedural plans. Virtual plans were then compared with the actual procedures performed following in-person evaluation. Demographic data as well as the type and extent of physical examination performed by the interventional spine specialist were also recorded. RESULTS: Of the 87 new patients included, the mean age was 60 years (SE 1.4 years) and the preprocedural plan established by telemedicine, primarily videoconferencing, did not change for 76 individuals (87%; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94) following in-person evaluation. Based on the size of our sample, interventional procedures indicated solely during telemedicine encounters may be accurate in 79%-94% of cases in the broader population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that telemedicine evaluations are a generally accurate means of preprocedural assessment and development of interventional spine procedure plans. These findings clearly demonstrate the capabilities of telemedicine for evaluating spine patients and planning interventional spine procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Preoperative Care/methods , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Spine/surgery , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(7): e18415, 2020 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to comprehensive exercise and rehabilitation services for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) remains a major challenge, especially in rural, low-income areas. Hence, the Tele-Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis (TEAMS) study aims to provide patient-centered, coordinated care by implementing a 12-week complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) intervention for adults with MS. However, due to the societal impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in mid-March 2020, the University of Alabama at Birmingham announced a limited business model halting all nonessential research requiring on-site visits, which includes the TEAMS study. OBJECTIVE: In compliance with the shelter-in-place policy and quarantine guidance, a modified testing and training protocol was developed to allow participants to continue the study. METHODS: The modified protocol, which replaces on-site data collection and training procedures, includes a teleassessment package (computer tablet, blood pressure cuff, hand dynamometer, mini disc cone, measuring tape, an 8" step, and a large-print 8" × 11" paper with ruler metrics and wall-safe tape) and a virtual meeting platform for synchronous interactive training between the therapist and the participant. The teleassessment measures include resting blood pressure and heart rate, grip strength, Five Times Sit to Stand, Timed Up & Go, and the Berg Balance Scale. The teletraining component includes 20 sessions of synchronous training sessions of dual tasking, yoga, and Pilates exercises designed and customized for a range of functional levels. Teletraining lasts 12 weeks and participants are instructed to continue exercising for a posttraining period of 9 months. RESULTS: The protocol modifications were supported with supplemental funding (from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute) and approved by the University Institutional Review Board for Human Use. At the time nonessential research visits were halted by the university, there were 759 people enrolled and baseline tested, accounting for 92.5% of our baseline testing completion target (N=820). Specifically, 325 participants completed the 12-week intervention and follow-up testing visits, and 289 participants needed to complete either the intervention or follow-up assessments. A modified analysis plan will include sensitivity analyses to ensure the robustness of the study results in the presence of uncertainty and protocol deviations. Study results are projected to be published in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This modified remote teleassessment/teletraining protocol will impact a large number of participants with MS who would otherwise have been discontinued from the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03117881; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03117881. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18415.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 590096, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090392

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of COVID-19, multidisciplinary research focusing on the long-term effects of the COVID-19 infection and the complete recovery is still scarce. With regards to long-term consequences, biomarkers of physiological effects as well as the psychological experiences are of significant importance for comprehensively understanding the complete COVID-19 recovery. The present research surveys the IgG antibody titers and the impact of COVID-19 as a traumatic experience in the aftermath of the active infection period, around 2 months after diagnosis, in a subset of COVID-19 patients from the first wave (March-April 2020) of the outbreak in Northern Cyprus. Associations of antibody titers and psychological survey measures with baseline characteristics and disease severity were explored, and correlations among various measures were evaluated. Of the 47 serology tests conducted for presence of IgG antibodies, 39 (83%) were positive. We identified trends demonstrating individuals experiencing severe or critical COVID-19 disease and/or those with comorbidities are more heavily impacted both physiologically and mentally, with higher IgG titers and negative psychological experience compared to those with milder disease and without comorbidities. We also observed that more than half of the COVID-19 cases had negative psychological experiences, being subjected to discrimination and verbal harassment/insult, by family/friends. In summary, as the first study co-evaluating immune response together with mental status in COVID-19, our findings suggest that further multidisciplinary research in larger sample populations as well as community intervention plans are needed to holistically address the physiological and psychological effects of COVID-19 among the cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/psychology , Cyprus , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Tests
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic cause a high burden of psychological distress in people worldwide. Interventions to enable people to better cope with such distress should be based on the best available evidence. We therefore performed a scoping review to systematically identify and summarize the available literature of interventions that target the distress of people in the face of highly contagious disease outbreaks. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science (January 2000 to May 7, 2020), and reference lists were systematically searched and screened by two independent reviewers. Quantitative and qualitative studies investigating the effects of psychological interventions before, during, and after outbreaks of highly contagious emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS, MERS, Ebola, or COVID-19 were included. Study effects were grouped (e.g. for healthcare professionals, community members, people at risk) and intervention contents at the individual and organizational level summarized. We assessed the level of evidence using a modified scheme from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. RESULTS: Of 4030 records found, 19 studies were included (two RCTs). Most interventions were delivered during-exposure and face-to-face, focused on healthcare workers and crisis personnel, and combined psychoeducation with training of coping strategies. Based on two high-quality studies, beneficial effects were reported for resilience factors (e.g. positive cognitive appraisal) and professional attitudes of healthcare workers, with mixed findings for mental health (e.g. depression). Across all studies, there was positive qualitative feedback from participants and facilitators. We identified seven ongoing studies mostly using online- and mobile-based deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: There is preliminary evidence for beneficial effects of interventions to enable people to better cope with the distress of highly contagious emerging disease outbreaks. Besides the need for more high-quality studies, the summarized evidence may inform decision makers to plan interventions during the current pandemic and to develop pandemic preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mental Health , Psychosocial Support Systems , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(1): 184-189, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871516

ABSTRACT

Recently resettled refugee populations may be at greater risk for exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a virus that causes coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), and face unique challenges in following recommendations to protect their health. Several factors place resettled refugees at elevated risk for exposure to persons with COVID-19 or increased severity of COVID-19: being more likely to experience poverty and live in crowded housing, being employed in less protected, service-sector jobs, experiencing language and health care access barriers, and having higher rates of co-morbidities. In preparing for and managing COVID-19, resettled refugees encounter similar barriers to those of other racial or ethnic minority populations, which may then be exacerbated by unique barriers experienced from being a refugee. Key recommendations for resettlement and healthcare providers include analyzing sociodemographic data about refugee patients, documenting and resolving barriers faced by refugees, developing refugee-specific outreach plans, using culturally and linguistically appropriate resources, ensuring medical interpretation availability, and leveraging virtual platforms along with nontraditional community partners to disseminate COVID-19 messaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Refugees , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Crowding , Emigration and Immigration , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(1): 21-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe how the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has affected pregnancy, prenatal maternity care practices, and infant feeding plans among pregnant persons in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an app-based survey. METHODS: A link to the survey was sent via email to users of the Ovia Pregnancy app on May 20, 2020 and was open for 1 week. Participants were asked to complete the survey as it applied to their pregnancy, breastfeeding, and maternity care received during the COVID-19 pandemic, beginning approximately February 2020 through the time of the survey. There were 258 respondents who completed the survey. RESULTS: The majority (96.4%; n = 251) of pregnant women felt they received safe prenatal care during this time period. Slightly less 86.3% (n = 215) felt they received adequate prenatal care during this time period. 14.2% (n = 33) reported changing or considering changing the location where they planned to give birth due to COVID-19. Of those who reported they had begun purchasing items for their baby, 52.7% reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their ability to get items they need for their baby. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although it is imperative to implement policies that reduce risk of transmission of COVID-19 to pregnant women and health care providers, it is necessary for health care providers and policy makers to listen to the collective voices of women during pregnancy about how COVID-19 has affected their birth and infant feeding plans and their perception of changes in prenatal care.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Prenatal Care/psychology , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data
12.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 808-811, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752809

ABSTRACT

Many routine and elective services have already been postponed or suspended by both Government and private setups in most parts of the world because of the unprecedented pandemic of COVID-19. Healthcare systems everywhere in the world are under pressure. Being a component of essential health services, family planning and abortion services should continue to cater the population in order to prevent the complications arising from unintended pregnancies and sudden rise in STIs. Due to airborne nature of transmission of the virus, it is advisable for all consultations relating to family planning services to be done remotely unless and until visit is absolutely necessary. Contraception initiation and continuation can be done by telemedicine in most individuals. Post partum contraception can be advised before discharge from hospital. In an individual planning for pregnancy, currently it is not advisable to discontinue contraceptive and plan for pregnancy as not much is known about the effect of the virus on foetal development. Also, pregnancy requires routine antenatal and peripartum care and complications arising from pregnancy may necessitate frequent hospital visits, exposing the individual to the risk of infection. Abortion services are time sensitive therefore should not be denied or delayed beyond legal limit. We need to change from real to virtual consultation to prevent the rise in unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and unsafe abortions.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Family Planning Services/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Telemedicine/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Contraception/methods , Female , Humans , Preconception Care/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(11): 3285-3292, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The US outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accelerated rapidly over a short time to become a public health crisis. OBJECTIVE: To assess how high-risk adults' COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and sense of preparedness changed from the onset of the US outbreak (March 13-20, 2020) to the acceleration phase (March 27-April 7, 2020). DESIGN: Longitudinal, two-wave telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: 588 predominately older adults with ≥ 1 chronic condition recruited from 4 active, federally funded studies in Chicago. MAIN MEASURES: Self-reported knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms and prevention, related beliefs, behaviors, and sense of preparedness. KEY RESULTS: From the onset to the acceleration phase, participants increasingly perceived COVID-19 to be a serious public health threat, reported more changes to their daily routine and plans, and reported greater preparedness. The proportion of respondents who believed they were "not at all likely" to get the virus decreased slightly (24.9 to 22.4%; p = 0.04), but there was no significant change in the proportion of those who were unable to accurately identify ways to prevent infection (29.2 to 25.7%; p 0.14). In multivariable analyses, black adults and those with lower health literacy were more likely to report less perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 (black adults: relative risk (RR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.44, p = 0.02; marginal health literacy: RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.26-3.07, p < 0.01). Individuals with low health literacy remained more likely to feel unprepared for the outbreak (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.92, p = 0.02) and to express confidence in the federal government response (RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.49-3.00, p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Adults at higher risk for COVID-19 continue to lack critical knowledge about prevention. While participants reported greater changes to daily routines and plans, disparities continued to exist in perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 and in preparedness. Public health messaging to date may not be effectively reaching vulnerable communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chicago , Female , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
14.
J Community Health ; 45(6): 1149-1157, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709634

ABSTRACT

Accurate understanding of COVID-19 safety recommendations early in the outbreak was complicated by inconsistencies in public health and media messages. We sought to characterize high-risk adults' knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, prevention strategies, and prevention behaviors. We used data from the Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) survey collected between March 13 thru March 20, 2020. A total of 673 predominately older adults with ≥ 1 chronic condition completed the telephone interview. Knowledge was assessed by asking participants to name three symptoms of COVID-19 and three actions to prevent infection. Participants were then asked if and how they had changed plans due to coronavirus. Most participants could identify three symptoms (71.0%) and three preventive actions (69.2%). Commonly reported symptoms included: fever (78.5%), cough (70.6%), and shortness of breath (45.2%); preventive actions included: washing hands (86.5%) and social distancing (86.2%). More than a third of participants reported social distancing themselves (38.3%), and 28.8% reported obtaining prescription medication to prepare for the outbreak. In multivariable analyses, no participant characteristics were associated with COVID-19 knowledge. Women were more likely than men, and Black adults were less likely than White adults to report practicing social distancing. Individuals with low health literacy were less likely to report obtaining medication supplies. In conclusion, though most higher-risk individuals were aware of social distancing as a prevention strategy early in the outbreak, less than half reported enacting it, and racial disparities were apparent. Consistent messaging and the provision of tangible resources may improve future adherence to safety recommendations.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , African Americans , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chicago , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(3): 389.e1-389.e10, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276391

ABSTRACT

Each year, nearly 4 million pregnant patients in the United States receive prenatal care-a crucial preventive service that improves pregnancy outcomes for mothers and their children. National guidelines currently recommend 12-14 in-person prenatal visits, a schedule that has remained unchanged since 1930. When scrutinizing the standard prenatal visit schedule, it becomes clear that prenatal care is overdue for a redesign. We have strong evidence of the benefits of prenatal services, such as screening for gestational diabetes and maternal vaccination. However, how to deliver these services is not clear. Studies of prenatal services consistently demonstrate that such care can be delivered in fewer than 14 visits and that patients do not need to visit clinics in person to receive all maternity services. Telemedicine has emerged as a promising care delivery option for patients seeking greater flexibility, and early trials leveraging virtual care and remote monitoring have shown positive maternal and fetal outcomes with high patient satisfaction. Our institution has worked for the past year on a new prenatal care pathway. Our initial work assessed the literature, elicited patient perspectives, and captured the insights of experts in patient-centered care delivery. There are 2 key principles that guide prenatal care redesign: (1) design care delivery around essential services, using in-person care for services that cannot be delivered remotely and offering video visits for other essential services, and (2) creation of flexible services for anticipatory guidance and psychosocial support that allow patients to tailor support to meet their needs through opt-in programs. The rise of coronavirus disease 2019 prompted us to extend this early work and rapidly implement a redesigned prenatal care pathway. In this study, we outline our experience in transitioning to a new prenatal care model with 4 in-person visits, 1 ultrasound visit, and 4 virtual visits (the 4-1-4 prenatal plan). We then explore how insights from this implementation can inform patient-centered prenatal care redesign during and beyond the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Telemedicine , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Patient-Centered Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pain Med ; 21(7): 1331-1346, 2020 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is nearly impossible to overestimate the burden of chronic pain, which is associated with enormous personal and socioeconomic costs. Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in the world, is associated with multiple psychiatric comorbidities, and has been causally linked to the opioid crisis. Access to pain treatment has been called a fundamental human right by numerous organizations. The current COVID-19 pandemic has strained medical resources, creating a dilemma for physicians charged with the responsibility to limit spread of the contagion and to treat the patients they are entrusted to care for. METHODS: To address these issues, an expert panel was convened that included pain management experts from the military, Veterans Health Administration, and academia. Endorsement from stakeholder societies was sought upon completion of the document within a one-week period. RESULTS: In these guidelines, we provide a framework for pain practitioners and institutions to balance the often-conflicting goals of risk mitigation for health care providers, risk mitigation for patients, conservation of resources, and access to pain management services. Specific issues discussed include general and intervention-specific risk mitigation, patient flow issues and staffing plans, telemedicine options, triaging recommendations, strategies to reduce psychological sequelae in health care providers, and resource utilization. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 public health crisis has strained health care systems, creating a conundrum for patients, pain medicine practitioners, hospital leaders, and regulatory officials. Although this document provides a framework for pain management services, systems-wide and individual decisions must take into account clinical considerations, regional health conditions, government and hospital directives, resource availability, and the welfare of health care providers.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pain Management/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telemedicine , Appointments and Schedules , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disinfection , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Injections , Injections, Intra-Articular , Mass Screening , Military Medicine , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/diagnosis , Triage , Trigger Points , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
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