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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 566700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266686

ABSTRACT

Background: In times of global public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses stand at the front line, working in close contact with infected individuals. Being actively engaged in fighting against COVID-19 exposes nurses to a high risk of being infected but can also have a serious impact on their mental health, as they are faced with excessive workload and emotional burden in many front-line operating contexts. Purpose: The aim of the study is to analyze how risk factors such as perceived impact, preparedness to the pandemic, and worries were associated with mental health outcomes (crying, rumination and stress) in nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was performed via an online questionnaire survey. Participants included 894 registered nurses from Italy. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Multiple binary logistic regression was carried out to analyze the relationship between risk factors and health outcomes. Results: Increased job stress was related to higher levels of rumination about the pandemic (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001), job demand (OR = 2.00, p < 0.001), impact on job role (OR = 2.56, p < 0.001), watching coworkers crying at work (OR = 1.50, p < 0.05), non-work-related concerns (OR = 2.28, p < 0.001), and fear of getting infected (OR = 2.05, p < 0.001). Job stress (OR = 2.52, p < 0.01), rumination (OR = 2.28, p < 0.001), and watching colleagues crying (OR = 7.92, p < 0.001) were associated with crying at work. Rumination was associated with caring for patients who died of COVID-19 (OR = 1.54, p < 0.05), job demand (OR = 1.70, p < 0.01), watching colleagues crying (OR = 1.81, p < 0.001), non-work-related worries (OR = 1.57, p < 0.05), and fear of getting infected (OR = 2.02, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The psychological impact that this pandemic may cause in the medium/long term could be greater than the economical one. This is the main challenge that health organizations will have to face in the future. This study highlights that the perceived impact and worries about the pandemic affect nurses' mental health and can impact on their overall effectiveness during the pandemic. Measures to enhance nurses' protection and to lessen the risk of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress should be planned promptly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224011

ABSTRACT

Safety of healthcare workers in hospitals is a major concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being exposed for several working hours per day to infected patients, nurses dealing with COVID-19 face several issues that lead to physical/psychological breakdown. This study focused on burnout and its associated factors in nurses working in an Italian University Hospital during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. We designed a web-based cross-sectional study addressed to nurses working at the University Hospital in Foggia, Italy. The online questionnaire was organized in sections aimed at collecting demographic and occupational variables, including the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OBI). Two hundred and ninety-three nurses agreed to participate. According to MBI, we reported moderate/high emotional exhaustion in 76.5%, depersonalization in 50.2%, and personal gratification in 54.6% of participants. COVID-19-related burnout measured by OBI resulted medium/high in 89.1% of participants. Among demographic and occupational factors, a multivariate regression analysis identified emotional support, consideration of leaving job, and workload as predictive of burnout in nurses. In conclusion, this study suggests that the improvement of employer and family support to nurses, as well as reduction of workload and job-related stress, would contribute to reducing burnout in nurses during COVID-19 pandemics.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Nurses , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Nurs Open ; 8(6): 3538-3546, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212772

ABSTRACT

AIM: Evaluation the moral courage, moral sensitivity and safe nursing care in nurses caring of infected patients by the COVID-19. DESIGN: This study employed cross-sectional research. METHODS: 520 nurses caring for COVID-19 patients in 5 hospitals were selected via convenience sampling. They completed questionnaires online. Data were analysed by SPSS software version 22. RESULTS: Findings showed that moral courage has a strong and direct correlation with moral sensitivity (p < .001, r = 0-.70) and safe nursing care (p < .001, r = 0-.74). Variables of moral sensitivity, safe nursing care, work experience, age and employment status can predict 64.76% of the variance in moral courage in these nurses. Nursing care of patients with COVID-19 have reported high moral courage in recent months, and in spite of the numerous tensions and stresses in terms of caring these patients during this relative long period, they are still diligent in providing safe and high sensitive care to these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Courage , Nurses , Nursing Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Morals , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1S Suppl 1): e505-e512, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious; gastrointestinal endoscopies are considered risky procedures for the endoscopy staff. Data on the SARS-CoV-2-exposure/infection rate of gastrointestinal endoscopy staff is scarce. This study aimed to assess the SARS-CoV-2-exposure/infection rate among gastrointestinal endoscopists/nurses performing gastrointestinal endoscopies before and after the adoption of specific prevention measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a teaching hospital (Rome, Central Italy) on retrospective data (9 March-15 April 2020) of consecutive gastrointestinal endoscopies, characteristics of procedures, patients and endoscopy staff, SARS-CoV-2-exposure/positivity of patients and staff before and after adoption of prevention measures. Exposed staff tested for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swabs(RNA-PCR) and serology. RESULTS: A total of 130 gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed in 130 patients (age 66 ± 14 years, 51% women, 51% inpatients, 56.9% lower). A total of 12 (9.2%) patients were SARS-CoV-2-positive and 14(10.8%) had a high risk of potential infection. Of the endoscopy staff (n = 16, 5 endoscopists, 8 nurses and 3 residents), 14 (87.5%) were exposed to SARS-CoV-2-infected and 16 (100%) to potentially infected patients. 3/5 and 5/5 endoscopists were exposed to actual and potential, 1/3 and 3/3 residents to actual and potential and 8/8 nurses to actual and potential infection, respectively. None of the staff was found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. None experienced fever or any other suspicious symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019. Before the adoption of prevention measures, more endoscopists/nurses were in the endoscopy room than after (3.5 ± 0.6 vs. 2.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite supposed high infection risk, gastrointestinal endoscopies may be safe for the endoscopy staff during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 589545, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084003

ABSTRACT

Objective: Health-care workers (HCW) are at risk for psychological distress during an infectious disease outbreak, such as the coronavirus pandemic, due to the demands of dealing with a public health emergency. This rapid systematic review examined the factors associated with psychological distress among HCW during an outbreak. Method: We systematically reviewed literature on the factors associated with psychological distress (demographic characteristics, occupational, social, psychological, and infection-related factors) in HCW during an outbreak (COVID-19, SARS, MERS, H1N1, H7N9, and Ebola). Four electronic databases were searched (2000 to 15 November 2020) for relevant peer-reviewed research according to a pre-registered protocol. A narrative synthesis was conducted to identify fixed, modifiable, and infection-related factors linked to distress and psychiatric morbidity. Results: From the 4,621 records identified, 138 with data from 143,246 HCW in 139 studies were included. All but two studies were cross-sectional. The majority of the studies were conducted during COVID-19 (k = 107, N = 34,334) and SARS (k = 21, N = 18,096). Consistent evidence indicated that being female, a nurse, experiencing stigma, maladaptive coping, having contact or risk of contact with infected patients, and experiencing quarantine, were risk factors for psychological distress among HCW. Personal and organizational social support, perceiving control, positive work attitudes, sufficient information about the outbreak and proper protection, training, and resources, were associated with less psychological distress. Conclusions: This review highlights the key factors to the identify HCW who are most at risk for psychological distress during an outbreak and modifying factors to reduce distress and improve resilience. Recommendations are that HCW at risk for increased distress receive early interventions and ongoing monitoring because there is evidence that HCW distress can persist for up to 3 years after an outbreak. Further research needs to track the associations of risk and resilience factors with distress over time and the extent to which certain factors are inter-related and contribute to sustained or transient distress.

6.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(17-18): 2654-2664, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048549

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the present status of anxiety among nurses fighting the spread of COVID-19 and its association with perceived stress and insomnia. BACKGROUND: With the outbreak of COVID-19, nurses have been caring for infected patients for a considerable length of time in Wuhan, China. Previous COVID-19 studies generally focused on patients' medical treatment, but few considered healthcare workers' psychological needs while working with a pandemic involving an unfamiliar infectious disease. Numerous nurses have experienced mental health problems, such as anxiety. DESIGN: The STROBE guidelines for a cross-sectional questionnaire were implemented. METHODS: An online survey of 643 frontline nurses working with COVID-19-infected patients was conducted from 3-10 March 2020. Sociodemographic data were collected, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale and the Athens Insomnia Scale were administered. RESULTS: One-third (33.4%) of participants reported anxiety, which was associated with perceived stress and insomnia among Chinese frontline nurses in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic. Significant associations were found between anxiety, perceived stress, insomnia, working four-night shifts per week, experience working during more than two epidemics and fear of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that a substantial proportion of frontline nurses caring for COVID-19-infected patients experienced anxiety. We recommend that nurse managers focus on working conditions and cultivate safe and satisfactory work environments. Meanwhile, frontline nurses should foster awareness of mental health and rely on online resources for psychological training to alleviate anxiety. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings of this study could facilitate better understanding of anxiety among frontline nurses; more importantly, healthcare authorities and nursing managers need to pay more attention to ensuring intervention training to reduce anxiety for frontline nurses worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 598712, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000154

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health issue and challenge to health professionals. In similar epidemics, nurses experienced more distress than other providers. Methods: We surveyed both on-duty nurses caring for infected patients and second-line nurses caring for uninfected patients from Hubei and other provinces throughout China. Results: We received completed surveys from 1,364 nurses from 22 provinces: 658 front-line and 706 second-line nurses. The median (IQR) GHQ-28 score of all nurses was 17 (IQR 11-24). The overall incidence of mild-to-moderate distress (GHQ score > 5) was 28%; that for severe distress (GHQ score > 11) was 6%. The incidence of mild-to-moderate distress in the second-line nurses was higher than that in the front-line nurses (31 vs. 25%; OR, 0.74; 95 CI, 0.58-0.94). Living alone (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.86) and feeling supported (OR, 0.82, 95% CI, 0.74-0.90) independently predicted lower anxiety. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the psychological problems of all nurses were generally serious. The interviewed second-line nurses face more serious issues than the front-line nurses.

8.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020963711, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999404

ABSTRACT

Brazil is in a critical situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare workers that are in the front line face challenges with a shortage of personal protective equipment, high risk of contamination, low adherence to the social distancing measures by the population, low coronavirus testing with underestimation of cases, and also financial concerns due to the economic crisis in a developing country. This study compared the impact of COVID-19 pandemic among three categories of healthcare workers in Brazil: physicians, nurses, and dentists, about workload, income, protection, training, feelings, behavior, and level of concern and anxiety. The sample was randomly selected and a Google Forms questionnaire was sent by WhatsApp messenger. The survey comprised questions about jobs, income, workload, PPE, training for COVID-19 patient care, behavior and feelings during the pandemic. The number of jobs reduced for all healthcare workers in Brazil during the pandemic, but significantly more for dentists. The workload and income reduced to all healthcare workers. Most healthcare workers did not receive proper training for treating COVID-19 infected patients. Physicians and nurses were feeling more tired than usual. Most of the healthcare workers in all groups reported difficulties in sleeping during the pandemic. The healthcare workers reported a significant impact of COVID-19 pandemic in their income, workload and anxiety, with differences among physicians, nurses and dentists.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Workload/psychology , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 24(s1): 98-107, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903320

ABSTRACT

The novel covid-19 pandemic is a highly infectious disease without known specific treatment and vaccine. Transmission based precautions are important in the fight against the virus. This study investigated the level of transmission-based precautions practiced, the predictors of correct practices, and the challenges experienced by nurses in public health facilities in Edo State during the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey to elicit responses from 367 front line nurses using a Google online questionnaire. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The majority 314(85.6%) of the respondents maintained a good level of transmission-based precautions practice. Hand hygiene was performed by 327(89.1%) of the respondents. Academic qualification was a significant predictor of good practice in favour of respondents with a degree in nursing. Challenges identified were lack of financial motivation, fear of infecting family members and fear of contracting the virus (93.5%). It was concluded that nurses in Edo State Nigeria have good transmission- based practices in relation to covid-19 however efforts should be made to ensure 100% compliance and sustain practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Fear , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
10.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 36(1): E1-E6, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 3000 medical personnel in China had been infected with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We report on 75 previously infected nurses who returned to work. PURPOSE: The aim was to understand the adaptation status of nurses after recovering from COVID-19 and returning to work. METHODS: Data were collected online via the Work Adaptation Scale and the Psychological Capital Scale, and the related influencing factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The social integration and task mastery scores were highest, and the clear roles and cultural adaptation scores were low. The self-efficacy and hope scores were highest, but the resilience and optimism scores were not high. Psychological capital was positively correlated with work adaptation (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: To ensure the quality and safety of nursing care, nurse managers should adopt effective intervention measures to address the physical and mental health of returning nurses and improve their levels of psychological capital and adaptability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Nurse's Role , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy , Young Adult
11.
Sleep Med X ; 2: 100028, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are at high risk of acquiring the pathogen from infected patients and transmitting to other HCWs. We aimed to investigate risk factors for nosocomial COVID-19 infection among HCWs in a non-COVID-19 hospital yard. METHODS: Retrospective data collection on demographics, lifestyles, contact status with infected subjects for 118 HCWs (including 12 COVID-19 HCWs) at Union Hospital of Wuhan, China. Sleep quality and working pressure were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The Nurse Stress Index (NSI), respectively. The follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020. RESULTS: A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCWs had significantly higher scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs (P < 0.001). Specifically, scores of 5 factors (sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, and daytime dysfunction) in PSQI were higher among infected HCWs. For NSI, its 5 subscales (nursing profession and work, workload and time allocation, working environment and resources, patient care, management and interpersonal relations) were all higher in infected than uninfected nurse. Furthermore, total scores of PSQI (HR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.86-4.76; P <0.001) and NSI (HR = 4.67, 95%CI = 1.42-15.45; P = 0.011) were both positively associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that poor sleep quality and higher working pressure may increase the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.

12.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1898, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732840

ABSTRACT

Traumatic events such as a pandemic shatter the assumption of the workplace as a safe place. Nurses face risks of life-threatening infection, which can create psychological distress. Quality of care for infected patients depends on mental well-being of nurses which calls for research on predictors of stress among health care workers. Responding to a call for research on the effects of leadership styles on psychological distress during traumatic events, this paper uses the theoretical lens of social exchange theory and contributes to literature on relationships between inclusive leadership, psychological distress, work engagement, and self-sacrifice. Participants of this cross sectional study included 497 registered nurses from five hospitals in Wuhan. Data were collected with temporal separation through an online questionnaire. Partial least-squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze data. Results show inclusive leadership has a significant negative relationship with psychological distress. Work engagement mediates this relationship, and nurses' self-sacrificial behavior moderates it. Findings indicate inclusive leadership style serves as a sustainable mechanism to reduce psychological distress during pandemics. It can operationalize the delivery of mental health support in real-time in work settings. Results provide empirical support for social exchange theory through high work engagement to help control psychological distress among nurses.

13.
New Microbes New Infect ; 36: 100694, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627610

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has received much attention all over the world. Nurses are in the first line of defence against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and are placed in a high-risk situation. This study aimed to report on infection with SARS-CoV-2 during patient care among nures in the Mostafa Khomini Hospital, Ilam, Iran. In this hospital 125 nurses were enrolled in the COVID-19 centre. Five out of 125 nurses (4%) who enrolled in the COVID-19 infection centre, developed COVID-19. They were first positive by real-time PCR but the CT scan was positive for only one of them. None of the infected nurses were hospitalized and all of them preferred to quarantine at home and receive the necessary care and treatment (oseltamivir, azithromycin and lopinavir/ritonavir). This study showed that, regardless of self caring, the nurses were exposed to the virus, because at the start of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Iran, there was no special protection against this infection, so the nurses were placed at risk. This study also reported that receiving the necessary care and treatment at home was a good experience for nurses and can be used in some cases.

14.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(3): 64-74, 2020 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-604332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in December 2019. The high levels of stress experienced by nurses during this pandemic may have immediate and long-term effects on their mental health. PURPOSE: To explore the stress and psychological problems of nurses during this pandemic and to identify strategies used by these nurses to relieve stress. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted that included a basic information datasheet, stress of nursing staff during COVID-19 outbreak scale, psychological distress scale, and stress relief methods survey form. Convenience sampling was used and a total of 469 practicing nurses participated in this study. RESULTS: Most of the participants expressed concerns about living problems (72.7%). On the stress questionnaire, the facets of "burden of taking care of patients" and "worries about social isolation" earned the first and second highest scores, respectively. In terms of items, "worrying about infecting family members and friends" and "worrying about being separated from family after being infected" earned the two highest scores (2.35 ± 0.79 and 2.17 ± 0.92, respectively). Scores for psychological distress averaged 5.49 ± 3.83, with stress anxiety (1.32 ± 0.84) earning the highest mean subscale score followed by distress and irritability (1.17 ± 0.92) and depression (1.12 ± 0.94). Nearly two-thirds (61.8%) of the participants earned psychological and emotional distress scores within the 'normal' range, and 3.4% earned scores indicating severe distress. "Receiving education and training" was the most common method used by the participants to relieve stress (2.27 ± 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: The following six strategies are proposed based on the above findings: (1) Caring: provide psychological assessment and care; (2) Supporting: create a friendly team atmosphere and provide support; (3) Inquiring: recruit volunteers with relevant experience; (4) Informing: provide timely, open, and transparent epidemic-prevention information; (5) Equipping: provide complete and appropriate epidemic-prevention education and training; (6) Assisting: establish a strategy for family support and caring to reduce the stress and worries of nurses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Nursing Staff , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
15.
Elife ; 92020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-236326

ABSTRACT

Significant differences exist in the availability of healthcare worker (HCW) SARS-CoV-2 testing between countries, and existing programmes focus on screening symptomatic rather than asymptomatic staff. Over a 3 week period (April 2020), 1032 asymptomatic HCWs were screened for SARS-CoV-2 in a large UK teaching hospital. Symptomatic staff and symptomatic household contacts were additionally tested. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect viral RNA from a throat+nose self-swab. 3% of HCWs in the asymptomatic screening group tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 17/30 (57%) were truly asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic. 12/30 (40%) had experienced symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)>7 days prior to testing, most self-isolating, returning well. Clusters of HCW infection were discovered on two independent wards. Viral genome sequencing showed that the majority of HCWs had the dominant lineage B∙1. Our data demonstrates the utility of comprehensive screening of HCWs with minimal or no symptoms. This approach will be critical for protecting patients and hospital staff.


Patients admitted to NHS hospitals are now routinely screened for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), and isolated from other patients if necessary. Yet healthcare workers, including frontline patient-facing staff such as doctors, nurses and physiotherapists, are only tested and excluded from work if they develop symptoms of the illness. However, there is emerging evidence that many people infected with SARS-CoV-2 never develop significant symptoms: these people will therefore be missed by 'symptomatic-only' testing. There is also important data showing that around half of all transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 happen before the infected individual even develops symptoms. This means that much broader testing programs are required to spot people when they are most infectious. Rivett, Sridhar, Sparkes, Routledge et al. set out to determine what proportion of healthcare workers was infected with SARS-CoV-2 while also feeling generally healthy at the time of testing. Over 1,000 staff members at a large UK hospital who felt they were well enough to work, and did not fit the government criteria for COVID-19 infection, were tested. Amongst these, 3% were positive for SARS-CoV-2. On closer questioning, around one in five reported no symptoms, two in five very mild symptoms that they had dismissed as inconsequential, and a further two in five reported COVID-19 symptoms that had stopped more than a week previously. In parallel, healthcare workers with symptoms of COVID-19 (and their household contacts) who were self-isolating were also tested, in order to allow those without the virus to quickly return to work and bolster a stretched workforce. Finally, the rates of infection were examined to probe how the virus could have spread through the hospital and among staff ­ and in particular, to understand whether rates of infection were greater among staff working in areas devoted to COVID-19 patients. Despite wearing appropriate personal protective equipment, healthcare workers in these areas were almost three times more likely to test positive than those working in areas without COVID-19 patients. However, it is not clear whether this genuinely reflects greater rates of patients passing the infection to staff. Staff may give the virus to each other, or even acquire it at home. Overall, this work implies that hospitals need to be vigilant and introduce broad screening programmes across their workforces. It will be vital to establish such approaches before 'lockdown' is fully lifted, so healthcare institutions are prepared for any second peak of infections.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(7): 337-345, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-5902

ABSTRACT

Background: South Korea faced the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak for the first time in 2015, which resulted in 186 infected patients and 39 deaths. This study investigated the level of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and turnover intention, the relationship between PTSD and turnover intention, and the buffering effect of supervisor support among nurses post-MERS outbreak. Methods: In total, 300 nurses from three of 15 isolation hospitals in South Korea were invited to participate. We collected data pertaining to PTSD, turnover intention, supervisor support, work-related factors, and socio-demographic factors through a structured survey distributed to the nurses at the hospitals after the outbreak. For the statistical analyses, descriptive statistics and multiple regression were employed. Findings: Of the 147 participants, 33.3% were involved in the direct care of the infected patients, whereas 66.7% were involved in the direct care of the suspected patients. More than half (57.1%) of the nurses experienced PTSD, with 25.1% experienced full PTSD and 32.0% with moderate or some level of PTSD. The mean score of turnover intention was 16.3, with the score range of 4 to 20. The multiple regression analysis revealed that PTSD was positively associated with turnover intention, and supervisor support had a strong buffering effect. Conclusion/Application to Practice: These findings confirmed that after a fatal infectious disease outbreak like MERS, nurses experience high level of PTSD and show high intention to leave. Organizational strategies to help nurses to cope with stress and to prevent turnover intention, especially using supervisor support, would be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Occupational Stress , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospitals, Isolation , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Regression Analysis , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires
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