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1.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035346

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 related stressors on the mental health of both infected patients and the general public has been well established. However, knowledge is limited on how psychosocial support buffers the association. This study aimed to examine this buffering role in the context of China. We utilized cross-sectional data collected online in mid-March 2020, involving 585 respondents. Mental health status was determined through depression symptoms and loneliness. COVID-19 related stressors include three aspects: perceived severity, perceived threat to life and health, and perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Psychosocial support included family and social supports. Analyses include ordinary linear regression. The finding showed that psychosocial support buffered the negative effect of loneliness in the context of perceived severity of COVID-19, but appeared to intensify the negative effect of depression symptoms in the context of perceived threat to life and health. However, there was no significant buffering effect on depression or loneliness in the context of the perceived risk of infection. The buffering effect of psychosocial support on COVID-19 related stressors is of mixed patterns. This study contributes to the emerging body of literature trying to understand how the COVID-19 impacts the mental health of individuals.

2.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(15): 2965-2968, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has rapidly spread worldwide, with severe complications affecting particularly elderly and compromised subjects. Less information about COVID-19 in pregnancy has been reported so far in the literature. METHODS: Case series on pregnancies complicated by COVID-19. All cases were diagnosed at Bolognini Hospital, Seriate, Italy. These cases are presented to clarify the features of COVID-19 occurring in pregnancy. RESULTS: Four women had symptoms of COVID-19 during pregnancy or immediately after delivery. All cases were confirmed by oropharyngeal swab. All patients presented with fever and low saturation levels at the diagnosis. One case was transferred after diagnosis to a tertiary referral center and delivered the day after for worsening clinical conditions. In the other three cases, bilateral pneumonia was documented at the admission. Antithrombotic therapy was used in most cases. No cases of the infected neonate was reported. At 2 month follow-up, all patients were alive, three were asymptomatic while one presented neurological complication. One more case was described because suspicious for COVID-19, however, it was not confirmed by oropharyngeal swab. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women, the peripheral nervous system could be affected. No case of trans-placental passage was reported. The swab could be helpful in diagnosis. The antithrombotic therapy could play a role in the positive course of COVID-19 also in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(4): 1261-1269, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a difficult pandemic to control worldwide. The high transmission risk and mortality rates of COVID-19 cause serious concerns in ophthalmologists and may cause disruptions in clinical functioning. This study aims to identify changes in the clinical approaches of ophthalmologists, understand their anxiety levels, and exhibit how patients' follow-up processes progress during the pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire that including demographic information, ophthalmology clinical activity scale, and Beck anxiety scale was sent to ophthalmologists in Turkey. Google Forms was used as a survey platform in this study. RESULTS: A total of 121 ophthalmologists participated in the study. The participants stated that they could not continue routine interventional diagnosis and treatment practices during the outbreak. It was clearly stated that there were changes in their clinical approach and decreased patient examination quality. For this reason, 14.9% of physicians said to missed the diagnosis in this process. Physicians who encounter infected patients state that it is more difficult to provide ophthalmological services and their clinical approaches are affected more negatively. Anxiety levels of physicians who could access personal protective equipment (PPE) and show positive solidarity with their colleagues in the process were found to be lower. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that ophthalmologists, like other healthcare professionals, were severely affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. Accordingly, healthcare managers should provide adequate PPE for ophthalmologists, organize the clinical operation, and support the mental health of ophthalmologists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ophthalmologists , Ophthalmology/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Singapore Med J ; 63(2): 61-67, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811330

ABSTRACT

The complete picture regarding transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. This review summarises the available evidence on its transmission modes, our preliminary research findings and implications for infection control policy, and outlines future research directions. Environmental contamination has been reported in hospital settings occupied by infected patients, and is higher in the first week of illness. Transmission via environmental surfaces or fomites is likely, but decontamination protocols are effective in minimising this risk. The extent of airborne transmission is also unclear. While several studies have detected SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid in air samples, none has isolated viable virus in culture. Transmission likely lies on a spectrum between droplet and airborne transmission, depending on the patient, disease and environmental factors. Singapore's current personal protective equipment and isolation protocols are sufficient to manage this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(9): e3080, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is anticipated that in due course the burden of emergency care due to COVID-19 infected patients will reduce sufficiently to permit elective surgical procedures to recommence. Prioritizing cleft/craniofacial surgery in the already overloaded medical system will then become an issue. The European Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association, together with the European Cleft and Craniofacial Initiative for Equality in Care, performed a brief survey to capture a current snapshot during a rapidly evolving pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the 2242 participants who attended 1 of 3 recent international cleft/craniofacial meetings. RESULTS: The respondents indicated that children with Robin sequence who were not responding to nonsurgical options should be treated as emergency cases. Over 70% of the respondents indicated that palate repair should be performed before the age of 15 months, an additional 22% stating the same be performed by 18 months. Placement of middle ear tubes, primary cleft lip surgery, alveolar bone grafting, and velopharyngeal insufficiency surgery also need prioritization. Children with craniofacial conditions such as craniosynostosis and increased intracranial pressure need immediate care, whilst children with craniosynostosis and associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or proptosis need surgical care within 3 months of the typical timing. Craniosynostosis without signs of increased intracranial pressure needs correction before the age of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several areas of cleft and craniofacial conditions that need prioritization, but also certain areas where intervention is less urgent. We acknowledge that there will be differences in the post COVID-19 response according to circumstances and policies in individual countries.

6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 64(2): 107-113, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Immediately before the state of emergency was declared, there was an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among special training participants with severe physical stress. For promoting the optimization of infection prevention measures by identifying acts and situations with high risk of infection, we conducted a survey and analysis to understand the detailed process of infection spread in these cases. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted for the special training participants on their health status, changes in symptoms, training methods, and behavior history in their private lives. Additionally, a patrol of the training facility was carried out to understand the training environment, and antibody tests were conducted on the close contacts for more accurately grasping the spread of infection, by identifying subclinical infected persons. RESULTS: Within 10 days of COVID-19 onset in the first patient, 15 of the 19 original training participants developed symptoms, and 14 patients tested positive for RT-PCR. PCR tests were also performed on four patients who did not develop the disease - two were positive and negative, each. The two negatives turned positive on a later antibody test, suggesting that there was an asymptomatic infection. In addition, all five patients who participated in the training for only a day developed symptoms and tested positive for PCR in a few days. Of the 64 people who underwent testing for antibodies as close contacts, all but one who was living together with a patient were negative on antibody testing. CONCLUSIONS: The onset of COVID-19 occurred after the start of practice-based training continuously; therefore, the practice-based training was thought to be the main cause of the transmission. We speculate that the main factors behind the rapid spread of infection are as follows: during practice-based training, increased ventilation made it difficult to wear a mask; repeated loud vocalizations at close range; and the training pair was not fixed. Physical training without shouting and desk work, however, did not possess the risk of COVID-19, and avoiding certain situations at high risk of respiratory infections may have significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission. If personnel become infected with SARS-CoV-2, emergency measures should be devised by identifying patients and close contacts and facilitating the investigation of their behavioral history. Furthermore, evaluating and improving the effectiveness of infection control measures is necessary by ascertaining potentially infected persons by performing PCR tests, antigen tests, antibody tests, etc. in combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Inservice Training , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(4): 433-439, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753892

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: From the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic in the 1980s to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, multiple viral pandemics have occurred and all have been associated with hematologic complications of varying severity. OBJECTIVE.­: To review the hematologic complications associated with the HIV and other viral pandemics, the current theories regarding their causation, and the incidence and clinical impact of these complications on infected patients. DATA SOURCES.­: Peer-reviewed medical literature and the author's personal experience. CONCLUSIONS.­: The HIV and other viral pandemics have been associated with a variety of hematologic complications that often cause significant morbidity and mortality in affected patients. HIV infection is associated with multiple hematologic disorders, many of which have a lower incidence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy but still represent a major clinical problem for HIV-infected patients. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-related hematologic complications, including HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, has evolved in recent years. Other viral pandemics, including H1N1 influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, and COVID-19, have also been associated with hematologic complications of varying severity. Our emerging understanding of the pathogenesis of the hematologic complications of HIV, COVID-19, and other viral pandemics may help in prevention, correct diagnosis, and treatment of these complications in current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726016

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached over five million confirmed cases worldwide, and numbers are still growing at a fast rate. Despite the wide outbreak of the infection, a remarkable asymmetry is observed in the number of cases and in the distribution of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms in patients with respect to the countries/regions. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection transmission, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. While it is possible to reason that observed variation in the number and severity of cases stems from the initial number of infected individuals, the difference in the testing policies and social aspects of community transmissions, the factors that could explain high discrepancy in areas with a similar level of healthcare still remain unknown. Here, we introduce a binary classifier based on an artificial neural network that can help in explaining those differences and that can be used to support the design of containment policies. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency positively correlates with particulate air pollutants, and specifically with particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), while ozone gas is oppositely related with the number of infected individuals. We propose that atmospheric air pollutants could thus serve as surrogate markers to complement the infection outbreak anticipation.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ozone , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 250(4): 271-278, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725119

ABSTRACT

The present study provides an overview of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which has rapidly extended globally within a short period. COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2). SARS-CoV-2 is different from usual coronaviruses responsible for mild sickness such as common cold among human beings. It is crucial to understand the impact and outcome of this pandemic. We therefore overview the changes in the curves of COVID-19 confirmed cases and fatality rate in China and outside of China from 31st of December 2019 to 25th of March 2020. We also aimed to assess the temporal developments and death rate of COVID-19 in China and worldwide. More than 414,179 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported in 197 countries, including 81,848 cases in China and 332,331 outside of China. Furthermore, 18,440 infected patients died from COVID-19 infection; 3,287 cases were from China and 15,153 fatalities were reported worldwide. Among the worldwide infected cases, 113,802 patients have been recovered and discharged from different hospitals. Effective prevention and control measures should be taken to control the disease. The presented Chinese model (protocol) of disease prevention and control could be utilized in order to curb the pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Animals , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
11.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Onkologe (Berl) ; 27(8): 783-789, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current pandemic situation, the public health care system must ensure the ongoing provision of regular medical care as well as the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. Resident oncologists and their practices are equally affected. OBJECTIVES: The study examines resident oncologists' challenges, experiences and approaches in the delivery of care for oncological patients receiving palliative treatment and their relatives during the pandemic. Findings will support future pandemic preparedness for cancer treatment in outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Content analyses of 13 guideline-based telephone interviews with resident oncologists. RESULTS: Solid local networks, staff and structural rearrangements and infection control within offices helped oncologists maintaining quality of care. Required treatments have been continued. The interrupted information flow towards patients' relatives and catching up on previously postponed primary, control or follow-up consultations have been reported as a challenge. Other issues have been linked to suspected SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients and staff. The lack of information, temporal inaccessibility of health care authorities and physicians' associations, and additional costs for infection control material caused further problems. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the firmly implemented infection control and the re-organisation of facilities and staff, oncologists have been able to maintain treatment and care for cancer patients and their relatives. Hygiene procedures proved to work well and might be re-activated. An increased use of digital applications for treatment monitoring might be considered. Furthermore, solutions to meet additional financial and personnel demands caused by infection control must be identified. The design of suitable concepts for the prevention of health-related hazards due to visiting bans for relatives and therapeutic staff such as physio- and occupational therapists is inevitable.

14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered in Wuhan and spread rapidly across China and worldwide. Characteristics of infected patients are needed to get insight into the full spectrum of the disease. METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical information of 1738 diagnosed patients during February 7-26, 2020 in Wuhan Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital were analyzed. A total of 709 patients were followed up on symptom, mental health, isolation site, and medication after discharge. RESULTS: There were 852 males and 886 females in the cohort. The average age of the patients was 48.8 y. A total of 79.98% of the patients were from Wuhan, Hubei Province. The most common initial symptoms were fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Among all the patients, 1463 had complications, with respiratory distress as the most common complication. The average duration of hospitalization was 15.95 ± 14.69 d. The most common postdischarge symptom is cough. After discharge, most patients were full of energy and chose hotel as their self-isolation site. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Chinese medicine No.2 prescription is the medication used most commonly by the patients after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. After receiving aggressive treatment of combined Chinese and Western medicine, most patients had a good prognosis and mental health after discharge.

15.
Computation (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648681

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the medical research community is vigorously seeking a treatment to control the infection and save the lives of severely infected patients. The main potential candidates for the control of viruses are virally targeted agents. In this short letter, we report our calculations on the inhibitors for the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease and the spike protein for the potential treatment of COVID-19. The results show that the most potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease include saquinavir, tadalafil, rivaroxaban, sildenafil, dasatinib, etc. Ergotamine, amphotericin b, and vancomycin are most promising to block the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein with human ACE-2.

16.
Cardiol Young ; 32(1): 31-35, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic negatively impacted global healthcare. Consequences in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programmes and mortality of congenital heart patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) is still to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To study the COVID-19 pandemic implications in Brazilian Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programmes. METHODS: We conducted a national online survey covering all states that perform Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery from 10 November to 22 November, 2020, using a Google forms questionnaire. We formulated questions related to impact on surgical volume, case-mix, and mortality. Then we asked about short-term post-operative COVID-19 infection and outcomes. RESULTS: We received responses from 46 centres representing all states where there were a Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programme and all high-volume centres across the country. All but one centre experienced a significant decrease in surgical volume, and 23.9% of the responders revealed less than one-quarter of volume decrement. On the other hand, in over 70% of the centres, there was a significant surgical volume reduction. In addition to this, there was a shift in case-mix in 41 centres (89.1%) towards more complex cases. More than one-third of the responders revealed increased mortality in 2020 compared to previous years, and 43.5% of the programmes (20 centres) had at least one patient contaminated by SARS-Cov-2, accounting for 48 patients. Mortality in post-operative infected patients was 45.8% (22 patients). CONCLUSIONS: In general, Brazilian Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery programmes were severely affected by decreased surgical volume, unbalanced case-mix towards more complex cases, and increased mortality. Almost half of the programmes related post-operative COVID-19 contamination with high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Curr Med Imaging ; 18(2): 104-112, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus-related disease, a deadly illness, has raised public health issues worldwide. The majority of individuals infected are multiplying. The government is taking aggressive steps to quarantine people, people exposed to infection, and clinical trials for treatment. Subsequently recommends critical care for the aged, children, and health-care personnel. While machine learning methods have been previously used to augment clinical decisions, there is now a demand for "Emergency ML." With rapidly growing datasets, there also remain important considerations when developing and validating ML models. METHODS: This paper reviews the recent study that applies machine-learning technology addressing Corona virus-related disease issues' challenges in different perspectives. The report also discusses various treatment trials and procedures on Corona virus-related disease infected patients providing insights to physicians and the public on the current treatment challenges. RESULTS: The paper provides the individual with insights into certain precautions to prevent and control the spread of this deadly disease. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the utility of evidence-based machine learning prediction tools in several clinical settings, and how similar models can be deployed during the Corona virus-related disease pandemic to guide hospital frontlines and health-care administrators to make informed decisions about patient care and managing hospital volume. Further, the clinical trials conducted so far for infected patients with Corona virus-related disease addresses their results to improve community alertness from the viewpoint of a well-known saying, "prevention is always better."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Aged , Child , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Results Chem ; 3: 100138, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596100

ABSTRACT

Developing robust methods to detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent for the current global health pandemic, is an exciting area of research. Nevertheless, the currently used conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in COVID-19 detection endures with some inevitable limitations. Consequently, the establishment of rapid diagnostic tools and quick isolation of infected patients is highly essential. Furthermore, the requirement of point-of-care testing is the need of the hour. Considering this, we have provided a brief review of the use of very recently reported robust spectral tools for rapid COVID-19 detection. The spectral tools include, colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), with the admittance of principal component analysis (PCA) and machine learning (ML) for meeting the high-throughput and fool-proof platforms for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, are reviewed. Recently, these techniques have been readily applied to screen a large number of suspected patients within a short period and they demonstrated higher sensitivity for the detection of COVID-19 patients from unaffected human subjects.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247839, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574949

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 has spread quickly throughout the world, the scientific community has spent major efforts on better understanding the characteristics of the virus and possible means to prevent, diagnose, and treat COVID-19. A valid approach presented in the literature is to develop an image-based method to support COVID-19 diagnosis using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Because the availability of radiological data is rather limited due to the novelty of COVID-19, several methodologies consider reduced datasets, which may be inadequate, biasing the model. Here, we performed an analysis combining six different databases using chest X-ray images from open datasets to distinguish images of infected patients while differentiating COVID-19 and pneumonia from 'no-findings' images. In addition, the performance of models created from fewer databases, which may imperceptibly overestimate their results, is discussed. Two CNN-based architectures were created to process images of different sizes (512 × 512, 768 × 768, 1024 × 1024, and 1536 × 1536). Our best model achieved a balanced accuracy (BA) of 87.7% in predicting one of the three classes ('no-findings', 'COVID-19', and 'pneumonia') and a specific balanced precision of 97.0% for 'COVID-19' class. We also provided binary classification with a precision of 91.0% for detection of sick patients (i.e., with COVID-19 or pneumonia) and 98.4% for COVID-19 detection (i.e., differentiating from 'no-findings' or 'pneumonia'). Indeed, despite we achieved an unrealistic 97.2% BA performance for one specific case, the proposed methodology of using multiple databases achieved better and less inflated results than from models with specific image datasets for training. Thus, this framework is promising for a low-cost, fast, and noninvasive means to support the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Databases, Factual , Neural Networks, Computer , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Bias , Deep Learning , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Radiography, Thoracic
20.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 440-444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, evolution and risk factors for long-term persistence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) in COVID-19 outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients with OGD. Weekly phone interviews were set up starting from COVID-19 onset symptoms and over the course of 60 days, using standardized questionnaires that included a detailed description of general symptoms and OGD. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with complete recovery of OGD at D30. Rate and time to recovery of OGD, as well as risk factors for late recovery (>30 days), were evaluated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Ninety-eight outpatients were included. The median time to onset of OGD after first COVID-19 symptoms was 2 days (IQR 0-4). The 30-day recovery rate from OGD was 67.5% (95% CI 57.1-75.4) and the estimated median time of OGD recovery was 20 days (95% CI 13-26). Risk factors for late recovery of OGD were a complete loss of smell or taste at diagnosis (HR=0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.56, P=0.0005) and age over 40 years (HR=0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.89, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with complete loss of smell or taste and over age 40 are more likely to develop persistent OGD and should rapidly receive sensorial rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
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