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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 245-250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100753

ABSTRACT

Deep emotion traumas in societies around the globe are overcome by extreme human catastrophes such as natural disasters, social crises, war conflicts and infectious virus induced pandemic diseases, etc., can lead to enormous stress-related disorders. The current ongoing pandemic known as COVID-19 caused by novel Corona virus first appeared in Wuhan, city of China and then rapidly spread in the whole world. It has affected various frontiers of lives and caused numerous psychiatric problems like nervousness, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear and uncertainty, panic attacks, depression, obsessive compulsory disorder, xenophobia and racism, etc. Globally COVID-19 has persuaded public mental health crisis. Furthermore, inadequate resources of public mental health services in several countries are discussed in this review, which will be further straighten by the upcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All mental health sciences including Psychiatry can play a very important role in the comfort of COVID-19 infected individuals and their relatives, healthcare providers and society. We need to learn more about psychological and psychiatric features of COVID-19 from the perceptions of public and global mental health in order to cope up the present deteriorating situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Internationality , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans
2.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035346

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 related stressors on the mental health of both infected patients and the general public has been well established. However, knowledge is limited on how psychosocial support buffers the association. This study aimed to examine this buffering role in the context of China. We utilized cross-sectional data collected online in mid-March 2020, involving 585 respondents. Mental health status was determined through depression symptoms and loneliness. COVID-19 related stressors include three aspects: perceived severity, perceived threat to life and health, and perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Psychosocial support included family and social supports. Analyses include ordinary linear regression. The finding showed that psychosocial support buffered the negative effect of loneliness in the context of perceived severity of COVID-19, but appeared to intensify the negative effect of depression symptoms in the context of perceived threat to life and health. However, there was no significant buffering effect on depression or loneliness in the context of the perceived risk of infection. The buffering effect of psychosocial support on COVID-19 related stressors is of mixed patterns. This study contributes to the emerging body of literature trying to understand how the COVID-19 impacts the mental health of individuals.

3.
Oral Surg ; 14(1): 93-94, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961767
4.
Nonlinear Dyn ; 101(3): 1777-1787, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906357

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is spreading around the world and has attracted extremely wide public attention. From the beginning of the outbreak to now, there have been many mathematical models proposed to describe the spread of the pandemic, and most of them are established with the assumption that people contact with each other in a homogeneous pattern. However, owing to the difference of individuals in reality, social contact is usually heterogeneous, and the models on homogeneous networks cannot accurately describe the outbreak. Thus, we propose a susceptible-asymptomatic-infected-removed (SAIR) model on social networks to describe the spread of COVID-19 and analyse the outbreak based on the epidemic data of Wuhan from January 24 to March 2. Then, according to the results of the simulations, we discover that the measures that can curb the spread of COVID-19 include increasing the recovery rate and the removed rate, cutting off connections between symptomatically infected individuals and their neighbours, and cutting off connections between hub nodes and their neighbours. The feasible measures proposed in the paper are in fair agreement with the measures that the government took to suppress the outbreak. Furthermore, effective measures should be carried out immediately, otherwise the pandemic would spread more rapidly and last longer. In addition, we use the epidemic data of Wuhan from January 24 to March 2 to analyse the outbreak in the city and explain why the number of the infected rose in the early stage of the outbreak though a total lockdown was implemented. Moreover, besides the above measures, a feasible way to curb the spread of COVID-19 is to reduce the density of social networks, such as restricting mobility and decreasing in-person social contacts. This work provides a series of effective measures, which can facilitate the selection of appropriate approaches for controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate its adverse impact on people's livelihood, societies and economies.

5.
Nonlinear Dyn ; 100(3): 2953-2972, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906356

ABSTRACT

Complex systems have characteristics that give rise to the emergence of rare and extreme events. This paper addresses an example of such type of crisis, namely the spread of the new Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study deals with the statistical comparison and visualization of country-based real-data for the period December 31, 2019, up to April 12, 2020, and does not intend to address the medical treatment of the disease. Two distinct approaches are considered, the description of the number of infected people across time by means of heuristic models fitting the real-world data, and the comparison of countries based on hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling. The computational and mathematical modeling lead to the emergence of patterns, highlighting similarities and differences between the countries, pointing toward the main characteristics of the complex dynamics.

6.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1501, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903116

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our aim was to explore the presumed infection routes and psychological impact of COVID-19 on staff in administrative and logistics departments (ALDs). Methods: We gathered data from all 18 staff members with COVID-19 in ALDs in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, China. The baseline, job before diagnosis, presumed infection environment, use of protective equipment, and psychological status before and after diagnosis were collected and analyzed. A total of 18 uninfected staff members working alongside them in the same environment and 18 random matched infected doctors and nurses formed two control groups; the psychological impact of these three groups was then compared. Results: Of the 18 members of staff, 88.89% were infected due to the working environment (hospital), and nine had face-to-face conversations with doctors and nurses in their daily work. Many staff members did not take any protective measures in their routine work. Before they were diagnosed, 12 staff members were aware of the seriousness of the epidemic, and most of the staff maintained a neutral attitude to the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 77.78% of the staff experienced psychological stress or emotional changes after diagnosis, which were mainly caused by family health and disease related issues. Most of them managed their emotions by self-control and video calls with their families. There was no significant difference in psychological impact among the three groups, but uninfected staff members were fully aware of the seriousness of the epidemic. Conclusions: Effective protective measures should be taken for staff members in ALDs. Psychological interventions are very important to help infected staff members in ALDs cope with psychological distress.

7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(15): 2965-2968, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has rapidly spread worldwide, with severe complications affecting particularly elderly and compromised subjects. Less information about COVID-19 in pregnancy has been reported so far in the literature. METHODS: Case series on pregnancies complicated by COVID-19. All cases were diagnosed at Bolognini Hospital, Seriate, Italy. These cases are presented to clarify the features of COVID-19 occurring in pregnancy. RESULTS: Four women had symptoms of COVID-19 during pregnancy or immediately after delivery. All cases were confirmed by oropharyngeal swab. All patients presented with fever and low saturation levels at the diagnosis. One case was transferred after diagnosis to a tertiary referral center and delivered the day after for worsening clinical conditions. In the other three cases, bilateral pneumonia was documented at the admission. Antithrombotic therapy was used in most cases. No cases of the infected neonate was reported. At 2 month follow-up, all patients were alive, three were asymptomatic while one presented neurological complication. One more case was described because suspicious for COVID-19, however, it was not confirmed by oropharyngeal swab. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women, the peripheral nervous system could be affected. No case of trans-placental passage was reported. The swab could be helpful in diagnosis. The antithrombotic therapy could play a role in the positive course of COVID-19 also in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 16(1): 177-186, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to clarify the association between prosperity and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outcomes and its impact on the future management of pandemics. METHODS: This is an observational study using information from 2 online registries. The numbers of infected individuals and deaths and the prosperity rank of each country were obtained from worldometer.info and the Legatum Institute's Prosperity Index, respectively. RESULTS: There is a combination of countries with high and low prosperity on the list of COVID-19-infected countries. The risk of the virus pandemic seems to be more extensive in countries with high prosperity. A Spearman's rho test confirmed a significant correlation between prosperity, the number of COVID-19 cases, and the number of deaths at the 99% level. CONCLUSION: New emerging pandemics affect all nations. In order to increase the likelihood of successfully managing future events, it is important to consider preexisting health security, valid population-based management approaches, medical decision-making, communication, continuous assessment, triage, treatment, early and complete physical distancing strategies, and logistics. These elements cannot be taught on-site and on occasion. There is a need for innovative and regular educational activities for all stakeholders committed to safeguarding our future defense systems concerning diagnostic, protection, treatment, and rehabilitation in pandemics, as well as other emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Triage
9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(4): 1261-1269, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a difficult pandemic to control worldwide. The high transmission risk and mortality rates of COVID-19 cause serious concerns in ophthalmologists and may cause disruptions in clinical functioning. This study aims to identify changes in the clinical approaches of ophthalmologists, understand their anxiety levels, and exhibit how patients' follow-up processes progress during the pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire that including demographic information, ophthalmology clinical activity scale, and Beck anxiety scale was sent to ophthalmologists in Turkey. Google Forms was used as a survey platform in this study. RESULTS: A total of 121 ophthalmologists participated in the study. The participants stated that they could not continue routine interventional diagnosis and treatment practices during the outbreak. It was clearly stated that there were changes in their clinical approach and decreased patient examination quality. For this reason, 14.9% of physicians said to missed the diagnosis in this process. Physicians who encounter infected patients state that it is more difficult to provide ophthalmological services and their clinical approaches are affected more negatively. Anxiety levels of physicians who could access personal protective equipment (PPE) and show positive solidarity with their colleagues in the process were found to be lower. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that ophthalmologists, like other healthcare professionals, were severely affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. Accordingly, healthcare managers should provide adequate PPE for ophthalmologists, organize the clinical operation, and support the mental health of ophthalmologists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ophthalmologists , Ophthalmology/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
10.
Singapore Med J ; 63(2): 61-67, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811330

ABSTRACT

The complete picture regarding transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. This review summarises the available evidence on its transmission modes, our preliminary research findings and implications for infection control policy, and outlines future research directions. Environmental contamination has been reported in hospital settings occupied by infected patients, and is higher in the first week of illness. Transmission via environmental surfaces or fomites is likely, but decontamination protocols are effective in minimising this risk. The extent of airborne transmission is also unclear. While several studies have detected SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid in air samples, none has isolated viable virus in culture. Transmission likely lies on a spectrum between droplet and airborne transmission, depending on the patient, disease and environmental factors. Singapore's current personal protective equipment and isolation protocols are sufficient to manage this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment
11.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(9): e3080, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is anticipated that in due course the burden of emergency care due to COVID-19 infected patients will reduce sufficiently to permit elective surgical procedures to recommence. Prioritizing cleft/craniofacial surgery in the already overloaded medical system will then become an issue. The European Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association, together with the European Cleft and Craniofacial Initiative for Equality in Care, performed a brief survey to capture a current snapshot during a rapidly evolving pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the 2242 participants who attended 1 of 3 recent international cleft/craniofacial meetings. RESULTS: The respondents indicated that children with Robin sequence who were not responding to nonsurgical options should be treated as emergency cases. Over 70% of the respondents indicated that palate repair should be performed before the age of 15 months, an additional 22% stating the same be performed by 18 months. Placement of middle ear tubes, primary cleft lip surgery, alveolar bone grafting, and velopharyngeal insufficiency surgery also need prioritization. Children with craniofacial conditions such as craniosynostosis and increased intracranial pressure need immediate care, whilst children with craniosynostosis and associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or proptosis need surgical care within 3 months of the typical timing. Craniosynostosis without signs of increased intracranial pressure needs correction before the age of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several areas of cleft and craniofacial conditions that need prioritization, but also certain areas where intervention is less urgent. We acknowledge that there will be differences in the post COVID-19 response according to circumstances and policies in individual countries.

12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 64(2): 107-113, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Immediately before the state of emergency was declared, there was an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among special training participants with severe physical stress. For promoting the optimization of infection prevention measures by identifying acts and situations with high risk of infection, we conducted a survey and analysis to understand the detailed process of infection spread in these cases. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted for the special training participants on their health status, changes in symptoms, training methods, and behavior history in their private lives. Additionally, a patrol of the training facility was carried out to understand the training environment, and antibody tests were conducted on the close contacts for more accurately grasping the spread of infection, by identifying subclinical infected persons. RESULTS: Within 10 days of COVID-19 onset in the first patient, 15 of the 19 original training participants developed symptoms, and 14 patients tested positive for RT-PCR. PCR tests were also performed on four patients who did not develop the disease - two were positive and negative, each. The two negatives turned positive on a later antibody test, suggesting that there was an asymptomatic infection. In addition, all five patients who participated in the training for only a day developed symptoms and tested positive for PCR in a few days. Of the 64 people who underwent testing for antibodies as close contacts, all but one who was living together with a patient were negative on antibody testing. CONCLUSIONS: The onset of COVID-19 occurred after the start of practice-based training continuously; therefore, the practice-based training was thought to be the main cause of the transmission. We speculate that the main factors behind the rapid spread of infection are as follows: during practice-based training, increased ventilation made it difficult to wear a mask; repeated loud vocalizations at close range; and the training pair was not fixed. Physical training without shouting and desk work, however, did not possess the risk of COVID-19, and avoiding certain situations at high risk of respiratory infections may have significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission. If personnel become infected with SARS-CoV-2, emergency measures should be devised by identifying patients and close contacts and facilitating the investigation of their behavioral history. Furthermore, evaluating and improving the effectiveness of infection control measures is necessary by ascertaining potentially infected persons by performing PCR tests, antigen tests, antibody tests, etc. in combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Inservice Training , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(4): 433-439, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753892

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: From the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic in the 1980s to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, multiple viral pandemics have occurred and all have been associated with hematologic complications of varying severity. OBJECTIVE.­: To review the hematologic complications associated with the HIV and other viral pandemics, the current theories regarding their causation, and the incidence and clinical impact of these complications on infected patients. DATA SOURCES.­: Peer-reviewed medical literature and the author's personal experience. CONCLUSIONS.­: The HIV and other viral pandemics have been associated with a variety of hematologic complications that often cause significant morbidity and mortality in affected patients. HIV infection is associated with multiple hematologic disorders, many of which have a lower incidence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy but still represent a major clinical problem for HIV-infected patients. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-related hematologic complications, including HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, has evolved in recent years. Other viral pandemics, including H1N1 influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, and COVID-19, have also been associated with hematologic complications of varying severity. Our emerging understanding of the pathogenesis of the hematologic complications of HIV, COVID-19, and other viral pandemics may help in prevention, correct diagnosis, and treatment of these complications in current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S79-S84, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726822

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (CoViD-19) is the third type of coronavirus disease after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) that appears in human population from the past two decades. It is highly contagious and rapidly spread in the human population and compelled global public health institutions on high alert. Due to genetic similarity of this novel coronavirus 2019 with bat virus its emergence from bat to humans is possible. The virus survive in the droplets of coughing and sneezing and spread around the large areas through infected person resulting in its rapid spread among people. Clinical symptoms of CoViD-19 include fever, dry cough, dyspnea, loose stool, nausea and vomiting. The present review discuss the origin of CoViD-19, its rapid spread, mortality rate and recoveries ratio around the world. Since its origin from Wuhan, the CoViD-19 spread very rapidly all across the countries, on April 17, 2020 this disease has affected 210 countries of the globe. The data obtained showed over 2.4 million confirmed cases of CoViD-19. Higher mortality rate was found in Algeria and Belgium as 15% and 13.95%, respectively. Lower mortality rate was found in Qatar 0.17% and Singapore 0.2%. Recovery versus deceased ratio showed that recovery was 68, 59 and 35 times higher than the death in Singapore, Qatar and Thailand respectively. It is concluded that 2019-novel corona virus is a zoonotic pathogen similar to MERS and SARS. Therefore, a barrier should be maintained between and across the human, household and wild animals to avoid such pandemics.

16.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S111-S114, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726817

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is in the grip of COVID-19, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) since 26 February 2020, and the number of infected people and mortality is rising gradually. The health workers, doctors, pathologists and laboratory staff are front line fighters who are facing the risk. Few things are important for public and health workers, human behavior is at the core of preparedness and response i.e, personal protective measures, (handwashing, face masks, respiratory etiquette, surface and objects cleansing), social distancing and travel measures because the virus spreads through the respiratory channels, eyes, nose and mouth. While working in the Pathology labs, use the personal protection equipment (PPE), during the work in the duty. Avoiding the over duties and long shifts. It is good to keep the immune system healthy by taking a healthy balanced diet, vitamin supplements, and a night of proper sleep. It is also important to avoid taking food during duties and avoid making close contact without wearing safety dress.

17.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726016

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached over five million confirmed cases worldwide, and numbers are still growing at a fast rate. Despite the wide outbreak of the infection, a remarkable asymmetry is observed in the number of cases and in the distribution of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms in patients with respect to the countries/regions. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection transmission, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. While it is possible to reason that observed variation in the number and severity of cases stems from the initial number of infected individuals, the difference in the testing policies and social aspects of community transmissions, the factors that could explain high discrepancy in areas with a similar level of healthcare still remain unknown. Here, we introduce a binary classifier based on an artificial neural network that can help in explaining those differences and that can be used to support the design of containment policies. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency positively correlates with particulate air pollutants, and specifically with particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), while ozone gas is oppositely related with the number of infected individuals. We propose that atmospheric air pollutants could thus serve as surrogate markers to complement the infection outbreak anticipation.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ozone , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 250(4): 271-278, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725119

ABSTRACT

The present study provides an overview of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which has rapidly extended globally within a short period. COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2). SARS-CoV-2 is different from usual coronaviruses responsible for mild sickness such as common cold among human beings. It is crucial to understand the impact and outcome of this pandemic. We therefore overview the changes in the curves of COVID-19 confirmed cases and fatality rate in China and outside of China from 31st of December 2019 to 25th of March 2020. We also aimed to assess the temporal developments and death rate of COVID-19 in China and worldwide. More than 414,179 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported in 197 countries, including 81,848 cases in China and 332,331 outside of China. Furthermore, 18,440 infected patients died from COVID-19 infection; 3,287 cases were from China and 15,153 fatalities were reported worldwide. Among the worldwide infected cases, 113,802 patients have been recovered and discharged from different hospitals. Effective prevention and control measures should be taken to control the disease. The presented Chinese model (protocol) of disease prevention and control could be utilized in order to curb the pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Animals , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
19.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722683

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nutrition Disorders , Nutrition Therapy/standards , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Disorders/etiology , Nutrition Disorders/therapy , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors
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