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Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222


Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.

Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 649-667, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064858


For the last two decades, researchers have placed hopes in a new era in which a combination of reperfusion and neuroprotection would revolutionize the treatment of stroke. Nevertheless, despite the thousands of papers available in the literature showing positive results in preclinical stroke models, randomized clinical trials have failed to show efficacy. It seems clear now that the existing data obtained in preclinical research have depicted an incomplete picture of stroke pathophysiology. In order to ameliorate bench-to-bed translation, in this review we first describe the main actors on stroke inflammatory and immune responses based on the available preclinical data, highlighting the fact that the link between leukocyte infiltration, lesion volume and neurological outcome remains unclear. We then describe what is known on neuroinflammation and immune responses in stroke patients, and summarize the results of the clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs. In order to understand the gap between clinical trials and preclinical results on stroke, we discuss in detail the experimental results that served as the basis for the summarized clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs, focusing on (i) experimental stroke models, (ii) the timing and selection of outcome measuring, (iii) alternative entry routes for leukocytes into the ischemic region, and (iv) factors affecting stroke outcome such as gender differences, ageing, comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes, obesity, tobacco, alcohol consumption and previous infections like Covid-19. We can do better for stroke treatment, especially when targeting inflammation following stroke. We need to re-think the design of stroke experimental setups, notably by (i) using clinically relevant models of stroke, (ii) including both radiological and neurological outcomes, (iii) performing long-term follow-up studies, (iv) conducting large-scale preclinical stroke trials, and (v) including stroke comorbidities in preclinical research.

Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology , Animals , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Neuroprotection/immunology , Neuroprotection/physiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion/trends
Br J Cancer ; 124(7): 1183, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007651


The use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with haematological malignancies is associated with less febrile neutropenia episodes. But in the presence of COVID-19 infection, the administration of G-CSF is challenging as it may trigger a robust inflammatory reaction resulting in cytokine storm, respiratory failure and severe outcomes.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/chemically induced , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification